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And Ujc 

.4z:p5 of savoy and piedmont, 


' IV«w Edlfloti enlarged , 

Wilh P.oUei'd Map Correclod, 



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All the European Itineraries 
published by M. Maison , Paris, 

may be had at | 


Basle, ^ Hasler, Neukirch, Schablitz, SpiUer. I 

Bbbkb, — Burgdorfer, Fischer, Jenni, Rothen. 
Genbta,— Derogis, Bricqiiet et Dabois, Cberbdier, Combe, 

ChAteaavieui, Darier, Jalien fils, Manega. 
Lavsahkb, — Corbaz, Doy, Higooux, Rouiller. 
LucEBifB, — Meyer. 

ScHAFFHAtJSEN,— Bleuler, at his extensive priot-warehouse. 
Ybybt,— Michod, Blanchod. 

ZUBICH, — M.F.S. Fussli, Henri Fiissli, H.J. Leuthold, 

Beyell«i et C«. 

At Ziirich there is a new hotel, Hdtel Baur, which is in 
every respect exceedingly good. 

Paeis : Printed by Gossb and G.-Laguionie, 
rue Christine, i. 









i>roi/bstant valleys of the waluenses. 



""^^ "^ MAISON, PARIS. 


JUN 12 1911 


For a very long tiine Switzerland was the only^ 
country in Europe which possessed a Guide^^ok, 
worthy of the name. The excellent work of Ebel, 
here alluded to, indeed deserves the highest praise ; 
and it is upon the foundation of the materials col- 
lected by nim that every succeeding work of the 
same kin4, on that country, has been laid. It is, 
however/voluminous^ extending to four volumes : 
its arrangement and bulk fit it more for the library 
than the pocket, or even the travelling-curriage ; 
and the abridged French translation is unskilfully 
made, inconvenient to consult, and full of gross 
errors*. In addition to this, the original work was 
written more than forty years ago, and was not 
corrected at the time of fhe author s death. In con- 
sequence of this, and owing to the great changes 
wmch have been made in every p?irt of Switzer- 
land since its publication, a portion of the informa- 
tion is necessarily antiquated. The improvements 
of roads, the opening of new passes over the Alps, 
the establishment of steam-boats, and the increased 
facilities of locomotion, have given rise to a tho- 
roughly different system of travelling. Most va- 
luable contributions to our stock of knowledge, 
respecting the natural history, resources, etc., of 
Switzerland, have been made since his time; the 
geology of the country has assumed a totally diffe- 
rent aspect ; and the ancient political forms are now 
scarcely recognised since the recent revolutions. 
The editor of the present work has great plea- 

* The Guide-Booh For SwiUerland reccDtJy puhlfsfaed by 
lA. Ma ISO II ^ Par^s, are free from error. 


sure in acknowleding his obligations to Ebel, as 
well as to the later writers on the country, espe- 
cially to the scientific researches of Agassiz, Hu^ii^ 
and Studer, to the compilations of Glutz Blotzheim^ 
and Bolman, and to the recent publication entitled 
*' Gemselde der Schweitz." Nor is he less indebted 
to his own countrymen, having found the |j;reatest 
assistance from the accurate and interesting works 
of Brockedon'^ and Latrobef . For his own part, he 
has brought to the task the experience gained in 
four different visits to the country, in the course of 
which he left but a small portion of it unexplored. 
Notwithstanding this, he cannot speak of the Hand- 
book fqjr Switzerland with less diffidence than he 
did of {he volumes relating to.Qermany which have 
preceded it; and he must^ equally trust in the in- 
dulgence of his readers to excuse numerous inac- 
curacies which no doubt pervade H. ' 

He has, however, no hesitation, in speaking of ^ 
the merits of the second section of this volume ; 
relating to Savov and Piedmont, which has been 
prepared by a Friend and fellow-traveller, most 
intimately acquainted with those countries, which 
he has explored in. almost every direction, an(i op 
many different occasions. The routes contained 
in it possess great interest, from the total want of 
any other information respecting the country ihev 
traverse, from the extreme accuracy with which 
they are described, and from their being derived, 
not from books, but from personal knowledge. 
They will probably be the means of throwing open 
to English travellers a region little visited hitherto, 
but possessing, from its romantic beauties, the 
highest claim to attention. 

* The Passes of the Alps, 2 vols A to.: and Excursions among 
the Alps, 
t The Alpenstock and the Pedestrian. 



§ 1. Passports . . . xiii 

S 2. Money . . , . xiii 

t3. Distances . . . xix 

5. Modes of Travelling in Switzerland. 

— ^Posting . . .xix 

§ 6, Diligences^. — Luggage , . xxi 

§ 7j. Voitiiriers, or Lpljnkutscher . xxii 

§ 8; Chars-i-banc^ . ^ .. xxvi 

§ 9. Guides, Porters.— ChaiseS-at-fOrteups^ xxvi 
§ 10. Horses and Mules . . . xxix 

§ 11. Swiss Inns . . xxxi 

§ 12.. Qireetions^rTravdiiag^widR^ui- 

sites for a Journey in fiwiizertend xxxv 
^ 13. Objects most. Deseiviiig of notice in 
Switzerland.-— The Country and 
People . ... xiii 

§ 1^. Skeleton Tours . . . Ixii 

§ 15. Alpine Passes . . Ixviii 

§ 16. Chalets and Pasturages • • Ixxv 

§ 17. Glaciers . • . . Ixxviii 

§ 18. Avalanches and Snow-Storms . Ixxxix 
^ 19. Goitre and Cretinism . . xcvi 




*.* The names of m«ny places are necessarily repeated ia,se«e-*. 
r«ll Routes; but, to facilitate reference, they are printed In, 
Jialics only in those Routes under which they are fully described. 


i BMe to Bienne and Bern by. the MunsterthaL (Val 

Moutierg), with ezcnrsioD to the WeiBsenstein. 1 

2 Bale to Schaffhausen. 10 

3 Bftle to Soleure, the fVei$t&uiem, and Qiemie» by 

Ober Hauensteiru ii 
A Bdle toLuoerne, by the Unter Hanemteinf Olten, Aar- 

burg and Sempach. 16 

5. B&le to Aarauy by the Staffelegg 19 

6 BAle to Zurich, by Brugg (the Bkths ol Sckintinach\ 

andj6a<ien« ' 20 

7 Sekaffhaiuen and the RhinefaU to Constance, 25. 

8 Schaffhausen to ZiiricA. 92 
p Zurich to Constance, by Winiertfiur 9uA FrautnfeUL 87 

10 Zurich to St. Gall. * 38 

13 Zurich to Berne, by Baden and Lenzbnrg. 38 
lA Zurich to Coire, by the lakts of Zurich and Wair 

lenstadt. 39 

15 Zurich to Lucerne, by Horgen, Zug^ and the Righi. 46 

la Zurich to Lucerne, by the Mbis. 48 

17 Lucerne to the Righi and Brunnen, by Kussnaeht, 

Arth, the Fall of the Roscberg^ and Schwytz, 55 

18 The Lake of Lucerne — from Lucerne to Fluelen. 71 

19 Lucerne to Meyringen^ by the Fal of Somen and Pomb 

oftkeBrunig. 78 

22 Lucerne to Berne and Thun, by the Entlebw^h. 85 

23 Lucerne to Berne, by Summiswald. 87 

24 Soleure to Berne, 87 

27 The bbrnbsb obbbIiAni}. 

Berne to Thun, Inierlachen, Lauierbrwinen, over 
the Wengem Alp to Grindelwald^ up the Faul- 

korn^ over the Scheideck to Meyringen and Brienz. 96 

28 Pass of the Grimsel— Meyringen to GberGestelen and 

Brieg. ... rj5 

LUi of Rouiu — SmUerUuut ix 

^ P1«B 

29 Pats of the Grief —Ober GcsleKn to Doom dt)iwla, iso 

by the Val Foimam and FalU of the Tota, 

30 Pass of the Pwreoy tnm the Homioe oftlie Orinitd 

to Ho9pital,;oQ the St. Gotthard, by the GUder of 
tkeRhone* Ua 

3i Pass of the 5airejieiit— SUni to Altdori; by EngeUerg 

and the base of the Titlis. iS4 

33 Pass of the ^usfen.— Meyringen to Wasen. iS8 

34 Pass of the St. Go/fAtfni,— from Plueien, op the I.ake 

of Lnoerne, to Belliniona. 1 29^ 

95 P«iMoffAei\rtt/aiien^Oberge8telen|Q,Airolo« i4S 

ZS /ass of the GomrnL—thvak to the Baihs ofLeu([ in 

the VaUais. US 

39 Pass of the Itaivy/.— Than to Sion over the Grinuni 150 
kO Pass of theSfn^ssh.^9uiDak toSion US 

41 Than to Ve?ey, hjiheSimmenthaly Baihs of J^eissen' 

bur§f Saanen^ and Gruy4res; footpath over the 
Dent de Janunu i5S 

42 Berne to Lailsanne, by Preghurg* 157 
45 Berne to Lansanne, by Jtforof , and Jlvenehes, (ATen- 

ticumj. I6S 

44 Berne to NeuehAtel. 165 

45 Biebne to Nenchfttel, Yverdw^ and Lansanne, along 

the Lato of JBtatine and NeuehdteL 169 

48 Neochfttel to LocU and la Chaax de Fonds. 174 

49 PonUrlier (jn France) to KenchAtel, by Motiers Jra- 

vers. i:7j% 

50 Yverdan to QeneTa, by Orbe, with eicnnion \oLaede 

Joax* 178 

53 B'jon to Geneva. 180 

55 Lake of Geneva. 196 

56 Genera to MaiticDy, by Lausanney Keveffy CInUon and 

Bex. 199 

57 Genera to Bfartigny, by Thonon and MaUerie* 215 

58 Bex to Sion, by ieDiablerets. 217 

59 Passage of the ShnpUm — Mwrtigny to Man, by 

5ton, Brieg^ Domo d^Ossola. S18 

66 ConsUnce to St. GalL'-Lake of Constance. 232 

67 Si. Gall to Coirey by Rorschach, Rheineck, the Valley 

of the Rhine, and the Baths of Pfefers. 237 

08 St. Gall to the Baths ofGais and AppenseU, with ei- 

currions to the Stose, the fTeissbadt fTUdkirchUIn 

and Sentis, 248 

69 St. Gall to Rapperschwyl, by Herisau and the Hdn- 

richsbad. *52 


X List of Roui$8 - Sufitzeritrnd, 


7i Sckallhausen to Coire, Ihrough Toggenhurg and fVUd- 

hauM. 253 

72 Wesen to GlanUy the Batln of Statkeiherg^ and tbe 

Pantenbrueke. ^ Pass of the Kknuen to AltdorH 254 

74 Rapperscbwyl to Einsiedeln aod Schvytz ; witbexeur- 

aion to Morgarien. • 258 

75 Schwjtz to Glarus, by tbe Muoltathal, the Pass ofiAe 

Prqgel^ SBd the Kldntkal . 268,- 

76 Glaruft to Coire, by the SemfUtkal. 270 
17 Coire to ADdermatt on the St. Gpttfaard,^up the VaOey 

of the, Vorder'lUtein^ by UHssen^, and across the 
Oberaip^ 272 

78 Pats of the Lukmanier, Dissentis to Olivone, in the 

VatBlegno. ' 27a 

81 The Pretttgau ; MayenfeU-io Fidiris'ZtkA Davos* 277 

82 Pass of the JvUer-^Cone to St. Mauritz m the Enga- 

dine. 278 

^ Pass of the Albula, Coire to Ponte in the Engadine. 280 

84 The Engadine —St. H^oritz to the Pass of Finster- 

muaz. 28i 

85 Pass of the Aemiita.—Samadan, in the Engadino^, to 

Tirano, in the Valleline. 285 

87 Coire to Spl&gen, by the f^ia Mala. 28($. 

88 Pass of the 5p/a^en.— SplQgen to Chiavenna and 

Como ; Logo di Como, 293^ 

$9 Chfavenna to St. Maoritz, and the souroe of the Inn, 

by the Val Bregaglia and the Pass of the MaUfja 29S 

90 Pass of the /7erN4ardin.— rSplugen to tieltinxona, 800 

91 Bellinzona to Magadino and Locarno on the Lago 

Maggiore. 805 

92 Bellinzona to Lugano and Como, by the Monte Cenere 309 
^9 Luino, on the Lago Maggiore^ to Menaggio, on the 

Lago di Cgrno^ by the Lago Lugano. 312 


{^BBUimiABT iNPonunoif— t^age S16. 
ScsLBTON TovBS— Page 319. 


4X)1 Arooa. (>ik Ltfgb Maggiore, to VahUVo^ \n the Fal 

Stsia. ' ' ■ . 810 

102 Baveoo, on the Lago Maggiore, to VaraHo^ by the 

Uigo )irOttii ahd the €bl de ColmtL. 395 

1 63 Aoma^rnano to Tarin. 329 

104 Vafallo tio ChUtilbti, in the Val d'Aosta, b^ the Passes 
of the Colde Val Dobhia, the ColiU Ranzota, and 
the Col de Jon^ crossing the Vol de Lift and the 
Fal ChalUukti M9 

* 45 Vogogna, in Val d'Ossola to Visp, in tbi Valais, by 
the Pass oi \h^ Monte Moro and the Tdrf/ey of 
Saas* 333 

196 Visp to CkAtUhn^ by the Pom Of the Mcnt Cervin ' 
and the Vol Tournancke. 344 

407 The Vol d'Jiokta. Turin to Cofmayeur, 348 

408 The Great St, Bernard. Martigny to Aoita. 357 
109 St. Branckier to Aosta; by the bailey of Bttgnes^ the 

Glaciers of Ckarmcntane, the Coi 4e la fenitre^ 
and the fal Pellina. 869 

14 Martigny to Gormayeur, by Col de Ferret 374 

ill Aosta to Ponte, Fal d'Orea^ by Cogne, Fenitrt de 

Cogncy the Col de Reale, and Fal Soanna, 376 

112 Ponte to Filleneuve^ by the Fal dOrea, the Col de 

Croix deNivolet, and the F'alSavaranche ; detonr 

to the Col de Gaiese, 382 

113 Ivrogne to Bourg St. Maurice, in the Tarentaise, 

by the Fal Grisanche and Col du Mont. 387 

114 Cormayeur to Bourg St. Mauricp^ by the Pass of the 

Little St. Bernard. . 300 

115 Geneva to Chamouny* 396 

116 Chamouny to Martigoy, by the TSte Noire, Trient, 

and the Col de Forclaz. 418 

117 Martigny to Cliamouny, by the ColdeBalme. 420 

118 Chamouny to Cormayeur, by Ihe Colde Bon-homme 422 

and the Col de la Seigne, 

lii List of Routes— The Aips, Safcofj and PMmoni. 

119 SallcDdies to VHOffital Confiam. 438 

i2d Genera to Vkambery^ hj Anneey. 431 

ISi Genera to Ghambery, by itttfRcf^y. 43*^ 

ISS Chambery to Lanslebourg, by VH&gitd, Btoutiers 

Tarentaise, Boarg St. Maurice, Tignet^ and the 

Col <Pheran^ 4S8 

i}^ kouden Tarentaise to Laittleboai|[, by the C7af lie 

VnnoiBe^ 446 

125 Pont de BeauToisin to the Baths ofJix, by Mont du 

Chat and the Lae tU Bourget^ 449 

128 Pont de BeauTOisin to Chambeiy, by JigwbeUette. 451 
HI Pa$$ of Mont Cenif.^Pont de Beattvoiain |o Torin, 

by Les ^ehellea^ Ghambeiy, and Sua* 454 

128 Moot Cenis U> Sow* by. the UttU Mont Cewis and 

iheColdeClaSrie. 461 

129 Grenoble to Biiangon, by Bourg d^O^smu, and the 

ColdeLautaret. 465 

150 Brlaq^n to Siua, by the Pass of the Mont Genevre. 4'71 

151 CeMonne to Pignerolf bj the Col de Sestrieres and 

Val de CliuKm 47s 

182, PaansTANT Vauais o» tbb WAuigifsn.— Pignerol to 

Embmn , by the Col de Croix. 4?5 

isa Pbovbstant VAibi<BT«,— ^^rJM Kt Salutxoy. by the. 

pQssofthe Monte VUo. . 479 

184 £m^ttfi to (7on<, 1^ BareeUonettewad Ihq Co4 <<'^r- 

gentidre. 488 

135 Turin to Nice, by the Col de Tende. 488 

138 iVi« lo Genoa, by the RiTiera^ or Comiee^ 490 



A TBAVELLEB canoot reach Switzerland without 
a passport from a minister of one or other of the 
states of Europe; and, though it is seldom called 
for while he is in the country, yet he must be pre- 
pared to produce it whenever it is required. At 
the gates of Geneva, and perhaps in one or two 
other capitals of the cantons, passports are de- 
manded on entering. Persons proceeding frorn 
Swita^erland to the Austrian states, or Bavaria, 
must. have the signature of the ministers of those 
countries attached to their passports; or they 
will not be allowed to pass across the frontier. 
The ministers accredited to the Swiss Confedera- 
tion reside at Bern, or at least have their JDassport- 
offices there ; even when they themselves follow 
the Diet either to Zurich or Lucerne. Strangers, 
therefore, should take c^e to secure their vtsS as 
they pass through Bern. See Route ^^ p. ^3, for 
further particulars. . . 

In gomg from Geneva to Chamouny^ the signa- 
ture of the Sardinian Consul is made a sine qud non, 
in order to secure to that official a fee of four 

§ 2. MONEY. 

There is hardly a country in Europe which has 
so complicated a Currency as Switzerland ; almost 
every canton has a Coinage of its own, and those 
coins that are current in one canton will not pass 
in the next. Let the traveller, therefore, be cau- 
tious how he overloads himself with more small 
change than he is sure of requiring. 

Detailed tables of Swiss coins are given below, 
but it is scarcefly worth the traveller s while to 


xiv § 2. — Swiss Money. 

perplex himself with iheir intricacies; since he 
will find French Napoleons and francs current 
nearly all over Swilzerland. They are indeed, on 
the whole, the best coins he can take with him : 
and, except in some very remote situations, on 
the east side of the country, in the cantons of St. 
Gall, Appenzell, and Grisons, which border on 
Germany, and where Bavarian florins (-20 pence) 
and kreutzers are in common circulation, the inn- 
keepers always make out their bills in Fr. francs, 
or will do so if required. 

It is necessary, however, to prevent beinfi^ 
cheated, that the traveller should know the value 
of one or two Swiss coins. 

1 Swiss franc, containing 10 batz ^ 1 1/2 French 
franc ^1 franc 4-8 cents.), = (nearly is. 2a. 

N.B. This distinction between the value of 
French and Swiss francs should be particularly 
attended to. 

1 batz contains 10 rappen, and — 1 l/2rf. (nearly) 

The Swiss coins most frequently met with are 
pieces of 5 batzen. or 1/2 a Swiss franc; 1 bat^-, 
1/2 batz, and rappen. Pieces are also coined of 
•1, 2, 3, and k Swiss francs. 

Value of some Foreign Coins in Su>i8s Cwrrency. 

1 French NapoleonzzHi Swiss francs. 

1 » 5 franc -piece = from 33 3/4 to 35 

1 French firanc=: (commonly) 7 batzen or exactly 

6 batzen 8 rapps. 
1 English shilling == 9 batzen. 
1 1 » sovereign = 17 Swiss francs 4 batzen 
6 Bspps. 

$ ±— Swiss Money. xv 

1 Brabant dollar =z k Swiss francs » or kO 

[The Brabant dollar (krontbaler, or grosse tha*- 
ler) is an advantageous coin to take into the Ger- 
man cantons, since, although it is worth only 5Fr. 
fr. 80 cents., it passes throughout for 6 francs. ] 

SWISS FJRANcs Aifb BATZEN, —Reductd to their Valve 
in the Money of 








Dollar of 

Florins of 

of 10 


Dollars of 


Francs of 

IV>.9im1 aicrHny 



. i=^(M. 


20 SbiHiufs. 






I l«r 




















— . 

































































■ -, 






— ■ 





































1 :i,5 






' 3 




1 V2J 















5 ; 






2 7,0 





















9 ! 





























. 8 




















^ 1 































1 3 




90 — 







133 33 



100 - 






^,0 1 i«j 15 j 






§ %SwiM Money Table. 




SwiM Francs. 



Swiss Francs. ■ 


1 Fr. of 10 BU. 


IFr.oflOBu. 1 



1 Bu. of 10 Rapps. 


1 Biz. of 10 Rapps 1 













— ■ 
























— • 








































— _ 

























































































































— . 
























are also 

many iDsUnces, the coins in the following tables are almost 
; and, where they stilt exist. French francs and Swiss batzea 
current, so tliat the traveller need rarely have recourse to 

§ 2. — Swiss Monty. xvif 

Aarau, Bern, Basle, Freyhurg, Soleure, Vaud, and 

These cantons combined together in 1825 to 
adopt an uniform currency. 

Sirvtss franc =,*0 batxen. 
„ baiz. ='10 rapps. 
,, Gulden =r 15 batzen = 60kreutxers. 

Appenzell, Su Gall, Schaffhausen, and Thurgovie^ 

Accounts are kept in florins ( ^ gulden foot , as 
in Frankfort, Baden, e^,) 

i florin, of60kreutier»=20rf. English. 

1 Napoleon = 9 florins 21 kreutiera, 

1 Brabant doHar = 2^ fl. 42 kr. ^ 

i Ducat = 5 fl. 80 kr. 

1 Convention dollar = t fl. 24 kr. 

a Florins (petite monnaie) containing 12 sols = 12 denlers. 
b Livres, cx)ur3i)ts of 20 sols = 42 deniers. 

c French francs and centimes 
d Swiss francs, and batzen 

GenATeM CurrancT. 
IJT. Sol. Den. Fl D«ik 

i French S-franc piece = 31 9 or 10 la 
1 French franc = 26 Genevese Sols. 

i Brabant dollar ^ 3 40 ft or 12 .4 

(The Pound sterling is aslially worth 25 fr. 50 c) 

1 Florin or Gulden ^40 sthillings, 


Florin contains 15 (ligbt) batzen , 60 krentiers, or 70 bbitxger8=^ 

1 French franc 1% centimes » iM. English. 

. 1 <■ 

Brabant dollar == 3 Or. florins 2d kreutzers. 

French Napoleon =r 11 fl. 36 kr. 

„ S-franc pJeqe =3 2 fl. 53 kr. 

„ i franc « 34 kr^ 

Swiss franc =^ 81 kr* 

xviii § 2. — Swiss Money. 

Swiw |Heceof5batzen = ooe fl. 30 blulzgers. 

„ ,f lbaizen=» 6 blutzgers. 

i Bavarian florio <= iGri8onfl.l4kreolz. 

3 Zwaniigers =: iGrisonfl. 

Lucerne and Unterwalden. 
' florin of 15 (ligbO balzen, or 40 schilUngs , or 6a kreotzers. 

i Louis d^or =s ^2 florin& of Lucerne. 

i 5-franc piece = 3 floriosofLucerue. 22 scliUliogs. 

Li vres of NeuchMel of 20 sols and i 2 deniers. 

Louis d'or » 16 1/6 Neucb&iel liYres, 
Schwytz and; Vri. 
Florin of 15 (light) batien , or 40 schillings^ or 60 kreutsers. 

Louis d'or=l S florins of Scbwytz.. 

Ticino [Tessin], 
The lira contains 20 soldi, each Of 4 quatrini 

Louis d'or ^ from 34 to 37 1/!^ lire. 


Florin = 16 ^good) batzen = 60 krentzers = 2 French franco 
85 cents, ns 1 Bavarian flariji 6 kreutzers. 

Bryant dollar «s 2 Zurich florins 27kreutzers» 

French 5-franc piece = 2 1/6 Zurich florins 

,, 20-franc ,, »> 8 1/2 Zurich florins. 

The Zurich florin is also'divided into 16 good) bataen and 
40 rapps, and again into 40 schillings of 4 rappseach. 

In August, 1834 twelve of the cantons ^ agre^ 
to appoint a commission to examine into the pre- 
sent complicated currency, and to devise a new 
and uniform system' of coinage. They have aU 
'ready altered and corrected the weightis and mea- 

* Zurich, Bern, Lucerne, Zug. Glarus, Froyburg, Soleure, 
9jUle, Schaffhausen, Sr. Gall, Argovicy and ThurgoTie. 

§ 3. — DUtancts, xix 

sares of Switzerland, but the result of their la- 
bours regarding the currency has not yet ap- 


There is not less perplexity and variation in the 
measurement of distances^, tnan in the calculation 
of money, in Switzerland. 

Distances are reckoned throughout Switzerland 
not by miles, but by stunden (hours, t. e. hours' 
walking) or leagues. The measures of length gi- 
ven in the* following routes have been taken from 
the most perfect tables that could be procured ; 
but the Editor is aware that there must be many 
errors, and that an approach Xo accuracy is all that 
can be expected from them. The length of the 
stunde has been calculated at 5278 metres, or 
2708 toises » 1800 Bernese feet ; 21,137 of such 
stunden go to a degree of the equator. To make 
this measurement agree with the actual pace of 
walking, it is necessary to advance 271 Paris feet 
in a minute. 

It is a reproach to the Swiss Government that 
no authorised measurement of the roads through- 
out the country should have been undertaken by 
them at the public expense. Since the correction 
of weights and measures in 1833-34., 3-lOths of a 
m5tre (=3 decimetres, or 132,088 Paris lines) has 
been constituted the legal Swiss foot, and 16,000 
Swiss feet := 1 stunde. 


The means of travelling in Switzerland have 
been greatly improved and increased wiftin the 
last fifteen or twenty years. The great roads are 
excellent, and those over the Alps stupendous in 
addition; upon almost all of them diligences run; 

XX § 5. — Mo(fef of T'-arelUng. 

and since 1823, when the first experiment with 
Sieam was made on the Lake of Geneva, every 
4)ne of the large lakes is navigated by steam- 

Posting is unknown in most of the cantons of 
S^'tzerland, and is confiaed to the following routes 
near the frontier; — From Constance to St. Gal! 
and through the Grisons to Coire: over the Splii- 
gen to Chiavenna and Milan ; over the Bernardio 
U) Bellinzona, Lugano, and Milan: from Geneva 
to Milan over the Simplon, along both Shores of 
the Lake Leman, by Lausanne or by 1'honon ; 
from Airolo ^t the south base of the St. Gotlhard 
to Bellinzona. The traveller may likewise post 
from Basle to Schaffliausen, and from Schaffhau- 
sen to Constance, if he choose the routes throngh 
Baden on the right bank of the Rhine It is stated 
that post-horses are kept in Canton Argovie, be- 
tween Basle and Schafmausen, and in Neuch&tel, 
but on .this point the writer cannot speak with cer- 
tainty. The tariff and charges for horses and 
postilions vary in the different cantons, but the 
rc|];ulations of the adjoining states are for the most 
part followed. For instance, in ThurgovLe and 
St. Gall the charges are according to the Baden 
tariff; in Geneva, Vaud, and the Vallais, accord- 
ing to the French; and in the Grisons, according 
to the Austrian. Further particulars are given in 
I he respective routes upon which post-horses are 

At Coire, and other post-stations on the great 
road through the Grisons, the post-masters give 
I he traveller a printed ticket, ciontaining the details 
of all charges according to the distance and number 
of horses. 

%* It is very generally asserted that the Diet 
is about to authorise the establishment of post- 

§ 6. - DUigencM. xii 

borses throagh6ut Switzerland, and that' this new. 
enacimenc may be eipected tacome into force nexit 


Diligences now run daily between most of tbe^ 
large towns of Switzerland, and there are few car- 
riage-roads in the countrv not traversed by them- 
tww5e or thrice a-week at least. 
~ They generally belong to the goyernmeni of the 
different cantons, and are attached to the post- 
office, as in Germany. The places are nambered, 
and all baggage exceeding a certain fixed wdght 
is diarged extra, and often gready increases the 
expense of this mode of conveyance, which is one 
reason among many why travellers should reduce 
their baggage to the smallest possible compass. 
The public conveyances are by no means so well 
organised as in Germany. On some routes, par-- 
ticulariy in going from one canton into another, 
passengers are sometimes transferred into another 
coach, and run the chance of waiting several honrs 
for it, being set down in a remote spot to pass the^ 
interval as they may^ and this not unfrequently in 
die middle of the night. 

' The conducteur's fee is included in the fare, 
but the postilion's trinkgeld is paid separately by. 
the passengers in some parts of the country; in St. 
Gall, for instance, they expect from 6 to 9 kr^ per 

' Travellers in Switzerland will frequently be 
glad to avail themselves of the public oonveyan* 
ees to forward their luggaae from one place to 
another, while they are making pedestrian excur-> 
sions among the mountains. In such cases, the^ 
have only to book their packages at the coach-(^ 
fioe, after carefully addressing them, and, hi some 


xxii § 7. — FoUuriet^. 

cases, entering a specification of their value in a 
printed form. They will then receive a receipt, 
and the article will be forwarded and taken care of 
until reclaimed. 

In making application' for packages so con- 
Signedk as well as for letters at the post-office, the 
Englishman should present his name in writing, 
ai our pronunciation is frecfuently unintelligible 
to foreigners, and without this precaution the ap- 
plicant majr be told that his luggage has not arri- 
ved, when in realitv it is all the while lying in the. 
depdt. The traveller may also request to lool^ 
over the packages in search of his own. 


Posting, except along the few routes mentioned 
already in p. xx» ceases at the Swiss frontier, and 
those who have been travelling post must there- 
fore engage a voiturier at the first Swiss towa» 
with a suitable number of horses to draw their 
carriage. If it be light, and the party small, two 
horses will suffice ; but the coachman must thea 
drive from the box ; with a heavy carriage, three 
9r four horses must be taken, and the driver will 
ride as postilion. The towns of Basle, Schaffhaur* 
sen, Zurich, Bern, Thun, Lausanne, and Geneva, 
are the head-quarters of the voituriers ; at all of 
them there are many persons who keep job-horses 
fer hire, and will either conduct tne traveller 
themselves, or send coachmen in their employ. At 
oiost of the frontier towns^ return horses ar^ to be 
met with, and the traveller may save some days of 
back fare by availing himself of them* 
. Before making an engagement, it is prudent to. 
consult the landlord of the inn or some other res? 
pectable inhabitant— (N.B. not the waiter) — to 
tecommend a person of approved character to be 

§ 7 — FoiturUrS'^Chm'ges. ziiH 

employed. As there are many very roguish voi- 
taners, ready to take advantage or the traveller 
on all occasions, sach a recommendation will be 
a guarantee, to«a certain extent, for go6d beha- 
viour. * The landlord should be referred to apart, 
not in the presence of the coachman, nor, inaeed, 
with his cognisance. It is a bad plan to intrust a 
waiter or inferior person with the negociation ; he 
will most probably sell the traveller to the voitu- 
rier, and make a job for his own advantage. The 
most judicious mode of proceeding is, to discard 
all go-betweens and subordinates, to insist on 
seeing the principal', the owner of the horses, and 
to make the bargain at once with him. Besides 
ascertaining that the voiturier is a respectable 
man, that his horses are good, and his carriage 
(when it also is required) be clean and stout, it is 
desirable in many cases that he should speak French 
as well as German, and, in all, that he be acquaint 
ted with the roads to be tratersed. The engage- 
ment should, in the first instance, not be made 
for any specific time, at least not for a long pe- 
riod, uQtil man and horses have been tried and 
have given satisfactiour It is better to take him 
on firom day to day, holding out the prospect of 
his being continued if he behaves well. 

Some persons engage a voiturier for a certain 
sum, to perform a stated journey in a fixed num-» 
ber of days; a bad plan, since it ties down the 
trav^er to a prescribed route, without the power 
of diverging, if he choose to alter his plans, or of 
tarrying by the way. The employer should re-» 
serve to himself the power of aismissins^ his voi-^ soon as he reaches a post-4*oaa (see the 

The egtablished charge througfaoat Switzerland, 
per diem, is 9 Fr. francs for each horse, and 1 Fr. 

xxiT § 7 . — Voliurier^^ Charges — Back-Fare. 

franc per horse trinkgeld for the driver. This in— 
elndes the hire of a carriage when wanted. 

For this consideration the coachman keeps 
himself aAd his horses, supplying ^sh ones if his 
own fall ill or lame : he ought also to pay ail tolls, 
and the charge for leaders (vorspann) to drag the 
carriage up steep ascents« These two last condi- 
tions, however, are not alwavs aftceded to, and 
these charges often fall upon the master. 

When the traveller has no servant of his own, 
the voiturier cleans the carriage, greases the 
wheels, and assists in packing and unpacking the 

The usual rate of travelling is from ten to four- 
teen ^tunden, thirty-two to forty-six miles a-day, 
proceeding at the rate of about five miles an-hour 
— ten stunden a-day should be guaranteed by the 
driver. It is necessary to halt in the middle of 
the day, about two*houps, to rest the horses. Oa 
the days during whidi a halt is made in a town 
or elsewhere, the charge is reduced one-half; and, 
should the traveHef require the horses for a short 
drive of an hour or two through the town, this 
should make no difference. 

Back-Fare. — In addition to the daily charges 
while employed, the voiturier requires, if dismiss- 
ed at a distance from his own home, to be paid 
back-fare for the number of days necessary to 
take him thither. This payment should be cal- 
culated at the rate of the longest day's journey, 
say twelve stunden (nearly forty miles), which is 
not too much with an emptor carriage. At this 
rate, the back-fare to be paid between some of 
the principal places in Switzerland would be nearly 
according to the number of days set down in the 
following table : — 

§ 7. — VoiUtrien — Back- fare, « v 

Days of 



Bdsle to Bern . . . 

18 4/2 

. 1 4/2 

,, Coira • • « 


3 1/2 

„ Geneva . . . 


8 1/2 

„ Lausanne . . 

33 1/2 

2 1/2 

• ,, Lucerne • . 


1 1/2 

NeucfaAtel . . 



M Zurich . . . 

16 1/8 

i i/2 

Geneve to Berne * . . 

28 1/3 


„ Coire . . • 



„ Neuchdlel . . 

23 2/3 


„ Schaffliausen . 



„ Soleure . • 


2 1/2 

,, Zurich . • 

51 1/2 


yy Lucerne . . 


3 1/2 

It is more for the traveUer*s advantage to iake 
one set of horses through the journey than to 
trust to the chance of engaging them from one 
town to another — a metboa, subject to delay aM 
vexation from the uncertainty of finding them at 
ail times, and from the manoeuvres of petty inn- 
keepers, who will of ten^ pretend that none are to 
be had, and will throw *every impediment in the 
way of his departure. Besides which, by such an 
arrangement, the employer must inevitably pay 
back-fare for every day, whereas, if he engage the 
same voiturier for a length of time, he may so 
arrange his tour^ ina circle as it were, as to dis- 
charge him within one or two day's journey from 
his home, and thus considerably reduce the amount 
of the back-fare. 

It is advisable beforo setting out to have an 
agreement drawn up in writing, including the sti- 
pulations which have been recounted above. A 
{iece of money, called in German daraufgeld, in 
talian la caparra, is then given bygone of die con- 
tracting parties to the other, after which the bar- 
gain is held to be concluded. 
There are many excursions in Switzerland that 

i^re not to be made in a travelling-carriage : insuch 
cases it must either wait for. the trayelier; or be 
sent round to meet him at an appointed spot* 

The system of vetturino travelling, with all its 
advantages and disadvantages, has been so fully 
explained in the Handbook iFor North Germany, 
that it is unnecessary to enter again into fuller de- 
i;ails here than have been given above. 

§ 8. CHA.RS-A-BA1!(^C. 

The char-&4)anc, the national carriage of Swit- 
z€rlapd« may be described as the body of a gig, 
or a bench , as its name implies , placed side- 
ways upon four wheels, at a very little distance from 
the ground; li is surrounded by leather curtains^ 
made to draw« whence it has been compared to a 
four-post bedstead on wheels. There is a larger 
kind of char^ in which the benches are suspended 
by thongs, not springs, across a kind of long 
waggon, and are arrange^l one behind the other. 
The char-A-banc is a very 'strong and light vehicle, 
capable of carrying two persons, or three at a 
pinch, and will go on roads where no other species 
of carriage could venture. It is convenient, from 
being so low that one can jump in, or alight with- 
out stopping the horse, while it is going on ; but 
it is a very jolting conveyance. Such a carriage 
is to be hired even in the smallest Swiss villages, 
and the usual charge, including the driver, is 
twelve French francs a-day; but the charge will 
be doubled by back-^are if the driver cannot reach 
home the same night, after the time when he is dis- 


The services of a Guide are needful when the 
traveller is about to plunge into the recesses of the 

moantains on foot. Ho makes himself useful, not 
only in pointing out the way, but in acting as in-i 
terpret^ to those unacquainted with the language 
of the country,. and also in Feiieving the traveller 
of the weight of his knapsack or travellings bag. 
He may be said to be indispensable in ascending 
very lofty mountains, in exploring glaciers, and in 
crossin£| the minor passes of the Alps, not traver-^ 
sed by -nigh roads, but by mere bridle or foot- 
paths, which, bein^ rarely traversed, and in many 
places, not distinctly marked, or confounded wita 
mnumerable tracks of cattle, will often bewilder 
the inexperienced travdler not acquainted with 
the mouatains^ When snow is threatening to 
fall, or after a snow-storm has covered the path, 
and dblttarated the footsteps of preceding travel- 
lers^ a guide ma^ be required in ^tuations where, 
under ordinary ciroufflstances, his presenee might 
be dispense with. 

Gmde$ by frahssion are to be met with in most 
parts of Switzerland ; those of Chamouni (in Savoy) 
are deservedly renowned, being regularljr bred 
to their profession, and subject^ to examination 
as to character and fitness before they are admit* 
ted into the fraternity. They are enrolled in a 
corps, placed under the control of a syndic aiH 
poialedi>y the Sardinian Government. (Route 115.] 
In Switzerlsmd they abound at Interlachen and 
Thua, liucerne, and all the other starting-points 
from whidi pedestrian excursions are be^tm* 
Here, again^ tbe traveller, had better tru^t to the 
innkeeper to recommend a fit person ; but it is 
advisable not to hire one for a lengdi of time 
beforehand. He ought not to be too far advanced 
in years. 

The established rate of hire is six Frendi francs 
a-day ; but, in addition to this, there will be a 

xxviii ^9. — Guides — Chaises-d-Porieart. , 

claim for money to return, if dismissed at a dis^ 
lance from home, unless the employer find hina a 
fresh master to lake back. For this sum the 

Suide provides for himself, and is expected to 
ischargei all the duties of a domestic towards his 

For the most part j the guides may be said to be 
obliging, intelligent, and hard-working men. 
Few who have employed them but can bear testi- 
mony to their coolness, intrepidity, and tact, ia 
moments of danger — ^in the difficult pass, in the 
midst of the snow-storm, or among the gaping 
clefts of theglaciers. It is in such situations that 
their knowledge of the mountains, their experience 
of the weather, their strong arm and steady foot, 
are fully appreciated. The traveller should al- 
ways follow the guide in crossing glaciers, and, in 
ifoing over tracts covered with snow, should al- 
ow him to choose what his experience teaches to 
be the safest path. In dangerous situations the 
guide advances a-head, with cautious step, sound- 
ing with his pole beforehand as in a sea beset with 

- A little civility and familiarity on the part of 
the employer — the offer of a cigar from the tra- 
veller's own case, or a glass*of brandy from his^ 
private flask-— will rarely be thrown aw^ ; on the 
contrary, it is likely to produce .assiduity and 
communicativeness on the part of the guide. Many 
of them are fine athletic men, and to carry for 8 
or 10 hours a-day, and for a distance of 25 or 30 
miles, a load of 30 or 40 Jbs. weight is^made light 
of by them. " ■ 

Some travellers content themselves with" Kel- 
ler's excellent map to guide them, and'employ a 
mere porter to carry their baggage for them. 
Such a man 'is paid less than the professional 

§ 10 — Hordes and Mules. xxix 

guides ; 3 or &• fir. a-day will suffice for them ; others 
are satisfied with taking a guide only to cross the 
moan tains, from one valley ii^to another, where^ 
as before observed, they are really indispensable; 
Those who travel in chars or on horseback will 
find that the driver, or the man who accompanies 
the horse, will usually serve as guide^ and render 
unnecessary the employment of any other person 
in that capacity. At Chamouny, however, the 
{guides must be hired distinct from the mules. it be observed that, when the travelling party 
includes ladies, a guide is required to attend on 
each, during a mountain excursion, to lead down 
the horses, where the path is steep, and to lend 
their arms to the fair travellers, when the exigences 
of the way require them to dismount, and proceed 
on foot. 

Even the aged or invalid female is by no means 
debarVed the pleasure of taking a part in difficult 
mountain expeditions. Those who are too infirm 
either to walk or ride, may be carried over the 
mountains in a ^'dtaise-a-porteurs" (Germ. Trag- 
sessel), which is nothing more than a chair, car- 
ried in the manner of a sedan, upon poles, by two 
bearers ; two extra bearers must be taken to re- 
lievein turn, and every man expects 6 fr. per diem, 
and 3 fr. return-money for the days required to 
reach home. 


Previous to 1800, or even later,' until Napoleon 
commenced the magnificent carriage-roads over 
the Alps, which will assist .in immortalising his 
name, the only, mode of conveying either passen- 
f;ers or goods across them was on the back of 
horses or mules. . Even now, upon all the minor 
passes, almost the entire traffic is carried on by 

XX z §10.-- Horsi9 and Mules . 

meaas of them. la oiher instances, where the 
beauties of scenery attract an influx of strangers , 
mules are kept for their conveyance, even where 
they are not required for the transport of roer- 

The customary hire of a horse or mule through- 
o.ut Switzerland, generally fixed by a printed 
tariff, amounts to 9 fr. a*day, inclumng tne^ man 
who takes care of it ; at Ghamouny it is 6 fr., but 
there a guide must also be taken. Back-fare 
must be paid if the animals are dismissed at a 
distance from home, and at so late an hour of the 
day that they cannot return before night. 

The ponies that are used in the Bernese Ober- 
land, on the Biighi, and in other parts of Swit^ 
zerland, are clever animals, that will carry you 
up and dowq ascents perfectly impracticable to 
horses unused to the mountains; but they are far 
distanced by the mules of Ghamouny and other 
parts of Savoy. Their sagacity, strength, and 
sureness of foot, are really 'wonderful. The paths 
which they ascend or descend with ease are steep- 
er than any staircase, with ledges of rock, 2 or 
3 ft. high, fnstead of steps. Sometimes they are 
covered with broken fragments, between which 
they must pick their way, at the risk of breaking 
their legs ; at others, they traverse a narrow ledge 
of the mountain, with an abyss on one side and a 
wall of rock on the other; and here the mule in- 
variably walks on the very verge of the precipice 
—a habit derived from the animal's being ac- 
customed to carry large packages of merchandise, 
which, if allowed to strike against the rock on one 
side, would destroy the mule's balance, and jostle 
him overboard. In such dangerous passes, the 
caution of the animal is very .remarkable : he 
steeds i^ rein to guide him, but will pick his own 

§ 11. — Swiss Inns. xxxi 

way, and find out ihe best path, far better than, 
his rider can direct him; and, in such circum- 
stances, it is safer to let the reins hang loose, and 
trust entirely to his sagacity, than to perplex him 
by checking him '^ith the curb, at a moment 
when, by confusing the animal, there will be risk 
of his losing his footing, and perhaps tumbling 

It is interesting to observe* the patient animal, 
on reaching dangerous ground, smelling with bis 
nose down like a dog, and trying the surface with 
hrs foot, bdFore he will advance a step, as the poe( 
has accurately described him : 

** Shanning tbe loose stone oii the precipice — 
Snorlh^ sutpioioQ^wbiie with sight, smell, touch, 
Trjing, detecting, where the surface smiled ; 
And^ with deliberate courage, sliding down, 
Where, in his sledge, the Laplander had tiirU^d , 
With lo(^ aghasU'^— Ao^crj. 

§ 11. SWISS INIfS. 

Switzerland is well provided with inns; and 
those of the large towns, such as the Faucon, at 
Beilne, tbe Vergues and Couronne, at Geneva, the 
Bellevue, at Thun, the Three Kings, at Basle, 
yield, in extent and good management, to few ho*, 
tels in either France or Germany* The ^eat 
annual influx of strangers into the country is of 
the same importance to Switzerland that some 
additional branch of industiy or commerce would 
b^ and renders the profession of host most lu- 
crative. Many of the Swiss innkeepers are very 
wealthy, and it is not* uncommon to find an indi- 
vidual in this capacity who is landamman or chief 
i^agtstrate of the canton. 

The approach to one of the first-rate hotels in 
the larfi;e towns, in the height of summer, exhi^ 
bits rather a characteristic spectacle. The street 

xxxii §^1* — Swiss Inns, 

before it is usually filled with several rows of ve- 
hicles of all sorts, from the dirty and rickety ca- 
liche of the German voiturier, to the neat chariot 
of the English peer, and the less elegant, but 
equally imposing, equipage of the Russian prince. 
Before the doorway is invariably grouped a crowd 
of loitering Servants and couriers, of all nations 
and languages, and two or three knots of posti- 
lions and coachmen on the look-out foremplov- 
ment. During the height of the season, should 
the traveller arrive late in the evening, the chances 
are against his being admitted, unless he have sent 
or written beforehand to secure rooms. This 
object may sometimes be effected by the means of 
the courier of another party about to set out at aa 
earlier hour. 

Couriers, voituriers, guides, and boatmen, are 
apt sometimes to sell their employers to the inn- 
keepers for a gratuity, so that travellers should 
not always implicitly follow the recommendations 
of such persons regarding inns ; and it is hoped 
that the list of inns, drawn up with much care, 
and given in this book, will render the travelhr 
in future more independentof their recommenda- 
tions. The innkeepers hitherto have been very 
much at the mercy of this class of persons, who 
invariably fare sumptuously, and certainly not 
at their own expense. It not unfrequently hap- 
pens that the attendance which ought to be be- 
stowed on the master is lavished upon his menials. 
Whenever a new inn is started, it is almost inva- 
riably by -the lavish distribution of high gratui- 
ties to coachmen, couriers, and the like, and by 
Kampering them with the best fare, that the land- 
)rd endeavours to fill his house, to the prejudice 
both of the comfort and the purse of their mas^ 
ters. With few exceptions, tnerefore (which are 

§ 11.— -Ww Inns. xxxiii 

specified in tbe following pages], the writer has 

fenerally found himself best off in the old-esta- 
lisbed nouses. 

It may be laid down as a general rule, that the 
wants, tastes, and habits of the English are more 
carefully and successfully studied in the Swiss 
inns than even in those of Germany. Thus, at 
most of the large inns, there is a late table-d'bdte 
dinner at 4 or 5 o'clock, expressly for the En- 
glish; and the luxury of tea may always be had 
in perfection. Cleanliness is to be met with al- 
most everywhere, until you reach the S. slopes 
of the Alps and the approach to Italy. In canton 
Bern, in particular, the inns, even in the small and 
remote villages, are patterns of neatness, such . 
as even fastidious trayellers may be contented 

The uSual charges are, for dinner at the early 
table-d'hdte— 3 Fr. fr.::^20 batz. Later ditto, I 
orSFr. fr. 

Dinner, in private, 6 fr. per head for 1 or 2 per- 
sons, at the more expensive inns; and from 3 to 5 
fr. per head for a party at smaller inns. 

Beds, 1 1/2 to 2 fr.- 10 to 13 1/2 batz. 

Breakfast, 1 1/2 to 2 fr.=10 to 14 batz; 

Tea, ll/2fr. 

To ibis is added, in most of the larger inns, a 
charge of 1 franc for a wax candle, to swell the 

The charges for rooms vary according to their 
situation on tbe lower floors and the views they 
command; but the best suite of apartments, in 
first-rate inns, ought not to exceed 4 fr.' a-day, 
for a sitting-room or salon, and 3 fr. for each 

It must be remembered that there are gene- 
rally two sets of charges, one for natives, or Ger- 

xxxlv § 11,— 5trw« Inns, 

mans, and another for th^ Engli^ , on the prin- 
ciple, that th^ latter have both longer purses^ and 
also more numerous wants, and are more difficult 
to serve. 

The servants are remunerated nearly as in Ger- 
many — 1 fr. , a-day is ample from each person for 
the whole household, including the. cfeanii^ of 
clothes, boots, and shoes. 

It is often remarked by the English that the 
Germans pay very little to the servants at inns ; 
but they should bear' in mind how much less trou- 
ble the Germans give^ and how slight the atten^ 
dance which they require generallv speaking. 

French is almost invariably spoken at the inns, 
even in the German cantons, except in remote 
parts, as in the side valleys of the Grisons. Ne- 
vertheless, the German language is a very valuable 
acquisition to the traveller. 

Swiss inns have, in general, the reputation of 
being expensive, and the innkeepers of being ex<- 
tortionate. At recent journey through the greater 
part of the country has scarcely afforded an in^ 
stance of either; but, where such cases have oc- 
curred, notice has been taken of them in the fol- 
lowing pages. At minor and remote inns manoeu- 
vres are sometimes resorted to for the purpose of 
detaining the guests. 

Among the mountains the traveller may obtain, 
in perfection, the small alpine trout, which are of 
great excellence; sometimes, also, chamois veni- 
son, which, by the way, is far inferior to park ve- 
nison; wild strawberries are yery abundant, and, 
with a copious admixture of delicious cream, the 
staple commodity of the Alps, — are by no means 
to be despised.. 

Those who enter a Swiss inn, tired, hot, and 
thirsty, after a long walk or dusty ride, may ask 


§ 12. — Directions far TravellBrs. tzxr 

for a battle of "Iknonade gazense/' under which 
name they will recognise a drink nearly resem* 
bling ginger beer, bat with more acidity, and» 
when good, very refreshing. It supplies here the 
place of hock and Settzer-^water on the Rhine. 

The best Swiss wines are those of Neuchfttel and 
Vaud ; such as they are procured at inns, they 
merit no great praise. An effiervescing sweet Sar* 
dinian wine (vin d'Asti] is common, and may be re* 
sorted to for a change. 


The begt season fdr travelling among the Alps is 
the months of July, August, and September, in 
which may, perhaps, be mcladed the last half of 
Jane. The higher Alpine passes are scarcely clear 
of snow before the second week of June ; and be^ 
fore the middle 6f October, though the weather is 
often still serene, the nights draw in so fast as to 
curtdil, inconveniently, the d^y's journey. Dur- 
ing the long days,' one may get over a great deal 
of ground. The judicious traveller will econo- 
mize the daylight by rising, and setting forth as 
soon after sun-rise as possible. 

The average daily expense of living at the best 
inns in Switzerland will vary between 8 Fr. fr. and 
10 fr. a-day, excluding all charge for coiivej%n- 
ces, horses, and guide. The pedestrian who^ 
with Keller in his pocket, can dispense with a 
guide, may travel in the remoter valleys of Swit- 
zerland at the rate of 5 to 7 fr. a-day, provided he 
knows German and French. The German stu- 
dents, who understand the art of tratellii^ eco- 
nomically, always proceed in a party, and usually 
send on one of their number a^tiead, to tbei^ in-^ 
tended night-quarters, to make terlns with the 

Kxxji § i2.-r^Directions for Travellers. 

innkeeper. There is this advantage in iravellin(; 
with a party; that numbers are more welcomed at 
an inn and better attended than a sofitary indivi- 
dual ; on the other hand, when inns are rail, few 
stand a better chance than many. All arrange- 
ments for the hire of carriages, horses, or guides, 
should be concluded over-night : he that waits till 
the morning will generally find either the conveyan- 
ces engaged by others, or the price demanded 
for them increased, and, at all events, his depar- 
ture delayed. 

Saussure recommends those who are inexperien- 
ced in Alpine travelling to accustom themselves 
for some time before they set out to look down 
from heights and over precipices, so that, when 
they really enter upon a dangerous path, the eye 
may be familiarized with the depths of the abyss, 
ana the aspect of danger, and the head relieved 
from the vertigo which the sudden sight of a pre- 
cipice is otherwise apt to produce. 

It is scarcely necessary to repeat the caution 
against '^drinkmg cold water" or cold milk, when 
heated; but the guides, and natives accustomed 
to mountain travelling,, never drink before rest- 
ing ; exercise afterwards will render the draught 

It is tiresome and unprofitable in the extreme 
to ^alk along a level road at the bottom of a val- 
ley, where conveyances are to be had, and there 
is a carriage-road : here it is best to ride ; the 
expense in money is counterbalanced by the eco- 
nomy of time. 

In crossing one of the minor passes of the Alps 
— those not traversed by carriage-roads, but mere- 
ly by foot or bridle-paths — a guide should al- 
ways be taken, as, in the upper part of the valleys, 
such paths almost invariably disappear, and be- 

§ i2,— Directions for Travellers. xxxvli 

3ome confounded with the foot-tracks of the cattle. 
This rale should especially be observed when the 
pass terminates in snow or glacier. It is also ad- 
nsable to eschew short cuts, remembering tbe old 
proverb of **the longest way round." 

After the middlQ of June, the season for travel- 
ling in Switzerland, there is little danger to be 
Feared from avalanches, except immediately after 
$now*storras, which constantly occur among the 
high Alps, evcQ in the height of summer. The 
precautions to be adopted in crossing spots ex- 
posed to avalanches are stated in § 18. 

It is rash to attempt to cross a glacier without a 
guide, and he should always be allowed to take 
the lead, and the traveller follow his footsteps. 
The few instances of fatal accidents occurring to 
strangers among the Alps arise from (heir either 
not taking a guide with them, or neglecting to fol- 
low his advice. In the same way, in traversing 
Swiss lakes, notorious for their sudden storms, 
implicit reliance ^ould be placed on the advice of 
the boatmen, and no attempt should be made to 
induce them to launch their boats when they fore- 
see danger. 

Avoid, sedulously, stopping for the ni^ht near 
the embouchure of a river, wnere it empties itself 
into a lake. The morasses and flat land, created 
by the deposits of the river, are the hotbeds of 
malaria, and inevitably teem with disease. To 
stop in such situations for the night will probably 
be followed by a fever ; and it is even dangerous 
to sleep in a boat or carriage in crossing sjoch 
districts. Should, however, any accident compel 
the traveller to take up his night-quarters in such 
a spot, let him choose the highest house in the 
village, and the loftiest room in the house : the 
^laria does not rise above a certain height ; and 

^xxyiii § i2**-^ Directions and Requisite^ 

let him close carefully the windows. It is, how- 
ever, far better to walk on all night, should there 
be no other means of advancing or avoiding a spot 
so situated, than to run the risk. Such morasses 
are most dangerous in spring and autumn. 

Signs of the Weather among the Mountain* — 
When, in the eivening, the wind descends the vaK 
ley, it is usually a sign of fine weather; the con- 
trary when it ascends. The same may be said of 
the march of the clouds at all times of the day. 

When the roar of the torrent and the knell of 
the church-bell reach the ear, at one time loud 
and clear, at another, indistinct and apparently 
distant, it is a warning of rain. 

If, when the clouds clear off, after several days^ 
of rain, the mountain- tops appear white with fresh 
snow, steady fine weather will almost invariably 

. It is a bad sign when the outline of the distant 
mountain-peaks appears particularly sharp and 
defined — cut out, as it were, against the horizon. 

To cure blistered Feet — Rub the feet at going to 
bed with spirits, mixed with tallow dropped from 
a candle into the palm of the hand ; on the follow- 
ing morning no blister will exist. The spirits seem 
to possess the healing power, the tallow serving 
only to keep the skin soft and pliant. This is Cap^ 
tain Cochrane's advice, and this remedy was us^d 
by him on his **Pedestrian Tour." To premnt 
the feet blistering, it is a good plan to soap the 
inside of the stocking before settmg out. 

At the head of the list of requisites for'travelling 
in Switzerland may properly be placed Keller's 
admirable map of that country, which indicates, 
not only every place and every road, but distin- 
guishes each kmd of road, whether carriage, char, 
bridle-road, or foot-path; marking at the same 

§ i^.-r-BirtcUans and Bequi lies, xxxix 

tkne the heights of the mountains, the depths of 
the lakes, the waterfalls, points of view, ana other 
remarkable objects. It ainoost enables the tra- 
veller to dispense with* a guide. Of course, it can- 
not be faultless, but its errors are remarkablyfew. 

Travellers should provide themselves with the 
Swiss edition of this map, published by Keller 
himself, at Zurich, 1833. Both the English and 
French copies of it are very inferior both in clear- 
ness and accuracy. The new Paris edition , 1838, A 
is pretty and correct. » 

The little map published by the Useful Know- 
ledge Society (London, 1838), under the able su- 
perintendence of Captain Beaufort, is remarkably 
correct and distinct tor its size. 
. "The shoes ought to be double-soled, provided 
with iron heels and hob-hails, such as are worn i^ 
shooting in England : the weight of a shoe of this 
.kkid is counterbalanced by the effQCtual pro tec- 
tion^afforded to the feet against sharp rocks and 
loose stones, which cause contusions, and are a 
great source of fatigue and pain. They should 
be so large as not to pinch any part of the foot. 
The experienced pedestrian never commences a 
journey with new shoes, but with a pair that have 
already conformed to the shape of the feet. Cot- 
ten stockings cut the feet to pieces on a long walk; 
i«. their place, thick knit worsted socks ought in- 
variably to be worn. Gaiters are useful in wet 
weather to keep the socks clean ; at other times to 
prevent small stones from falling into the shoes ; 
But they are liable to heat the ankles. It is advi- 
sable to travel in cloth trousers, not in linen, 
which afford no protection against rain or (changes 
of teniperature in mountain regions. A frock- 
coat is better than a shooting-jacket, which, though 
well enough in remote places, is strange, and will 

xl § 12 — Directions and Requisites, 

attract notice in the streets of a foreign town. A 
straw hat is the most pleasant covering for the 
headr from its lightness and the protection afforded 
to the face by a broad brim*" 

"Avery serviceable article in a traveller sward- 
robe is a blouse (Kittel, op Staub-hemde. in 
German), somewhat resembling a ploughman's 
imock' frock in £ngland, but by no means confined 
to the lower orders abroad, as it is a common 
travelling costume of nobles, gentles, and pea- 
sants. It may be worn either over the usual dress, 
to keep it clean and free from dust, or it may be 
substituted for the coat in hot weather. Thiij 
kind of garment may be purchased ready-made in 
any German town. A knapsack (Germ. Tornister) 
may be purchased at a much cheaper rate abroad 
(10 fr^], and on a much better plan than those 
made in England, where they are scarcely to be 
got under ^s» or 305. Portmanteaus are better, 
in England tfean anywhere else. A Mackintosh 
cloak is almost indispensable, and it is difficult to 
procure one abroad. 

**A flask, to hold brandy and kirschenwasser, is 
necessary on mountain excursions ; and very con- 
yienient cups of patent leather, capable of being 
folded, and so carried in the pocket, may be got at 
Paris and Geneva. It should be remembered, 
however, that spirits ought to be resorted to less 
as a restorative than as a protection against cold 
and wet, and to mix with water, which ought not 
to be drunk cold or unmixed after walking. The 
best restorative is tea ; and, as there are some parts 
of the Continent in which this luxury cai^iot be 
procured, it is advisable to take a small quantity 
from England. Good tea, however, may be bought 
in all the large towns of Switzerland." 

**Carey, optician, 181, Stran4, makes excellent 

§ 12. — RiquUiies for Tracelling. xU 

ket teleseopes, about four inches long, combiD- 
ing, with a small size, considerable power and an 
extensive rainge. A compass for the pocket is 
useful on Alpine journeys/ —(From Hand-book N. 
Germany^] • 

Paper, pen and ink, and soap, should by all 
means be deposited in the knapsack, being arti- 
cles difficult to meet with at every place. Berry's 
patent inkstands and fire-boxes are much to be re- 
commended for their portability. 

The pedestrian, in packing his knapsack, if he 
intend to carry it on his own back, should not al- 
low its weight to exceed 20 lbs., even if he be 
strong. The most part of travellers, however 
zealous at first in bearing their own pack, grow 
tired of it after a day or two, transferring it to a 
guide, who, if young and stout, will carry with the 
greatest ease a weight of 35 or kO lbs. 

The alpenstock is an almost indispensable com-r 
panion upon mountain journeys, and may be pro- 
cured everywhere in Switzerland for 2 fr. It is a 
stout pole, about 6 ft. Ibng, with an iron spike at 
one end for use, and a chamois' horn for show at 
the other. The pedestrian ^ho has once tried it 
will fully appreciate its uses as a staff and leaping- 
pole, but chiefly as a support in descending the 
mountains ; it then becomes, as it were, a third leg. 
It enables one to transfer a part of the weifi;ht of 
the body from the legs to the arms, which is a 
great relief in descending long and steep hills. By 
the aid of it, the chamois -hunters glide down 
snow-covered slopes, almost perpendicular, check- 
ing the velocity of their course, when it becomes 
too great, by leaning back, and driving the point 
deeper into the snow. In crossing daciers, it is 
indispensable, to feel the strength or the ice, and 

xlii . § 13. — Objects worth notice. 

ascertain whether it be free^'from crevices and able 
to bear the wei^t. 

When about to traverse the glaciers for any 
distance, the traveller should provide himself with 
a green gauze veil, and with coloured spectacles 
to protect his eyes from the glare of tne snow, 
which is very painful, and often produces tempo-* 
rary blindness. Lip-salve, or some kind of greas^, 
to anoint the skin of the face, and prevent it from 
blistering and peeling off should also be taken. 
]Further requisites for such an expedilion are — 
ropes to attach the travellers and their guides toge- 
ther, so that, in case one fall or slip into a cre- 
vice , his descent may be arrested by the others ; 
iron crampons for the feel — the surface of the gla- 
cier, though soft in the middle of the day, becomes 
hard and very slippery as soon as the sun begins 
to decline ; a ladder, to cross those crevices which 
are too broad to leap over; and a hatchet, to cut 
steps, or resting-places for the feet, in the ice. 

These preparations are quite unnecessary for a 
mere visit to the glaciers. of Chamouny or Grin- 
delwald, and are required only when a journey 
over them of many hours', or of one or two days* 
duration, is meditated. 


In order to travel with advantage in a country 
previously unknown, something more seems ne- 
cessary than a mere detail of certain lines of road, 
and an enumeration of towns, villages, moun- 
tains, etc. The following section has been pre- 
pared with a view to furnish such preliminary in- 
formation as may enabla the tourist to tura his 
time to the best account; to decide where to 
dwell, and jf^here to pass quickly. The t sk is dif- 

§ 13. — OhjecU worth notice in Switzerland, xliii 

ficult : let this serve as an excuse for its imperfect 

Switzerland owes the sablimity and diversified 
heaaty of its scenery, which it possesses in a great- 
er decree, perhaps, than any other country of the 
globe, to the presence of the Alps — the loftiest 
mountains of Europe, the dorsal ridge or bacb- 
bone, as it were, of the Continent. These run 
through the land, and occupy, with their main 
trunk, or minor spurs and offsets, nearly its whole 
surface. They attain the greatest height along 
the S. and £. frontier line of Switzerland ; but, as 
they extend N., subsiding and gradually opening 
out to allow a passage to the Rhine and its tribu- 
taries, they are met by the minor chain of the Jura, 
which forms the N. W. boundary of Switzerland. 
It is from the apex of this advanced guard, as it 
were, of the Alps, or from one of the intermediate 
outlying hills, that the traveller, on entering the 
country, obtains the first view of the great cen- 
trai chain. From the brow of the hill, at the fur- 
ther extremity of a landscape, composed of undu- 
lating country — woods, hills, villages, lakes, and 
silvery, windmg rivers — sufficient of itself to rivet 
the attention, he will discover what, if he has not 
before enjoyed the glorious spectacle of a snowy 
mountain, he will probably take for a border of 
fleecy cloud floating along the horizon. The eye, 
unaccustomed to objects of such magnitude, fails 
at first to convey to the mind the notion that these 
clearlvidefined white masses are mountains, 60 or 
70 miles off. Distance and the intervening atmos- 
phere have no effect in diminishing the intense 
white of the snow; it glitters as pure and unsullied 
as if it had just fallen close at hand. 

There are many points of view whence the se- 
micircular array of Alpine poaks,' presented at 

3t 4 V § ^3 . — Objec is mos t deserving of notice, 

once to the eye, extends for more than 120 miles^ 
from the Mont Blanc to the Titlis, and comprises 
between 200 and 300 distinct summits, cap{)ed 
with snow, or bristling with bare rocks, having 
their interstices filled with towering glaciers : — 

** Who first beholds those everlastiog clouds — 
Those mighty hills , so shadowy, so sablime. 
As rather lo belong to heaven than earth — 
But instantly receives into his soul 
A sense, a feeling, that he loses not — 
A something that informs him \\s an hour 
Whence he may date henceforward and for e^er,^*— -Rogers. 

It was such a prospect that inspired those re- 
markable lines of Byron : — 

** Above me are the Alps, 
The palaces of Natare, whose vast walls 
Have pinnacled in clouds their snowy scalps. 
And throned Eternity in icy halls 
Of cold sublimity, where forms and falls 
The Avalanche — tlie thonderbolt of snow I • 
All that expands the spirit, yet appals. 
Gather around these summits, as to show 
How earth may soar to heaven, yet leave vain man below/' 

The points from which such an Alpine pano- 
rama may be enjoyed to the greatest advantage 
are — 

The D61e, above St. Cergues, on the road from 
Dijon to Geneva ; 

The Chaumont, above Neuchfttel ; 

The Weissenstein, above Soleure ; 

The Upper and Lower Hauenstein, on the road 
from Basle to Soleure and Lucerne; 

The Albis, between Zurich and Zug ; 

Monte Salvadore, rising amid the intricacies of 
the Lago Lugano ; 

The Kamor, near Gais, in St. Gall ; 

The Righi, between the Lakes of Zug and Lu- 
cerne : 

§ 1 3. — Objects most dturving of notici, xlr 

The Faulhorn, adjoining the Bernese Alps. 

Of these the Righi is probably the finest, as it 
is certainly one or the most accessible; some give 
the preference to the Faulborn, from iis proxi- 
mity to the great chain. The passion for climb- 
ing mountains so ardent in a young traveller, 
soon cools ; and they who have sunnounted the 
Kighi, the Faulborn, and the Ddle, may fairly 
consider any farther ascents a waste of time ana 
labour. For a near view of alpine scenery, 
amidst the recesses of the mountains, the spots 
which afford a concentration of the most grand 
and sublime objects are the valleys of the Bernese 
Oherland, and those around the base of Mont 
Ulanc, including of course, Chamouny. It is ib 
these two districts that the combination (rf fine 
forms, and great elevation in the mountains ; of 
vast extent of glaciers and snow fields, with the 
accompaniments of the roar of the avalanche and 
the rush of the falling torrent^--4ire most remar^ 
kable. Here, in particular, the glaciers, the most 
characteristic feature of this country, are seen to 
greatest advantage — not only those fantastically 
ifractured masses of iceberg which descend into 
the low grounds, but those vast fields of ice, cal- 
led Mers de Glace. To Chamouny, and the neigh- 
bourhood of Mont Blanc, of the two, must be 
given the preference, in point of sublimity ; and 
the traveller will, for this reason, do well in re- 
serving;, for the termination of his tour, and the 
crowmng act of hi^ journey— Mont Blanc, with it« 
attendant aiguilles and circumambient leagues 
of ice. 

The glaciers of the Aar, near the Grimsel (which 
may be comprised in the Bernese Oberland)^ that 
of the Rhone, near the Furca ; those of the Rhine, 
above Splugen ; and of the Bemina, in the Enga* 


%Ui § 1 8. ~ Objects most deservkig of notice. 

dine - are likewise deserving of mention from their 
extent. That of Rosenlaui is celebrated for its 
extreme purity, and the dark blue colour of its 

Lakes. — Madame de Stael has somewhere re^ 
marked, on the proximity of lakes to mountains, 
that nature seems to have placed them in the midst 
of her grandest scenes, at the foot of the AI^ps, in 
order to serve as mirrors, and multiply their en- 
chanting forms. The lak^s of Switzerland are 
very numerous, and they certainly add a principal 
charm to its scenery. It is difficult to classify 
them according to their respective merits, as al- 
most every one has some peculiarity which cha-^ 
racterises it and renders it worthy of attention. 
The most remarkable are, the Lake of Lucerne, 
which exhibits, in perfection, savage grandeur and 
Sublimity ; Wallenstadt, Thun, and Brienz, all tho« 
roughly Swiss; the Lake of Geneva, or Lac Leman, 
distinguished for its great extent, and fcr the di- 
versified character it presents, being, at one end. 
rirgged and sublime, at the other, soft and smil* 
ing it occupies an intermediate rank between the 
Swiss and Italian lakes. These last, that is to say, 
Maggiore, Lugano, and Como, may be included 
in the tour of Switzerland, either from portions 
of them being actually situated within its terri^ 
tory, or froni their vicmiiy to it. Their character 
is rather smiling than frowning ; they are blessed 
^ith a southern climate, in addition to their own 
attractions; their thickets are groves of orange, 
olive, myrtl^, and pomegranate ; and their ha- 
bitations are villas and palaces. Along with the 
lakes named above must be mentioned- the little 
Laker of Orta, which , though situated in Pied- 
mont, lies so close to the Simplon, and possesses 
tmch high claims to notice from its surpassing 

§ 13.— Objects moti deserting of notice. j\%n 

beaut^^, that no trayeller, approaching that comer 
of Switzerland to which it is a neighbour, should 
omit to visit it. 

The attempt to fix an order of precedence for 
the SiDtss WaterfalU is not likely to meet with 
general approval, because so much depends on 
the seasons and the weather, as well as on the 
taste and temper of the spectator. A fine water- 
fall is, indeed, a. magnificent spectacle: but it will 
be appreciated, not merely by its own* merits, but« 
to use a mercantile phrase, according to the abun- 
dance of the supply. Now, in Switzerland, wa- 
terfalls are as numerous as black-berries. The 
traveller, after a week or fortnight's journev, is 
pestered by them, and will hardijr turn his bead 
aside to look at a fall which, if it were in Great 
Britain, would make the fortune of an £nglisb 
watering-place, and attract visitors half-way across 
our island to behold it* The fact sedans to be 
that there is a certain monotony and similarity io 
all falls of water , and, after the curiosity has once 
been satiated by the sight of three or four, it is 
tiresome to go out of one's way to visit another^ 
unless it be much finer, and have a distinctive cha- 
racter from any seen before. Thus, then, there is 
utility even in an attempt to classify these natural 


1. The Fall of the. Rhine, at Schaffhausen, de- 
Serves the first rank, from the volume of water ; but 
it is rather a cataract than a cascade — it wants 

2. Fall of the Aar, at Handek, combines a grace- 
ful shoot with great elevation; an abounding ri- 
ver and. a grand .situation. It may be said to at- 
tain ahnost to perfectiottr-(Terni being a perfect 

xlfiii § 13.— Objects most deserving of notice. 

3. Fall of the Tosa, in the Val Formazza : re- 
markable less for its form than for the vast volame 
of water, but in this respect very fine. 

4. The Staubbach, or Dust Fall : a thread or 
' scarf of water, so thin that it is dispersed into spray 

before it reaches the ground ; beautiful^ however, 
from its height and graceful wavings. 

5. TheGiesbach. 

6. The Fall of the Sallenche, near Martigny, 
sometimes called Pissevache. 

7. Reichenbach fall. 

8. The Fall of Pianazzo^ or of the Medessimo, on 
the Splugen. 

9. Turimagne Fall, near the Simplon road. 
Other falls, too numerous to mention, are not 

placed (to use the language of the race-eourse) ; 
though, in any other country but Switzerland or 
Norway, they would deserve especial notice. 

The design of this enumeration is to spare the 
traveller a long[ walk, or a day's journey, to see a 
fall, probably mferior to others which he has al- 
ready seen. 

The principal and most interesting of the Swiss 
Alpine Passes (see § 15) are the Simplon, the St. 
Gotthard.the Splugen ,and theBernardin, regarding 
at once their scenery, and the magnificent and ski U 
fully constructed carriage-roads which have been 
madeover them. Of passes not traversed by car- 
rage-roads, the most striking, in point of scenery, 
are those of the Monte MoroandCervin, between the 
Vallais and Piedmont; the T^te Noire arid Col de 
Balme, leading to Chamouny ; the Grimsel, Furca, 
and the Gries, branching off at the head of the valley 
ot the Rhcye ; the Gemmi , one of the most singular 
ot all the passes; and the Great St. Bernard, chiefly 
visited on account of its celebrated Hospice. 

Alpine Gorges. — Especially deserving of no-' 

§ i3,'-^ObJ0ci9 moH desening of notice, xlix 

lice are some of the avenues leading up to these 
passes ; in many instances mere cracKS , pr fis- 
sares, cleaving the mountains to the depth of several 
thousand feet. 

None of these defiles at all approach the Ba-^ 
vine of the Via Mala, one of the most sublime and 
terrific scenes anywhere among the Alps — unless, 
perhaps, it be equalled by another magnificent 
Dut little-visited gorge on the way to the Monte 
Moro. The gorge of the Schc^llenen, on the St. 
Gotthard ; that of Gondo, on the Simplon ; and that 
extraordinary glen, in whose depths the Baihs 
of Pfeffers aire sunk— one of the most wouderfuL 
scenes in Switzerland— also deserve mention. 

The most beautiful Swiss Valleys are those of 
Hasli, near Meyringen ; the Simmenlhal ; the Vale 
of Sarneo; the Kanderthal ; and the Emmenthal — 
all distinguished for their quiet pastoral charac- 
ter, and the sohness and luxuriance of their ver- 
dure. And here it may be remarked that the tra- 
veller in Switzerland must not suppose that beauty^ 
of scenery is confined to the High Alps : the Jura, 
and the intermediate undulating .country, which i 
though still greatly elevated above the sea, may 
be called the Lowlands, in reference to the High- 
lands of Switzerland, abqund in peculiar and nn- 
obtrusive beauties — hills tufted with woods, 
among which picturesque masses of bare rock 
prmect at intervals, slopes bursting with rills, 
and meadows which, by the aid of copious irriga- 
tion, yield three crops of grass a-year, presenting 
at all seasons a car{^et of the liveliest verdure, 
and of a texture lik^ velvet, equal .to that of the 
best-kept English lawns;— such are the beauties 
of diese lowland scenes. The frequent hedge- 
rows, the gardens before the cottages, and the 
neatness of the dwellings— the irregular, winding 


I § 13. — Objects most deserting ofnoiicis, 

roads, free from the straight monotony and ever^ 
lasting avenues of France and Germany — remind 
^one frequently of England. There are, besides^ 
among the Jura, many scenes of great grandeur-; 
such, especially, is presented by the Yal Mou- 
tiers, or Miinster Thai, between Basle and Bienne ; 
the pass of Klus, at the foot of the Ober-Hauen- 
stein, etc.. 


With regard to the natural beauties of Switzer- 
land, there can be but one sentiment of admira- 
tion. On the subject of the mwai condition of 
the Swiss, ^nd of their character as a nation, there 
is much greater variety of opinion, though the lar- 

Sir portion of impartial witnesses will concur in a 
w and unfavourable estimate of them* 
The Ifavourable anticipations awakened by his- 
torical associations in the mirid of the traveller, as> 
he approaches the land of Tell and Winkelried, 
are wofuUy falsified, for the most part, on arriv- 
ing upon t«e spot. If he take the trouble to in- 
quire into the political state <^ the country, he 
will find a Government almost powerless, a con-^ 
federacy without unity, split into parties by dis- 
sentient religions and opposing interests, and nearly 
every canton either torn by contending factions^ 
or actually split into two, and as much dissevered 
as thoujg[h it consisted of two separate states. Pa-^ 
iriots are scarce in the land of Tell ; and that com- 
bination of petty republics which, while firmly 
united, not only withstood the shocks of foreign 
invasion, secure in its mountain-fastnesses, but 
shattered and annihilated tl^ apparently ov«r-r 
whelming armaments of Austria ana Burgundy, not 
in one battle, but on almost every occasion whe» 
opposed to them, must now submit to be [dropped 
up by its neighbours, and, as a necessary cQuse^ 

§ 13. — Ohjecis most deserviiig of notice. W 

(]iieiiGe, must endure aod stomach the diplomatic 
insalts ^hicfa are constantly heaped upon it. 

The poverty of the land, its slight capabiliiies 
for improvements, its deficiency of resources in 
proportion to the extent of iis population, have 
given rise to that venality of character which has 
passed into a proverb ; a reproa^^h by no means 
removed, even in the present day. Notwithstand- 
ing their long enjoyment pf liberty and free instt- 
tations, in spite of the glorious examples of their 
history, we do not find the nation actuated by 
that independence and nobleness of sentiment 
which m^ht be expected. On the« contrary, a 
spirit of time-serving and a love of mpney appear 
the influencing motives in the national character, 
and the people who have enjoyed freedom longer 
than any other in Europe, are principally dtstm- 
guished for fighting the battles of any master^ bow- 
ever tyrannical, who will buy their services ; for 
sending forth the most obsequious and drudging 
of valets; for extortionate innkeepers, and among 
the lower class of Swiss for almost universal men- 
dicity: for to beg appears to be regarded as no 
degradation, and is taught by parents to their 
children less^ from necessity than as a sort of spe- 
culation. The Tyrolese, the neighbours of the 
Swiss, and their partners in the same cold climate 
add unproductive Alpine region, exhibit a remark- 
able contrast to them in this and other respects. 

It is more pleasing to dwell on another result 
of Swiss poverty, viz., the impulse it has given to 
commercial industry and manufactures. The lia^ 
tural disadvantages of an inland country, into 
which the raw material must be conveyed almost 
exclusively on the axle over snowy passes, and by 
long journeys, have been overcome, and in the 
excellence of her manufactured articles Switzer- 

Ill § iS.'^^Objects moH defttting ofnQtUe^ 

land competes with England, while she oftem^r-^ 
passes her in cheapness. 

The demoralizing effect produced upon the 
Swiss by the great influx' of travellers into their 
country, is explained in the following tempe- 
rate and judicious remarks from Latrobe's 'Alpen- 
stock' :— 

"It cannot be denied that the character of the 
majority of the Swiss peasantry, whose habita- 
tions are unfortunately in the nei£;hbourhood of 
the main routes of travellers, or of the particular 
points of interest to whiqh they lead, is most coQ'^ 
temptible ; that in such parts it is not only vslin 
to expect to find those simple and guileless man- 
ners which in time past were associated with the 
name of the inhabitants of- these mountains, but 
that eveii common morality is out of the question* 
There is a disposition in the , majority of those 
who have been at all exposed to temptation to 
take advantage of the ignorance of travellers, to 
make the most exorbitant demands, and to go to 
the greatest possible length in the system of extor- 
tion and deception* Even in those parts of the 
country where Uhe open profligaqy of the cases 
brought before them has excited the attention and 
provoked the surveillance of the magistrates, and 
where, in consecfuence. a kind of just price ha$ 
been set upon various articles, opportunities are 
always greedily seized upon to turn a dishonest 
penny, when it can be done without serious risk. 

**This the writer knows to be unquestionably 
the fact ; yet he must candidly add, what he also 
knows from observation, that the absurd conduct 
and unreasonable folly of travellers have strength- 
ened the spring of this dishonest propensity ia 
a very great degree : and while many a jtisi cbm- 
plaint has been made against the extortion of 

§ 1 3. — OifjtcU most deserting of notice. liil 

those, vith whom the traveller must come in con-* 
tart, many an unreasonable accusation has also 
heen preferred under circumstances which would 
not allow the plaintiff to make his case good. An 
individual who is satisfied, while travelling in a 
eoontry like this, to identify himself as much as 
possible with the people among whom he is thrown 
»— who is contented with thje general style of li- 
ving, with the produce of the country, and, more 
especially, with the customary hours of eating and 
steeping, has certainly reason to complain, if .the 
mere circumstance of his being a stranger is 
deemed a sufficient apology for making him the 
object of unprincipled sjpoliation and imposition. 

"But if the travellers be of another mind and 
order— iJF they pass through the country, as hun- 
dreds do> with their eyes shut to the style and 
saanners of the people and difference of their ha- 
bits from our own, and intent upon keeping up 
^heir usual style of corporeal indulgence as mucn 
as po^ibte^SQcb have not Xhe same reason in 
their complaints ; which is a lesson many have had 
U> learn, py the refusal af the magistrate to inter- 
fere i^ the quarrel, or by having a verdict given 
agaii^t them. 

*'l h^ye seeDi a party of English arrive at a 
mountaiin cabaret at nightfall, when the host and 
his family would^ in tbe usual course of thin^, 
have been thinjting of their beds ; they order dm- 
per, and insist upon, having flesh, fish, or fowi» 
foreign wines and liqueurs, just as though they 
were at the Star and Garter at Richmond; abuse 
the master and the domestics, dine at eight or 
nine, and sit over their cheer till past mid- 
night. Mine host can put up with a good deal of 
extra trouble, with no small quantity of abuse, 
and will stay up all night with considerable temper , 

because he knows he can make them pay for it in 
hard money. 

"The next morning, as might be anticipated, 
he hands in a bill of nearly as many dollars as they 
had expected francs, without doubt exorbitant and 
overcharged, but at any rate there are plausible 
excuses for this exorbitancy. 

"The host will shrug his shoulders, in answer 
to their ill-expressed and angry expostulation, and 
merely say, that the gentlemen must not expect to 
have articles which, however plentiful in towns are 
luxuries on the mountains, without paying well for 

*'The worst is that, little by little, the show of 
justice that there once existed, and the distinction 
which was made between the individual who gave 
ho trouble, and was contented with what enter- 
tainment was easily provided, and those last des- 
cribed, is fast waning away: and to be a foreigner 
is sufficient to excite the plundering propensities 
of mine host and his coadjutors. He has fre- 
auentljr a regular system to pursue, according as 
tne visitor adnounced is an Englishman, aFrench? 
nfian, or a German. The latter obtains the 'most 
grace in his eyes, and pays perhaps only ten ok 
twenty per cent ; the Frenchman must expocket 
something more in consideration of his polish an4 
politeness, and the old grudge borne him for past 
events ; and the poor Englishman may esteem 
himself very happy if, after partaking of the same 
fare, he finds himself desired to lav down a sum 
which only excites his surprise ana keeps him on 
the grumble for the next three miles, and does not 
at once make him fly into a passion and get a pre-, 
judice for life against every tning Swiss. 

**And it is not only those parts of the country 
through which the great stream of travellers sets 

th/g Country: tuul P^opte, It 

lliai have by this means become degraded : the 
feme of these doings has gone abroad throughout 
the greater part of the whole community, and very 
few are the retired corners where you do not de- 
fect more or less of this dishonourable bent in 
die lower orders^ if any way exposed to tempta- 
tion. • 

" But it is not only in- this point that the moral 
character of the common^ people is debased. It 
will not be a matter of wonder that the present 
Swiss peasantry as a nation cannot boger be supr- 
posed to be the simple, virtuous, patriarchal race , 
that their forefathers were. It is evident, from 
the perusal of their history , that Ae deterioration 
iiad been steady and gradual for some time previous 
-to the close of the last century; and that nothing 
contributed more to it than that system of foreign 
military service which, it would appear, had become 
necessary to the existence of the community . 

'* Then the Otverpowering deluge of the French 
Revolution swept over the Jora, and gave accelerat- 
ed impulse to the downward current of moral feel- 
ing in every rank of society in.this un}iappy country. 

•• What evil influence this had at the time upon 
the principles of the people in general, as. well as 
Ihe virtue of families and individuals^ it would now 
be a difficult and*ungratefui task to decide. Much 
of that evil raav at this tinie be supposed, to have 
been already obviated ; yet, now tnat the waters of 
that fearful political phenomenon h^ve retired, we 
may stiU see left behind the scum and the mud with 
which their polluted stream was heavily charged. 

** * I have not been in the Oberland for years,* is 
s^n expression I have heard time after time from 
worthy natives; and the reason is perfectly com^ 
prehensible. A true lover of his country. may well. 

ffrieye over the dishonour and the loss of niortf 
feeling in Switzerland, and lavoid goang where he 
mu^t be constantly reminded of its downfall."— 
p. 324-328. 

Another point to be considered in reference to 
ihe condition of the people, is the influence of the 
Roman Catholic religion in those cantons where it 
prevails. And here it may be observed, that the 
feast enlightened portions of the country at present 
are the Yailais, Uri, Unterwalden, Schwytz. Tessin, 
a large part of the Bernese Oberland, and the 
(Grrisons. In passing from a Catholic to a Protestant 
canton, the traveller will scarcely fail to remark a 
striking change. Yet, in his comments thereon « 
let him bear in mind the benevolent preeept sa 
beauiifuUy conveyed in the follgwing verses, cooi^ 
jposed in one of the Catholic cantons of Switzeis- 
land: — 

DoomM, as we are, our native dust 
To wet with many a bitter showefi 
It ill befits us to disdain 
The Altar, to deride llie Fane 
Where patient sufferers bend, in trust 
To win a bappier iiour. 

' I love, where spreads Ibe village lawn, 
Upon some knee-worn cell to gaze ; 
Hail to tbeilrm« unmoving cross, 
Alan, where pioes their branches tossi 
And to the chapel far withdrawn, 
That lurks by lonely ways. 

Where^r we roam, along the brink 
Of Rhine, or by the sweeping Po, 
Through Alpine vale^ or Champaign wide-r 
Whate*er we look on, at our side 
Be Charity— to bid us I bin k 
And feel, if we would know.^WoRDSWOBTH. 

We are so accustomed to look upon Switzerland 
as ** the land of liberty," that the generality of 
travellers will take the thing for granted ; and U 

the Coi/niry and People. Jvil 

h only afte]^. diving to a certain depth in Swiss 
annals, that the question arises, what was the na- 
ture of this freedom I and how far was it calculated 
to foster nobility of sentiment and public spirit 
among ihepeoplet Was the abolition of the Austrian 
dominion succeeded by a more equitable govern^ 
ment , extending to aU the same privileges , and 
dividing among all alike the public burthen ? Was 
political equahty accompanied by religious tole- 
rance and harmony? Did the democratic principle 
produce fruit in the disinterestedness aild patriotism 
of the children of the land? To all these inquiries 
there remains but one answer^^a negative. Th<^ 
cowherds of Uri . Schirytz , and Unterwalden, who 
had so nobly, and with so much moderation, eman- 
cipated themselves from a foreign yoke, in process 
or time became themselves the rulers of subject 
Slates, and, so far from extending to them the 
liberty they had so dearly purchas^ , and which 
they so highly valued, that they kept their subiects 
in the most abject state of villenage ; so that, down 
to the end of the la^t century, the vassals of no 
despotic monarch in Europe exhibited a picture of 
equal political debasement. The effects of this 
tyrannical rule were equally injurious to the go^ 
vemors and the governed, and the marks of it may 
be traced is many parts of Switzerland, even dowa 
to the present day, in the degraded condition of 
the i^ple, morally as well as physically. It wiB 
be discovered from Swiss history that ambition ^ 
and a thirst for territorial rule, is inherent in re*- 
publics as well as in monarchies, as we may learn 
rrom the encroachments and aggrandizing spirit of 
Canton Berne. She retained, as tributary to her, 
for two centuries and a half ^ the district called 
Pays de Vaud, deriving from rt an annual revenue 
i^ i^200|000 francs, and yet denying to the inha*^ 


hrili § 13.— r/« Tcuwns of" Switzerland ; 

bitants all share of political rijghts. Gene?»\ « 
weaker state, after throwiog off the yoke of the 
Dukes of Savoy, with difficulty escaped the wiles of 
theBernese Government, which would have plunged 
them in a slavery not more tolerable than that from 
wh ch they had just escaped. 

Religious dissensions were a source of a \qio^ 
series of troubles to the Confederation, dividing it 
into two opposite parties > which not only were 
arrayed agamst eacii other in the field of battle , 
but also interfered with the internal peace of ^tte 
individual cantons. Although by the laws the two 
parties in religion were allowed equal freedom of 
worship, the enjoyment of this privilege was em- 
bittered to either party, in the state where the 
other faith was predominant: it was, in fact, but a 
nominal tolerance. It is curious to. observe , that 
even in these days of liberal ideas and Catholic 
emancipation, a citizen of Lucerne is deprived of 
all political privileges, if he be a Protestant. 

Until the two French revolutions, the common 
people of Switzerland^ except in one or two of the 
cantons , had no more share in the constitutional 
privileges, which all Swiss were supposed to possess 
as their birthright, than the subjects of the des- 
potic monarchies of Austria or Prussia. Thego- 
vernment was vested in the hands of aristocratic 
oligarchies, as exclusive, and as proud of birth, 
blood, and descent, as the most ancient nobility 
in Europe. The burgher patricians of the great 
towns managed, by gradual encroachments, to 
deprive the lower orders of the exercise of their 
rights, and gradually monopolized all places and 
offices for themselves and their children. ' 

The TotDiM. of Switzerland exhibit many interes* 
ting marks of antiquity; their buildings are fre- 
quently found unchanged since a very early period. 


Objtvts worth notice, |f.t 

9nd in Lucerne^ Freybarg, Basle, Beliiiizena and 
several other instances, the feudal fortifications. 
With battlements and watch-towers, remain per- 
feelly preserved. Qn^ characteristic and very 
pleasant featnre are the Foun$a%n$, the never- 
failing ornament of every Swiss town and village. 
They usually consist of a (iothie ornamented pillar, 
surmounted by thefiguceof a man, usually some 
hero of Swiss history, either Tell, the dauntless 
crossbowtna^, or Winkelried, with •• sheaf of 
spears." Sometinies the figures of animals are sub- 
stitaled for the human form. 

A. singular custom, connected with education, 
prevails in Switzerland, which deserves notice here 
from the influeoce which it exercises over society. 
In most of the liirge towns, children of the same 
age aud sex are associated together by their pa- 
reats in little knots and clubs— called Soc'etes des 
Dimanehes The parents seek out for their children 
an eligible set of co,mpattions when they are still 
quite young. The parties so formed amount to 
12 ' or 15 in number, and the variation of age be- 
tween them is not more than 2 or 3 years. All 
the members meet in turn on Sunday evenings at 
the houses of their parents, whil^ children, to play 
together and partake of tea, cakes, and sweet- 
meats, attended by their bonnes or nurses; .when 
grown up, to pass the evening in other occupa- 
tions and amusements suited to their age. .At these 
meetings not even brothers, or sisters are present, 
except they be members of the society From 
thus being constantly thrown together on all occa- 
sions, a strict friendship grows up anwng the 
members of each brotherhood or sisterhood, which 
generally lasts.through life, even after the parties 
are settled and dispersed about the world. The 
females, even when grown up, distinguish ..theij? 

companions by such endearing terms as " mi^ 
mignonne/' "mopcoeur," " mon ange,"elc. This, 
practice renders Swiss society yery exclusive, and 
few strangers however Veil introduced, penetrate 
below the surface. 

. When a young woman marries, her husband is. 
admitted into the society to which she belongs^ 
and thus the wife determines the caste of the hus- 

Ranz des Vaches. — It is not uncommon to find 
the Ranz de Taches spoken of, by persons unac- 
quainted with Switzerland and the Alps as a single 
air, whereas they are a class of melodies prevailing 
among and peculiar to the Alpine valleys. Almost 
every valley has an air of its own., but the original 
air is said to be that of Appenzell. Their effect in 
producing home sickness m the heart of the Swiss 
mountaineer, when heard in a distant land, and 
the prohibition of thismusip in the Swiss regiments 
in the service of France, on account of the number 
of desertions occasioned by it, are stories often 
repeated, and probably founded on fact. 

These national melodies are particularly wild in 
their character, yet foil of melody; the choruses 
consist of a few remarkably shrill notes, uttered 
with a peculiar falsetto intonation in the throat. 
They originate in the practice of the shepherds on 
the Alps of communicating with one another at the 
distaiice of a mile or more, by pitching the voice 
high. The ?)ame Ranz des Yaches ( Germ. Kuh- 
reihen), literally coto-rotu*, is obviously derived 
from the order in which the cows march home at 
milking-timo, in obedience to the shepherd's call, the voice, or through the Alf^ 
horn, a simple tube of wood, wound round with 
bark 5 or 6 feet long, admitting of but slight mo- 
dulation, yet very melodious when caught up and 

Objects worth noiia, Ui 

prolonged by the mountain echoes. In some of the 
remoter pastoral districts of Switzerland, from 
which the ancient simplicity of manners is notal- 
fogether banished > the Alp-horn supplies, on the 
higher pastures, where no church is near, the 
place of the vesper-belK The cow-herd, posted on 
the highest peak, as soon as the sun has set, pours 
forth the & or 5 first notes of the Psahn *' Pram 
God the Lord ;'* the same notes are repeated from 
' distant Alps, and all within hearing, uncovering 
their heads and bending their knees, repeat their 
evening orison, after wliich the cattle are penned 
in their stalls, and the shepherds betake thern^ 
selves to rest. 

The traveller among the Alps will have frequeat 
opportunities of bearing both the music of the 
horn; and the songs of the cow-herds and dairy- 
maids; , the latter have been thus described by Mr. 
Southey : — ''Surely the wildest chorus that ever 
was heard by human ears : a song, not of articulate 
sounds, but in which the voice is used as a mere 
instrument of music, more flexible than any which 
art could produce, sweet, powerful, and thrilling 
beyond description." 

A word may be said on Swiss Husbandry to 
draw the attention of such persons as take an in* 
terest in the subject to one or two practices pe- 
culiar to the country. The system of irrigating the 
meadows is carri^ to a very great extent, the 
mountain-torrents are turned over the fields by 
means of trenches and sluices, and not unfre* 
quently^ when the ground is much inclined, the 
stream is conducted to the spot where it is required, 
through troughs hollowed out of the ^tem of 4 

The drainings of dunghills, cow-houses, and 
pigsties, are not allowed to run to waste, but are 

hit § ^.^Shetelon Tourf. 

carefully coHected in a vat by the farmer/ andrat 
the fit moment carried oat in carts to the fields, 
and ladled over them, very much to their benefit, 
and to the equaldisgust of the olfactory nerves of 
all who pass ; the arr, far and neait, being filled, 
with' this truly Swiss fragrance. 

The Swiss mountaineers are skilful marksmen 
with the rifle, and, like their neighbours, the Ty- 
rolese> meet constantly to practise and engage in 
trials of skill. There are clubs or societies in most 
of the cantons, and every year a. grand federal 
rifle-match is held in one or other of the large 
towns, at which all the best shots from the whole 
of Switzerland meet to contend for a prize. 

Annual contests in wrestling (called zwing-Feste) 
are also held in different parts of Switzerland. The 
cantons which distinguish themselves for skill in* 
this and other athletic exercises are Bern, Appen-* 
zell, and Unterwalden. 


N.B. It is advisable to enter Switzerland from 
the side of Germany rather than by that of France^ 
as the scenery of Chamouny, the grandest among 
the Alps, oughi to be reserved for (he conclusion 
of the tour. 

There are parts of Switzerland which cannot be 
peached in a travelling-carriage, and those who 
can neither ride nor walk , and will not submit 
to be carried in a chair, must forego them. 

The pedestrian tours in this list are laid down with 
the understanding that only the more interesting 
scenes, and such as are impracticable by other 
conveyances, are to be travelled on foot, and that 
on high roads the pedestrian will ride, otherwise 
he will waste much time unprofitably. 

§ 14. — SkiUion Tours. 
^^•.— Casiiiagb Todb of about 

Two Movrm, beglDiiHig at 
> Salle and eediiig atSchaff- 

hauseo, performed io 1837. 

The portion of this tour 
yitbiii brackets would extend 
U beyond the two months, and 
must be oraiited if the traveller 
be pres<ied for time.. 




I St. Peter*s inland 

i Neuchdtel. 

Arth and the Riehl« 

Lake Lucerne to.Altdorf^ 

Thun ' Leave the carriage.^ 

. GrimseL 

[St. Gotthard. 


V Lake of Lucerne. 


This part 
lof the tonr, 
[except the 
road of the 
can only be 
in chars, on 
and across 
jtlie lake in 
a boat. 


I Meyringen. . 
Vevey and GhUlon. 

Send jp9und the carriage to 
Mnriignyv which it may reach 
lu 2 days from Geneva 


Infirm persons, notable to ride 
or walk over . an Alpine pass, 
may n'tain their carriage at 
far as Sallenche, proceed in a 
char-ft-bonc to Chamouny, r6h 
join their carriage at Sallenche, 
and then proceed by Th^oon 
and S « Maurice to Martigny.. 

Sallenche, in a. hi red carriage. 

Chamouny, ijj ajchflr- Vbanc .. 



T^te Noire, to 


[Great Sl Bernard, and back^ 
on mules. ] 
B^thsof Leulu ) Leave carriage^ 

at Sierre or 






[Lago d'Orta.X 

JBorromean Islands. 

Milan, (Rest a week.)^ 






Via Mala. 



Lake of Wallenstadt, 




[Baden and SchlQtznach.] 



Carriage-roads — * char-roaid« 
— t bridle, or foot-paths. 



Rhine Fall. 

. I Altdorf— St. Golthard. 

f JFuroa. 
Aj- 1 Grimsel. 
6T Meyringen. 
6t Grindetwald. 

7 Lauterbr^nnenandThaD* 
f I Gemmi Pass. 

8 I Leuck. 

9 Martigoy. 
f iTdtenoire. 

iO ) Chamouny. 

12 Geneva — home through 

France or by 
48 Berne. 
14 BasJe. 

C— Toua OF Thrsb Wbbk5 on 


! Basle.— Murtster Thai. 

4 Schintzaach. 

5 Schaffhausen. • 

6 Zurich. 

I Wesen , and Lake of Wal* 

7 I lensladt. 

8 Kaifeuser thai toGlarus. 
A /Mttotta. 

^ \ Kloeothal. 
10 Righi. 
- . j Altdorf. 

.« (Furca. 
" (Grimsel. 

13 Meyriiigeri. 

14 Gnodelwaid. 

S Ik. SkeUtan. Tears. 


(WoDgern Alp. 
Lauterbrunneo and In- 

16 Gemmi— Baths of Leuk . 

17 Martighy. 

19 |T6tenoire. ' 
\ Chamouny. 

20 Geneva. 
SI Bern. 

D.— Tour of a Month ob Fivb 

{Schaffhausen and Rhine-; 
• 2 RIghU 

8 Lake of Lucerne. 
4 Ludeme. 

g JBruDig. 
) Meyrhigen. 

6 SastenPass. 

7 St. Gotthard. 
Q I Furca. 

) Grimsel. i 

9 Brienz. 

10 Lauterbrunneo. 

11 Grindetwald. 
.« IThun. 

^^ JBern. 

14 Freiburg. 

15 Simmeuthal. 

*^ JKaridersleg.. 

17 Gemmi. 

18 Martigny. 

19 Great St. Bernard. 

I Cormayeur. 

21 Allfc Blanche — Co> dis 

Seigne. • 

22 Col de Boiihommc 

23 24 Chamouny' - i 

S ii.—SkeUion Totals. 


25 Mariigny , by . Col de 
balme and Tile Noire* 

'" j Chillon— Veyey. 

{L of Geneva- Lausanne. 
Geneva — home tfaroagh 
France, or bj' 
30 O be, the DAie» and Lqc 

de Joux. 
51 Nt'uchfttel. 
32 Bicnne. 
^3 Munsler Ih^X. 
34 Basle. 


performed in the Autumn of 
4«U)7 by W« and R* H., 
chiefly on foot. 

** Our longest vallu never 
exceeded 10 or 1 2 leagues; but 
on inriipilce-rouds, such as the 
Simpton, we alvays rode. For 
sojne of the passes, such an the 
Col de Bonhomme, the Cer- 
vin, and theKawyl» guides are 
ji I ways necessary, but wherever 
there is a * chemin traci* guides 
ure a nuisance, except after a 
snowstorm. " 

Isondon to Geneva in. fourteen 
day»y including two days at 

Aug. S6. Geneva^ 

27. By eight o'dock steamer 
to li'Usaone; see the town; by 
another steamer io Villentuve; 
by diligence to Bex. 

27 To Martigny (short day\ 

28. Walked to. Hospice of 
Ihe Great St Bernard. 

29. Bdck to Martigny (an im- 
provement to go by the Col de 


Ferrety Orspi&nMy and atoog the 

30, T^e^oireto Chamouny 
(a new Way, .first exptored this 
summer, is to ascend iW»m Val 
brsine to th^ summft of the Col 
dc Balme, on acoeuot of iu 
magnificent view; thus inclu- 
ding the finest part of both 
passes. It is not quite two hours 
longer than the straight road). 
. Si. Ascended the Fleg^; 
then crossed the vailey^ to the 
Montanvert to the Mer de 
G iace-^-Cbamouny^ 

SepU d. Walked aCftMs the 
Col de Vosa to Contaminea» 
The journey would have been 
divided better by going on to 
the Chlilets of Nant Bonraiit. 

2. Crossed the Col de Bon* 
homme by Chapiu, to Motet— 
(walked j. 

8. Walked over Col de la 
Seigne, through All^ Bianeht 
to Cormayeur. 

4-To Aosta, in V Might be 

car. J«loiMea»Uy 

6. Chalillon,doJ•"*-''"y• 
6. On mules to ToHrnaoclie 

-H>n foot thence to Breuil* 

7. Crossed the Cervin (Mat- 
terhorn) on foot to Zermatt 

[Pierre Meynet, mentioned 
biy Brockedoo, is the best guide 
in the Alps.] 

8. Descended on Mules to 
Visp; walked thence toBrieg« 

9. By cliar, across tlie Sim- 
plon »to Domo d*08Sola ;10hour8 

10. Off at 3 A v.; hj ooorier^ 
toBaveno; arrived 7 a.v.; by 
sailing-boat, up the LagoMag- 
giore, to Locarno; by car t^ 
Beliiuxona (arrived late). , 

§ ib.r-/iifiine Pmsef^ 







Grimsel, 26» 

Rliooe Glacier, 80. 

Cries Pass, 29. 

Val Formazza; Tosa Fall, 29. 

Airolo, 34 

^.Goitbard; DevirsBridge, 84* 

Altdorf, 34* 

Schaechen Thai , ] 

JCIausen, I -^ 



Kloen Thai, 
Sctiwytz, 17. 
Wesrn, iU* 
LakeofWalkmsta^t, 14. 
Pfeflers' Baths, 67. 
Senift Thai ( Segoii Pass, 76. 
Dissentis^ 77. 
Reichenan, 87% 
Goire, 67. 

Julier Pass ; St. MaMritz, 83. 
Engadine, 84. 

FinstennuDZ. ) In Tyrol. S^e 
Bielvio. \ Handbook 

J Germany* 
Bernina, 85. 
Ilaloja Pass, 99» 
Chiaveniia, 88. 
3plugeii Pass, 88. 

Via Mala--back, 87. 

SplQgen tillage. 8?^ 

Beriiardin, 90. 

Bellinzona, 90L 

Locarno, 91. 

Luino, 98. 

Lugano i Monte Salvador* 9>. 

Lago di Como; Bellagio^ 98. 

Gomo; Milan; Sesto. 59;— [or 

Como Yarese; Arona« 59.j[ 
Lago d'Orta, 101 and 102. 
Baveno, 59. 
Domo d*Ossola, 59. 
Simplon, 59. . 
Brieg, 59. 
Gemmi, and back, ZS% 
Sion, 59. 
Martigny, 59. 
Gfeat St; Berhard, 108. 
Aosta, 107. 
Pr6St.Didier, 114- 
Mont Crammont, 114» 
All6e Blanche, i 
Col de la Seigne, |U8. 
Col de BoiihommeA ^ 
Chamouny, 115^ 
Fleg^re; MonlaoTert; Mer d» 

Glace, 115. 
Col de Balme, and T6le Noir^ 

Martigny, 59« 
Bex, 57. 
Vevey, ^ 

Chillon, 55 and 50^ 

Lausanne, j 
Geneva, 5-2. 


No part of the Alps ate more interesting, either 
in a picturesque or in an historical point of view, 
than the passable gaps or notches in the ridge of 
the great chain, whereby alone this colossal wlill 
Qt mountains may be scaled, and .a direct p^ssdge 

§ 1 5. -^-i Ipine Passts. \xl % 

and GommunicatioQ maintained between nortliern 
and southern Europe. It has been through these 
depressions that the great tide of population has 
poured sinpe the earliest times ; from these outlets 
nave issued the barbarian swarms which' so often 
desolated, and at at last annihilated, the Roman 

There are more than 50 passes over the Swiss 
portion of the Alpine chain alone, or immediately 
communicating with the Swiss frontier. The fol- 
lowing ate the most remarkable : *— The Sim- 
plon, St. Gothard, Bernardine, Splugen, Saanen- 
inoser, Bramegg, am Stos^, Wildhaus, all tra- 
versed by excellent high-roads, most skilfully 
constructed, and passable for heavy carriages. Tu 
these may probably soon be added the Jutier 
and Maloja. TheMaloja, Julier, Albula, Septi- 
mer, Bernina, Buffalora, Schallenberg, Sattel, 
practicable for light chars : — and the Col de Trient, 
Gol de Ferrety Grand St. Bernard, Col de Fen^tro, 
CervinfMatferhorn], Moro.Gries, Niifanep, Furca, 
Grimsel, Great and Little Scheideck, 'Gemmi,. 
Rawyl, Sapetsch, Cheville, Susten» Surenen, Bru« 
nig, £ngstelen, Jochli, Klaosen, Oberalp, Lukma-> 
nier, Kistengrat, Panix, Segnes, La Foppa, Len- 
zerheide, Stutz, Greina, Vago, Casanno, Monte del 
Oro, Druser and Schweitzer -Thor, Schlapiner 
loch, etc., etc, which are either bridle-paths, or 
mere foot-paths, and more or less difficult and 
dangerous. " . 

' In seeking a passage oyer the Alps, the most 
obvious course wa^ to find out the valleys which 
penetrate farthest into the great chain^ lollowing 
the course of thQ rivers to their sources, and theo 
to take the lowest trayersable part in order to 
descend to the opposite side. The variety and 

■■ >> >■ »" ■ " "HI '» 11 1 1 > -'i I ■ I ■ I ■ " ■ ' ' I I I " ■ 

> "^Mr. BrQckedon lias admirably illusii'ated tbem bi>ih yi'i\h 
hU tftdirUM tork entitled ♦* The Passes of the A4p«," 2 ? . Ato. 

Ixx . S 15. — Alpine Passes. 

sudden transitions pr<isented by such a route are 
highly interesting. In the course of one day's 
journey the traveller passes from the climate of 
summer to in^inter, through spring. The alteration 
in the productions keeps pace Vith that of the tem- 
perature. Leaving behind him stubble-fields, 
whence the corn has been removed and housed, he 
comes to fields yet yellow and waving in the ear; a 
few miles farther and the crop is still green ; yet 
higher and corn refuses to grow. Before quitting 
the region of corn he enters one of dark, apparently 
interminable forests of pine and larch, clothing the 
mountain-sides in a sober vestment. Above this 
the haymakers are collecting the short grass, the 
only produce which the ground will yield. Yet 
the stranger must not suppose that all is barenness 
even at this elevation. It seems as though nature 
were determined to make one last effort at the con- 
fines of the region of vegetation. From beneath 
the snow-bed, and on the very verge of the glacier, 
the profusion of flowers, their great variety, and 
surpassing beauty, are exceedingly surprising. 
Some of the greatest ornaments of our gardens, 
here born to blush unseen, — gentians and lilies, 
hyacinths and blue bells, intermixed with bushes 
of the red rhododendron; the loveliest production 
of the Alps, scattered over the velvet turf, give it 
the appearance of a carpet of richest pattern. 
The insect world is not less abundant and varied, 
— thousands of winged creatures are seen hovering 
over the flowers enjoying their shor^ existence, for 
the summer at these elevations lasts but for 3 or 
k weeks : the rapid progress of vegetation to matu- 
rity is equalled fey tne rapidity of its decay, and in 
8 or 10 days flowers ana butterflies have p^sed 
away. Above this region of spring, with its gush 
ofsprings, its young; herbage and vivid greensward; 
its hum of insects just burst forth/and its. natural 

§ 1 5. -r ^ ipin$ Passes , * 1 xil 

flower-beds glittering with raindrdps, that of wirn 
ter in Lapland or Siberia succeeds. All around 
the summit of a pass over the high Alps, is either 
snow, glacier/or bare rock. The only plants that 
grow are dry lichens, which seem intended but to 
keep up the semblance of vegetation, ^nd to per- 
petuate nature's cheerful hues of green. The rare^* 
fied air is icy cold« and exercise and quick motion 
are necessary to keep up the circulation of the 
blood. The agreeable murnnir of falling water> 
which has accompanied the traveller hitherto in- 
cessantly, here ceases, — ^all is solitude and silence, 
interrupted only by the shrill whistle of the mar- 
mot, or the hoarse cawing of an ill-omened raven. 
The ptarmigan starts up from among heaps of uii- 
melted snow at the traveller's approach, and the 
lammergeyer (the condor of the Alps], disturbed 
in his rejpast on the carcass of a sheep or cow j is 
seen soaring upws^rds in a succession of corkscrew 
sweeps till he gains the ridge of the Alps, and then 

Such are the remarkable gradations which the 
stranger encounters in the, course of a few hours, 
on a single Pass of the Alps; but the most striking 
change of all is that from the region of snow and 
ice on the top of the mountain, to the sunny clime 
and rich vegetation of Italy which awaits the tra- 
veller at the S» foot of the Alps. 

The works of nature, however, will not entirely 
occupy the attention and wonder of the wanderer 
in sucti a pass ; at least a share willbe demanded 
for admiration of the works of man. The great 
highways, passable for carriages, over the high 
Alps, are, indeed, most surprising monuments of 
human skill and enterprise m surmounting, what 
would appear, M irst sight, to be intended by 
nature as msurmountabie. These proud construe* 

Usii ' § 15. -Alpint Passes 

tions of arc thread the yallejrs, crosa the debris of 
rivers on long causeways, skirt the edge of the pre 
cipice, with walls of rock tottering over them» and 
torrents thundering below* Where the steep and 
bard surface of the cliff has left not an inch of space 
for a goat to climb along, they are conducted upon 
high terraces of solid masonry, or through a notch 
blasted by gunpowder in the wall of rock. In 
many instances a projecting buttress of the moun- 
tain has blocked up all passage for ages, saying 
' ' thus farand no farther ; *' the skill of the modern 
engineer has pierced through this a tunnel or gal- 
lery; and the difficulty is vanquished, without the 
least change in the level of the road. 

Sometimes an impediment of. this nature is elu- 
ded by throwing bridges over the dizzy gorge, and 
shifting the road from side to side, frequently 2 or 
3 times within the space of half a mile. Often the 
road reaches a spot down which the winter ava- 
lanches take their habitual course every year, 
sweeping every thing before them, and which, even 
in summer, appears reeking and dripping with the 
lingering fragments of snow which it has left be- 
hind. Will not so irresistible an antagonist arrest 
the course of this frail undertaking of man ? Not 
even the avalanche ; — in such a situation the road 
either buries itself in subterranean galleries, driven 
through the mountain, or is sheltered by massive 
arcades of masonry, sometimes half a mile or three- 
quarters of a mile long. Over these the avalanche 
Elides harmlessly and is turned into the depths 

Every opportunity is seized of gainings by easy 
ascents, a higher level for the road; at length comes 
the maiq ascent, the central rid^e, to be surmounr 
ted oviy by hard climbing. This is overcome by a 
succession of zigzag terraces, called tourniquets y or 

anU High H'oacLt, Ixxin 

giravoUe, connected together by wide curves, to 
allow carriages to turn easil]^ and rapidly. So 
skilful is their construction, with such easy bends 
and so gradual a slope, that in many alpine roads 
the postilions, with horses accustomed to the road, 
trot down at a rapid pace. Sometimes as many as 
50 of these zigzags succeed one another without 
interruption, and the traveller, as he passes back- 
wards and forwards, hovering over the valley, is, 
as though suspended to a pendulum, and swinging 
to and n^o. The road itself has a most singular 
appearance, twisted about like an uncoiled rope 
or a ribbon unwound. 

*• O'er the Simplon, oVr the Splugen winds ' 

A path of ptea<«ure. Like a silver zone, * . 

Flung alkiut carelessiy, it chines afar, 

Catching the eye in uiany a broken link, 

In many a turn and traverse as it glides; 

And on above and oft below appears, ' 

Seen oVr the wall by one wlio journeys up 

As though it were another, tlirough the wild. 

Leading ali>i»g, he knows not whence or whither. 

Yet through its fairy course, go wliere it will. 

The torrent stops it noti the rugged rock 

Opens and lets it in, and on it runs, 

Winning its easy way from clime to clime. 

Through glens iock'd up before. " 


The travelling - carriage descends sometimes 
rapidly ' and with(»it interruption for an hour. A 
drag of tempered iron is quickly worn down, in 
that timer as thin as the blade of a knife, so great is 
the friction. It is advisable to substitute for the 
iron drag a^ooden sabot, formed of the^ection of 
aSr-Cree, with a groove cut in the centre to admit 
the wheel. 

The winters snow usually falls upon the Alpine 
passes more than 5000 ft. high,a)t)out the .second 
week in October (sometimes earlier), and continues 

Ixxi / § ^ ^* — ^ ¥*^* Passes and Sfigh roads, 

tilt the first or second week in Jane. Yet even after 
this, the passage across the neck or€ol , as it is 
ealled, is not stopped, except for a few days, until 
the snow can be cleared away. In some of the 
minor passes, indeed, traversed by a mere rough 
foot-path, or bridle-path, the traffic is much in- 
creased after the fall of the snow, which, by filling 
up depressions and smoothing the way, permits 
the transport of heavy merchandize on sledges, 
which move easily over the surface as soon as it has 

Along the lines of the great carriage^t)ads stronf]^ 
houses are erected at intervals, called Maisons de 
Refuge, Vase di Ricovero, occupied by persons 
called Cantonniers, who are employed in mending 
the road and keeping it free from snow in winter, 
and are also paid to assist travellers in danger 
during snow-storms. 

As near as possible to the summit of the pass a 
Hospice is generally erected, usually occupied by a 
band of charitable monks, as in the case of the 
Great St. Bernard, the Simplon, Cenis, St. 6ot- 
thard , etc. The direction of the road across the 
summit of the rid^e is marked by a line of (ail 
poles, which project above the snow, and, from 
Being painted olack, are easily recognised. Patrols 
are sent out from the hospice in tempestuous 
weather, when the tourmente is raging, and the 
mist and falling snow hide the land-marks, to guide 
the travellers on their way and rescue those in 
danger. Bells are also rung at such times that the 
sound may aid when the sight fails. 

The morning after a fall of snow labourers and 
peasants are assembled from all sides to shovel it 
off from the road. Where it is not very deep it is 
cleared away by a snow-plough drawn by 6 or 
8 oxen. As the winter advances and fresn faUs 

^ a^f* — Chalets and Pasturages. Ixxt 

«ccur, the siiow accqniulates, and the road near 
the summit of a pass ^presents Xhe singular aspect 
of a path or lane, cut between wallsof snow^ some- 
times 10 or 20 ft. high. Carriages are taken off 
their wheels and fastened upon sled£|i6; ropes are^ 
attached to the roof, which are held by 6 or 
8 sturdy guides running along on each side , ta 
prevent the yel^icle upsetting and rolling over the 
slippery ice down a precipice. In this manner very 
high passes are crossed in the depth of winter witn 
very little risk. The spring is a season durina^ 
which far greater danger is to be apprehended 
from the avalanches which then fall. 


Froni the mountainous nature of Switzerland and 
its high elevation, the greater part of the surface , 
more than 1800 feet above the sea, which is not 
bare rock, is pasture-land- The wealth of the 
people, like that of the patriarchs of old, in a great 
measure, lies in cattle and their produce, on which 
account the pastoral life of tne Swiss deserves 
some attention. The bright verdure of the meadows 
which clothe the valleys of Switzerland is one oif. 
the distinguishing. features of the country; and. thja^ 
music of the cow-^bells, borne along by the evening 
breeze , is one of the sweetest sounds that greets . 
the traveller's, ear. 

The Alps, or mountain-pasturages, for ;that is. 
the meaning of the word Alp in Switzerland and 
Tyrol, are either the property of individuals or of 
the commune ; to a certam extent common-land , 
in which the inhabitants of the neighbouring town 
or village have the right of pasturing a certain 
number of head of cattle.. 

** In. the spring, as soon as the snow has disap- 

1 X X V i § 1 6. -^C/ialeis a*d Pasturygea . 

peared, and^ the youn^; grass sprouts up, the cattle 
are sent from the villages up to the first and lower 
pasture^. Should a certain portion of these be 
exhausted, they change their quarters to another 
part of the ttonntain. Here they slay till about 
the 10th or 12lh of June, when the cattle are driven 
to ihe middle ranges of pastures. That portion 
of the herds intended for a summer campaign on 
the highest Alps, remain here till the beginnmg of 
luly , and , on the ^th of that month , generally 
ascend to them ; return to the middle range of 
pastures, about 7 or 8 weeks afterwards, spend 
(here about li days, or 3 weeks, to eat the after- 
grass; and finally return into the valleys about 
the tOth.or llih of October; where, they remain 
in the vicinity of the villages, till driven by the 
snow and tempests of winter into the stables. 

*' That portion of the cattle, on the other hand , 
which is not destined to pass the summer on the 
higher Alps, and are necessary for the supply of the 
village with milk and butter, descend from the 
middle pastures on the ilh of July, into the valley, 
and consume the grass ujion the pasturage bjelong- 
ing to the commune, till the winter drives them 
under shelter. The very highest Alpine pasturages 
art* never occupied more than 3 or 4. weeks at the 
^ furthest. "—JCarrofte. 

Sometimes the owners of the cattle repair iel 
person to the Alps, and pass the summer among 
them, along with their families, superintending^ 
the herdsmen, and assisting in the manufacture of 
butter and clieese. The best cheeses are made 
u|>on pastures 3000 ft. above the sea level, in the 
vales of Simmen and Saanen (Gruyfere) and in the 
Enimenihal. The best cows there yield, in sum- 
mer, between 20 lbs. and 4.0 lbs. of milk daily ^' 

§ 16. ^ChateU and Pasiuragef. hixvii 

arrd e^ch cow produces , by the end of the season 
uf & months, on an average, 2 cwt. of cheese. ' 

The life of the cow-herd ( Vacherar Senner) is 
fey no means such an existence of pleasure as ro- 
mances in general, and that of Rousseau in par- 
ticular, have represented it. His labours are ar-c 
duous and constant; he has to collect 80 or 90 
cows twice a-rday, to be milked, to look after 
stragglers, to make the cheese and keep all the 
viensils employed in the process in the moiftt per-r 
fcct state or cleanliness. 

The Chdlet (Germ. Sennhutte) in which he re- 
sides, is literally a log-hut, formed of trunks of 
pines, notched at ihe extremities so as to fit into 
one another at the angles of the building, where 
(hey cross : it has a low flat roof, weighted with 
stones to keep fast the shingle-roof and prevent its 
being blown away by the wind. A building of 
this kind is rarely air-tight or water-tight. The 
interior is usually blackened with smoke and very 
dirty, boasting of scarcely any furniture, except, 
perhaps, a table and rude bench, and the appa- 
ratus of the dairy, including a huge kettle for 
heating the milk. A truss of straw, in the loft 
above, serves the inmates for a bed. The ground 
around the hut on the outside is usually poached 
by the feet of the cattle, and the heaps of mud 
and dung render it <}ifficult to approach the door. 
This description applies to the commoner sort of 
chalets ; those in which the owners themselves 
reside are generally better, but they are also less 
numerous. There is another kind of chalet, a 
mere shed or barn, in which the hay is boused 
until the winter, when it is conveyed over the 
snow in sledges down to the villa^^es belo^. A 
pastoral Swiss valley is usually specKled over with 
huts of this kind, giving it the appearance, to a 

Ixxvilh § 1.7. — Ghtciers. 

stranger, of' being much more populous than it i$ ^ 
in reality : in the Simmenthai alone there are, it is 
said, 10,000 chalets. 

The herdsmen shift their habitatidkis from the 
lower to the upper pasturages, as their cattle as- 
cend and descend the Alps, at different seasons, 
and they sometimes have 2 or 3 places of tempo* 
rary abode. The weary traveller in search of 
repose and refreshment, after a long da^'s jour- 
ney, is often disappointed, on approaching what 
he conceives to oe a human habitation, to find 
either that it is a mere hay*bam, or else a desert- 
ed chalet ; and thereby learns, with much morti- 
fication, that he has still some tedious miles to 
trudge before he can reach the first permanently- 
occupied dwelling. What an agreeable contrast 
to reach a well-appointed chalet of the better 
sort, where delicious milk, cooled in the mountain 
stream, fresh butter, bread, and cheese, are spread 
out on a clean napkin before the hungry and tired 
stranger ! 

• The cattle are frequently enticed home, at mil- 
king-time, by the offer of salt, which they relish, 
highly, and which is, besides, considered whole- 
some. The allowance for a cow, in some parts of 
Switzerland, is ^Ibs, or 51bs. of salt in a quarter of 
a year. 

§ 17. GLAOIBBS* 

The glaciers, one of the mo^t sublime features 
of the Alps, and one of the most wonderful phe- 
nopieoa of nature, are composed of those vast 
accumulations of the snow which falls during nine 
months of the year on the higher summits and 
valleys, remaining for several months a dry and 
loose powder, until the heat of the summer sun 
begins to melt and. consolidate it. Under the in-- 

flbenec of its warmth, the snow assumes first a 
^ranalar form ; and to pass over it in that state is 
like walking among rice or peas, in which the foot 
sinks up to the knees. Lower down, or as the heat 
increases, so as to melt a considerable portion, and 
cause the water to percolate it, it becomes a com- 
pact mass. The frosty temperature of the night 
hardens that which has been dissolved in the day, 
and thus, after repeated thawings and freezings, 
the whole undergoes a fresh cristallization, being 
converted into ice of a coarser grain and less com- 
pact substance than common ice.. Thus there 
appears to be a regular transition or passage from 
the loose powdery snow, to the more dense ice of 
ifae glacier. The Swiss, indeed, have two distinct 
terms for these modifications of the snowy cover- 
ing of the high Alps. The upper granular and 
scarcely consolidated part they call Ftm, (which 
for want of any corresponding English word we 
may represent by Snoto-field,) and apply the term 
glacier (gletscher) to the lower limbs of more so- 
lid ice, which stretch down into the valleys. Hugi, 
a naturalist of Soleure, who, after Saussure, has 
made the most laborious and curious researches 
iato the nature and formation of the glaciers, 
maintains, that the point at which fira changes to 
glacier is unvariable among the Alps^and his in- 
vestigations fix it at an elevation of about 7800 feet 
above the sea-level. * 

* Avery aerioas error isconvefyed by the coromoQ expresj^ion 
*' the line of perpetual sdow,** ^ or where snow never melts**' 
There i» no spot on the Alps, nor on any other snow-clad 
mountains, where snow does i^t melt under the influence of a 
Summer sun at mid-day. It metts even on the top of Mont 
Blanc, but there, and on the summits of ihe other high Alps^ 
ibeaccumulation4>f snow is so great, and the duration of the. 
sun's heat so short, thi4 in the end|.Hcre is far moresuow. 

l.-^ix § 17.- Glaciers. 

Ebel has computed the nmpibep of glaciers among 
the Swiss Alps at ii^OO , and the extent of surface, 
occupied by them at 130 square leagues; this., 
however , must be but a vague estimate. They 
vary from a few square yards to acres and miles 
in extent , covering , in some instances , whole 
dislriets, filling up entirely the elevated hollows, 
and basins between the peaks and ridges of the 
Alps, and sending forth arms and branches ipto the 
inhabiied valleys, below the region of forests, and 
as far down as the level at which corn will grow. 

It is such offsets of ihe glacier as these that are 
presented to the view of the traveller from the vik 
lages of Chamouny and (jrindelwald. These , howr. 
ever, are, as it were, but the skirls and fringes of 
that vast everlasting drapery of ice which clothes 
ail the upper region of the Alps. These fields on 
tracts of uninterrupted glacier have been called 
y Seas of ice " (Mers de glace, Eismeeren), and 
there are three such among the Swiss and Savoyard 
Alps which merit especial mention; that around 
Mont Blanc, that around the Cervin, and that of the^ 
Bernese Oberland, around the Finster-Aar-horn.^ 
The last sendsoutno less ihanthirteen branches, and 
its extent has been estimated at 125 square miles. 

I^he greatest thickness of the glaciers has been 
commonly estimated at between 600 and 800 feet. 

\\\m the sun pen dissolve. What is called ' the unow W/ic," 
(loeii not depend on elevation ulono, and can be taken only as a 
Vfcry geoeral test of it Indpppiidenllyt>fitsvariatioD,acQorningto 
tilt* defi^ree of latitude tn which the mountain is situated, itTaries 
on the iwo sides of the same mountain, being higher on the S, 
flfde ibaii the N. The snow will Ul^ewise rest longer and extend 
lower down upon a moaotain of granite, than upon one of 
liines'oue, in proporlion as the iwo rocks arc good or bad 
conductors of jbeat, and this is the case even in conlig(t<>a:$ 
uiuunlaius, luc^bers of the same cbaiu. 

§17— /S/flc/w, ixxii 

This is probably ah exaggeration. Hugi rarely 
met wiih any thicker than 150 feet ; he estimates 
the average depth at between 60 and 100 feet, and 
the greatest thickness of the Mer de glace near 
Ghamouny at 180 feet, Sanssure had calculated i( 
at 600 feet. 

Notwithstanding their great extent and solidity » 
the glaciers are by no means stationary, even in the 
winter. AUhough the movement Js slight, they 
do not remain qqite still. They are undergoing a 
perpetual process of renovation and destruction. 
The arms or skirts descending into th« lower valleys 
ar« gradually dissolved by the increased tempera- 
tu re which prevails at so low a level. The summer 
sun, aided by ps^rticular winds, acts upon the sur- 
face^.so that, in tl\e middle of the day, it ai)bunds 
in popls, and is traversed by rills of water. The 
constant evaporation from every part exposed to 
the air proauces great diminution in the upper 
bedi»; but, above all, the temperature of the earth, 
which is at all seasons greater than that of ice , isi 
constantly melting away its lower surface. The 
vacancy thus caused from below is partially or 
entirely filled up from above by the winter's snow 
falling upon the mountain-tops, and on the whol^e 
upper region , wl^ich is drifted into the higher 
valleys, and pressed down by its own weight. 
After, it lias concreted into ice . the 3lope of the 
mountain-sides , and the descent of the valleys in 
w hioh the ^aciers lie, serve as inclined planes, down 
which the ice slides by the force of gravity, assisted 
by the meltingoni.ts under surface, which prevents 
any adhesion to the rock below it. Indeed the 
German word Gletscher comes from gittschen, to 
glide. Hugi, in one of his journeys, found- hi» 
way under a glacier, by following the bed of a 
4ried-MR torreot. whieh passed below it. . He wan-. 

Ixxxfi ^ 17. — Qiacisrs. 

dered about breath the ice for the distance of a^ 
mile. The ice was everywhere eaten away into^ 
dome-shaped hollows, varying from 2 to 12 feet 
in height , so that the whole mass of the glacier 
rested at intervals on pillars or feet of ice, irregular 
in size and shape/ which had been left standing. 
As Soon as any of these props gave way a portion 
of the glacier would of course fail in and move on. 
A dim twilight prevailed in these caverns of ice, 
not sufficient to allow one to read, except close to 
Ihe fissures which admitted the day-light from 
above. The intense blue of the mass of the iCe 
contrasted reviarkably with the pure white of the 
icy stalactytes, or pendants descending from the 
roof. The water streamed down upon him from 
all sides, so that after wandering about for 2 hours, ~ 
at times bending and. creeping to get along under 
Ihe low vaults, he returned to the open air, quite 
drenched and half frozen. 

The nature of the upper surface of the ice de- 
pends upon that of the ground on which it rests ; 
where it is even or nearly so, the ice is smooth 
and level; but whenever the supporting surface 
becomes slanting or unevlsn, the giacier begins to. 
split and gape in all directions. As it approaches 
a steeper declivity or precipice the layers of ice 
are displaced^ np-neaved, and squeezed one above 
another; they rise in toppling crags, obelisks, and 
towers of the most fantastic shapes, varying in 
height from 20 to 80 feet. Being unequally melt- 
ed by the wind and sun, they are continually tot- 
tering to their fall, either by their own weight or 
the pressure of other masses, and tumbling head- 
long, are shivered to atoms with a roar like thun- 

The glaciers assume this fractured character 
only when the foundation on which they rest isu. 

§17. — Glaciers; Criivicts, lixziti 

^^eiy uneven , generally near their tower extre- 
mity, when they begin to bend down towards the 

The crevices, or fissures, which traverse the 
upper portion of the glacier, before it becomes 
-entirely fractured and disrnptured, run in a trans- 
verse direction, never extending quite across 
the ice-field, but narrowing out at the extremi-^ 
ties, so that when they gape too wide. to leap 
across they may generally oe turned by following 
them to their termination. These rents .and fis- 
sures are the chief source of danger to those 
who cross the glaciers, being often concealed by 
a treacherous coating of snow, and many a bold 
chamois hunter has found a grave in their recessesi 
Ebel mentions an instance of a shepherd who , in 
driving his flock over the ice to a high pasturage . 
had the misfortune to tumble into one of these 
clefts. He fell in the vicinity of a torrent which 
flowed under the glacier, and, by following its bed 
under the vault of ice, succeeded in reaching the 
foot of the glacier with a broken arm. More me^ 
lancholy was the fate of M. Mouron, a clergyman, 
of Grindelwald : he was engaged in making some 
scientific researches upon the glacier, and was in 
the act of leaning over to examine a singular well* 
shaped aperture in the ice, ^en the stafiF, on 
which he rested , gave way; he was precipitated to 
the bottom, and his lifeless and mai^led body was 
recovered from the depths of the glacier a few days 

These crevices, thoogh chiefly formed mechafli^ 
eally by the movement of the glacier to fill up va-* 
cancies, and the unequal pressure of different 
parts, are greatly assisted by^the action of the son 
and wind. The S.,E. wind, in Uri and among the 
Bwnese Alps^ is very instrumental in causing (he 

IxixiT § Vt .^-Glaciers ; Crevices^ 

glacieT to split, and the loud reports thus occasio- 
ned, called oy the herdsmen the growlin£;s (brullen) 
of the glacier, are regarded as a sign of bad wea- 
ther. The traveller who ventures to cross the 
Mer de Glace of Chamouny or Bern may, at times, 
both hear and see the fissures widening around him. 
The crevices exhibit in perfection the beautiful 
azure blue colour of the glacier; the cause of which 
has not been satisfactorily accounted for. It is the 
same tint of ultramarine whiph the Rhone exhibits 
at Geneva, after leaving all its impurities behind 
it in the lake; and the writer has even observed the 
same beautiful tint in footniarksand holes made ia 
fresh-fallen snow, not more than a foot deep, 
among the high Alps on the borders of Tyrol. 

^ The traveller wtio has only read of glaciers is 
often disappointed at the first sight of them, by the 
appearance of their surfoce, which, except when 
covered with fresh-fallen Snow, or at very great 
heights, has none of the purity which might be 
expected from fields of ice. On the contrary it 
exhibits a surface of dirty white, soiled with mud 
and often covered with stones and gravel. Such 
beds of dirt and rubbish are common to most 
glaciers, and are called, in German, Guffer. They 
are supposed to be formed in the following manner; 
— the edge of the glacier receives the masses of 
stone and sand falling from the mountains above, 
produced by the disintegrations of moisture and 
trost. During the summer heat the glacier shrinks 
away from the rocks that bound it, and carries 
away the rubbish lying upon it. The intervening 
space between the foot of the mountains and (he 
ice is filled up by the snow of winter, whicli is 
gradually changed into ice, and receives a fresh 
heap of gravel from above. This again is carried 
forward by the shrinking of the glacier. Thus these 


§ 17. Glaeun^; Crt^Tices, Ixsxf 

linei of loose stones are constantly ad vanciag, one 
behind another, like waves; and wl^ere the glacier 
froiiEi one valley joins that out of another, the heaps 
are often confounded and intermbced. 

A singular circumstance occurs when alloulder, 
or large mass of rock, has fallen upon die glacier; 
the'shade and protection from the sun s rays afford- 
ed by the stone prevents the ice on which it rests 
from melting, and, while the surface around is 
gradually diminished, it remains supported on a 
pedestal or table, often attaining a height of several 
feet. When a leaf, insect, or such light body falls 
upon the ice, it gradually sinks, and at length 

Another circumstance pecuUair to the surface oi 
the snow-field or upper glacier (firn) is the occur- 
rence of Red Snow; This phenomenon, which at 
one time was treated with incredulity, is of com- 
mon occurrence among the high Alps, and is pro- 
duced by a species of fungus, called Palmeihi 
Nivalis, oi* Pi*otococcus, a true vegetable, ^ich 
plants itself on th^ surface of thd snow, takes root, 
germinates, produces seed, aiid dies. In the state 
of germination it imparts a pale carmine tint to the 
snow ; this increases, as the plant comes to matu- 
rity, to a deep crimson blush, which gradually 
fades, and, as the pklnt decays, becomes a black 
dust or mould. By collecting some of the coloured 
snow in a bottle, and pouring it on a sheet of paper, 
the form of the plant mav be discovered with a 
microscope, as soon as the watef has evapora- 

Increase and Diminution, Advance and Retreat of 
the Gldciers^ 

It has beefi already observed that the vacancy 
caused by the melting of the tower portion of the . 


Itxxvi § 17. —Glaoiets ; 

glacier is filled up by the winter snow from above^ 
Bnt as may be supposed, it^ often happens, after 
mild winters and warm summers, that the supply 
is not equal to'the void, and, vkeversA, after severe 
winters and rainy summers, the glacier is over- 
loaded, as it were; indeed, it is scarcely possible 
that an exact equilibrium of supply and consump- 
tion should be preserved. Yet it seems probable, 
after all that has been said on the subject, that 
there is no material variation either in the extent 
or position of the glaciers among the Alps. In- 
stances have occurred of the sudden advance of a 
glacier, as in the Gadmenthal (Route 32), where a 
road has been destroyed by this cause, and even 
of the. formation of new glaciers within the memory 
of man, as in the Upper Engadine (?], and at the 
base of the Tiths; but these have been followed by 
a similar retrocession, and the newly-formed ice- 
fields are rarely permanent. It is certain that, at 
present, both iheMer de Glace, under Mont Blanc, 
and the. Grindelwald Glacier, appear to have 
shrunk, and sunk considerably below the level they 
onc6 attained; but this ma;^ be merely temporary, 
or even only their dimensions in summer, when 
most reduced. Another circumstance has been 
lo^t sight of in the consideration of this subject, 
viz, that the erosive powers of the ice may have 
in many instances, considerably enlarged the bed 
of the glacier. 

Professor Hugi has recently made some inte- 
resting experiments and observations upon the 
movement and rate of progress of the glaciers. 
In 1829 he noted the position of numerous loose 
blocks lying on the surface of the lower glacier of 
the Aar, relative to the fixed rocks at its sides. 
He also measured the glacier and erected signal- 
posts on it. In 1836 he found everything altered; 

their Advance and Reireai. \x\xv\i 

many of ihe loose btoeks bad moved off aiid ontire- 
fy disappeared, 'along with the iee that suppor- 
ted them. A hut, which he had has{|ly erected, 
to shelter himself and his companions, had advan- 
ced 218&' feet; two blocks of granite^ between 
which it stood, then eight feet apart, had been 
separated to a distance of 18 feet, the beams and 
timbers had fallen in between them» and the nails 
and pieces of iron used in fastening them exhibited 
not the slightest trace of rast. A mass of granite, 
containing 26,000 cubic feet, originally buried 
under the snow of the Urn, which was now con- 
verted into glacier, had not only been raised to 
the surface, but was el^vated above it, in the air 
upon two pedestals, or pillars, of ice ; so that a 
large body of men might have found shelrer under 
it. A signal-post, stuck into a mass of granite, 
had not only made as great an advance as the hut, 
but the distance between the two had been in^ 
creased T60 feet by the expansion of the glacier. 
The mass of the glacier had grown or increased 
near the point where it begins to descend 206 feet; 
lower down there was less augmentation percep- 
tible. The advance of the ice-field of the Mer de 
Crlace is calculated at between ^-OO and 500 feet 
yearly, and for 8 or lOyears past, the mass of the 
glacier has been shrinking and retiring gradually. 

At the extremity of alfmost all glaciers a higlt 
transverse ridge of rubbish/ called The Moraine, 
exists ; it consists of fragments of rock which have 
fallen from the surrounding mountains, the trans^ 
ported debris of the GuflFer , and of masses detached 
by the glacier itself. These are heaped up some- 
times to a height of 80 or 100 feet. Not unfre- 
quently there are 3 or iSt such ridges, one behind 
another, like so many lines of intrenohment. The 
broken stones, mud, and sand, piixed with shat* 

tered firagments of ice, pf which they are com- 
posed, have an unsightly and shabby appearance, 
being perfectly barren of vegetation; but each 
heap is, as it were, a geological cabinet, containing 
specimens of all the neighbouring mountains. The 
glacier* indeed, seems to have a natural tendency 
to purge itself from iflfipurities, andi whatever hapr 
p^ns to fall upon it is gradually discharged in this 
manner, It likewise exeats great ^lechanlcal force, 
and, like a vast millstpqe, grinds down, not only 
the rock which composes its channel, but all the 
fiagments interposea between it and the ro^; forr 
ming, in the end, a sort of stone-^meaL fhe extent 
of the moraine depends on the ohfiracter of tl^e 
strata of the mountains around the glacier : where 
they are of granite, or other hard rock, not easilv 
decomposed by the weather, the moraine is of 
small extent; and it is largest where th^ boundary 
rocks are of brittle limestone apd fissile slate, 
Beceqt researches of Swiss^ naturalists (Agassizand 
Charpentier) have discovered extensive moraines, 
not only in the lower part of the Yal^is, bu| ev^ 
on the shores of the Lake Leman, at a height of 
not mor^ than 200 or 300 f^t abov^ it; clearly 
proving that, during some anterior condition c2F 
our planet, the valley of the Rhone was occupied 
by glaciers, in situations at present kO or 50 mil^ 
distant from the nearest existing ice-field r and 3000 
or 4000 feet below it. 

It is highly interesting to consider how impor- 
tant a service the glaciers perform in the economy 
of nature. These dead and chilly fields of ice, 
which prolong the reign of winter throMghout the 
year, are, in reality, the source Of life and the 
springs of vegetation. They are the locked-up 
reservoirs, the sealed foyntainsj from which the 
vast rivers traversing the great continents pf ou^ 

^ t8.^^ Avalanches and Snow-Siorms, ItlxxIm 

dohe are sustained. The sammer heat, wbich» 
dries up other sources of water, first opens our 
their bountifat supplies. When the rivers of the 
plain begin to shrink and dwindle within their 
parched beds , the torrents of the Alps, fed by 
melting snow and glacier^ rush down from the 
tains and supply the deficiency ; and, at this season- 
moun (July and August) , the rivers and lakes of 
Sv^itzerland are fullest. 

During the whole summer, the traveller who 
crosses the glaciers hears the torrents rustling and^ 
running below him at the bottom of the azure 
clefts. These plenteous rills gushing forth in their 
subglacial beds, are generally all collected in one^ 
stream, at the foot or the glacier, which, in con- 
sequence, is eaten away into a vast dome-shaped< 
arch, sometimes 100 feet high, which gradually 
increases, until the constant thawing weakens its^. 
support, and it gives way and falls in with a crash. 
Sdch caverns of ice are seen in great perfection in 
some years, at the source of the Arveyron, io 
the valley of Chamounl, and in the glaciers of 
Grindelwald. The streams issuing from glaciers 
are distinguished by their turbid, dirty-white, or 
milky colour. 

'^•T^e QKi^ancbe,— tbe thunderliolt of snow/'— ^.^ron. 

Avalanchesf (Germ.. Lawinen] are those accumu- 
lations of snow which precipitate themselves from 
the mountains, either l)y their own weight or by 
the loosenmg^ effects of the sun's heat, into the 
valleys below,^ sweeping everything before them, 
^nd causing, a.t. times, great destruction of life 
and property, ^he fearful crash which accom- 
panies their descent is ofteo heard at a distance of; 
leveral leagues. 


xo § 18. — jiralonchsB and Snow^Slorm. 

The natives of the Alps distinguish between se- 
veral different kinds or avalanches. The staub- 
lawinen (dust avalanches) are formed of loose 
fresh-fallen snow, heaped up by the wind early in 
the winter, before it has begun to melt or Combine 
together, Such a mass, when it reaches the edge 
of a cUff or dedivity, turmbleS from point to point, 
increasHig in quantity as well as in impetus every 
instant, and spreading itself over a wiae extent of 
surface. It descends with the rapidity of lights 
. ning, and has been known to rush down a distance 
of 10 mUes from the point whence it was first de- 
tached; not only descending one side of a valley, 
but also ascending the opposite hill, by the velocity 
acquired in its fall, overwhelming ana laying pros-> 
trale a whole forest of firs in its descent, and 
brealang down another forest, up the oppoaite 
side, so as lo lay the heads of the trees up the 
hill in its ascent. 

Another kind of avalaache, the grund lawinen^ 
Oiccurs in spring, during the months of April and 
May, when the ^un becomes powerful and the 
snow thaws rapidly under its infiuence. They fall 
oonstaatly from different pans of the mountains, 
at different hours of the day, according as each 
part is reached by the sun : from the £. side be^ 
tweon 10 and i% from the S. side between 1^ and 2, 
and later in the day frond rtie W. and N. This spe« 
cies is more dangerous in its effects, from the 
snow being claoimy and adhesive, and also hard 
and compact. Any object buried by U can only be 
dug out by the most arduous labour. Men or cattle 
overwhelmed by the staub-lawine can sometimes 
extricate themselves by their own exertions; or, at 
any rate, from the snow being lesscdmpact, may 
breathe for some hours through the interstices; In 
the case of the grundtlawine, the sufferers are 

^ i8»*-^ jivaianchts and SnowSiorms, xci 

nsu^Ily either crushed or suffocated, and are, at 
any rate, so entangled that they can only be res- 
cued by the aid of others. Such avalanches falling 
upon a mountain-stream, iit a narrow gorge, have 
sometimes been hollowed out from beneath by 
the action of the water, until it has forced a pas- 
sage under them; and they have then been left stan- 
ding for the whole summer, serving as a bridge 
6ver which men and cattle might pass. 

The avalanches have usually a fixed time for 
descending^ and an habitual channel down which 
they slide, which may be known by its being worn 
perfectly smooths— ometimes even appearing po- 
ftshed, by the heap of debris at its base. The 
peasants, in some situations, await with impa- 
tience the fall of the regular avalanches, as a 
syniptom of the spring having fairly set in. 

Danger arises from avalanches eiiher by their 
felling unexpectedly, while persons are traversing 
6pot» known to be exposed to them, or else (and 
this is the more fearful cause of caiastropties ] 
from an Unusual accumulation of snow formed 
by the wind, or, in consequence of the severity of 
fhB season, causing the avalanche to desert its 
usual bed , and to descend upon cultivated spots, 
houses, or even villages. There are certain valleys 
among the Alps in which scarcely any spot is totally 
exempt from the possible occurrence of such a 
calamity, though some are naturally more exposed 
than others. The Val Bedretto, in canton Tessin, 
th6 Meyenthal, in canton Uri, and many others, 
are thus dreadfully exposed. To guard as 
much as possible against accidents, very large 
and masssive dykes of masonry, like the pro- 
jec^ng bastions of a fortification, are, in such 
situations, buift agaihst the hill-side, behind 
aburohes, houses, and other buildings, with an 

^ii § 18. —Avalandm and SnoW'Siorms, 

^gle pointing upwards » in order to break aad 
turn aside the snow. In sooie valleys, great care 
is bestowed on the preservation of the forests clotb< 
ing their ^ides, as the best protection of the district 
below theni from $uch calamities. These may truly 
be regarded a§ sacred groves ; and no one is al-^ 
lowed to out down timber within them, under pain 
of a legs^l penalty* Yet they not unfrequentljr snow 
the inefficiency even of such protection against sa 
fearful an engine of destruction. Whole forests 
are at times cnt over and laid prostrate by the 
avalanche. The tallest stems, fit to makemast& 
for a Srst-rate man-of-war, are snapped asunder 
like a bit of wa}[, and the barkless and branchless 
stumps and relics of the forest remain for years 
like a stubble*field to tell of what has happened. 

A mournful catalogue of catastrophes, which 
have occurred in Switzerland* since the records of 
history, from avalanches, flight be made out if 
necessary ; but it will suffice to mention one or* 
two instances. 

In 1720 an avalanche killed, in Ober-Gestelea 
(Vallais), 8i men and ^00 head of cattle, and des-. 
troyed 1:20 houses. The same year, ^0 individuals: 
perished at Brieg. and 23 on the Great St. Bernard, 
trom a similar cause. 

In 1749 the village of Rufleras, in the Tavetsch 
Thai, was carried away by an avalanche ; 100 
men were overwhelmed by it, 60 of whom were^ 
dug ont alive; and some of the houses, though 
removed to some distance from their original site, 
were so little shaken that persons sleeping within 
them were not awakened. 

In. 1800, after a snow-^storm of three day*' 
poniinuance, an enormous avalanche detached 
itself from the top of the precipice of Klucas above. 
Trops, in the vall^ of the Voraer Rhein; it crossed 


§ 18. — Atalanclus and Snotv-SUrmi. xciii 

ihe valley and destroyed a wood and some chalets 
on tlie opposite pasture of Zenin ; recoiling , with 
the force it had acquired, to the sidefrom which it 
liad€onie,itdid fresh mischief there, and so revol- 
ving to and fro, at the fourth rush reached Trons. 
and buried many of its houses to the roof in snow. 

In 18^7 the greater part of the village of Biel, 
in the Upper Vallais, was crushed beneath a tre- 
niendousavalanehe,wbichrandowna ravine, nearly 
cwo leagues long, before it reached the village. 

One of the most remarkable phenomena atten- 
ding the avalanche is the blast oi air which accom- 
panies it, and which, like what is called the wind 
of a cannon-ball, extends its destructive influence 
to a considerable distance on each side of the actual 
line taken by the falling mass. It has all the effect 
of a blast of gunpowder : sometimes forest«-trees, 
growing nqar the sides of the channel down which 
the snow passes, are nprooted and laid prostrate, 
without having been touched by it. Iti this way, 
the village of Randa, in the Yisp-Thal, lost many 
of its houses by the current of an avalanche which 
fell in 17^, blowing them to atoms, and scattering 
the materials like chaff. TheE. spire of the eonvent 
of Dtssentis was thrown down by the gust of an ava- 
lanche, which fell more than a quarter of a mile off. 

Travellers visiting the Alps between the months 
of lune and October are little exposed to danger 
from avalanches, except immediately after a snow- 
storm; and, when compelled to start at such times, 
they should pay implicit obedience to the advice of 
the guides. It is a common saying, that there is 
risk of avalanches as long as the burthen of snow 
continues on the boughs of the fir-trees, and while 
the naturally sharp angles of the distant mountains 
continue to look rounded. 

It is different with those who travel from ne- 

nciv ^ 1&«— ^ valanfihis and Snow Sionrn. 

cessity in the spring, and before the annual ava-«^ 
lanches have fallen. Muleteers, carriers, and such 
persons, use great caution in traversing exposed 
parts of the road, and with these they are well 
acquainted. They proceed, in parties, in single 
file, at a little distance from one another, in order 
that, if the snow should sweep one off, the others 
may be ready to render assistance. They proceed 
as fast as i>ossible, carefully avoiding any noise, 
even speaking, and, it is said, will sometimes 
muffle the mules' bells, lest the slightest vibration 
communicated to the air should disengage the 
nicely-poised mass of snow above their heads. 

The avalanches, seen and heard by summer 
tourists on the sides of Mont Blanc and the Jung- 
frau, are of a different kind from those described 
al)ove, being caused only by the rupture of a 
portion of the glaciers, which give way under the 
mfluence of the mid-day sun and of certain winds, 
during the summer and autumn, when other ava- 
lanches, generally speaking, have ceased U> fall. 
They differ, also, in this respect, that, for the 
most part, they do no harm, since they fall on 
uncultivable and uninhabited spots. It is more by 
the roar which accompanies them, which awaken- 
ing the echoes of the Alps, sounds very like thun- 
der, than by the appearance which they present, 
that they realize what is usually expectedof ava- 
lanches. Still they are worth seeing* and will 
much enhance the mterest of .a visit to the Wengern 
Alp , the Cramont ( on the S. side of Mont Blanc ], 
or the borders of the Mer de Glace ; especiallv if 
the spectator will bear in mind the immense dis- 
tance at which he is placed from the otyects which 
he sees and hears, and will consider that, at each 
roar, whole tons of solid ice are broken off from 
the parept glacier, and, in tumbliiig, many bun- 

§18,-^ Avalanches and Snow-Storms, xcr 

dred feet perhaps, are shattered to atoms and 
ground to powder. 

The Snow-storms^ Tourmentes, or Guxen, which 
occur on the Alps, are much dreaded by the 
chamois-hunter, the shepherd, and those most 
accustomed to traverse the High Alps; how much 
more formidable must they be to the inexperienced 
traveller ! They consist or furious and tempestuous 
winds, somewhat of the nature of a whirlwind, 
which occur on the summit-ridges and elevated 
gorges of the Alps, either accompanied by snow, 
or filling the air with that recently fallen, while 
the flakes are still dry, tossing them about like 
powder or dust. In an instant the atmosphere is 
filled with snow; earth, sky, mountain, abyss, 
and landmark of every kind, are obliterated from* 
view, as though a curtain were let down on all 
aides of the wanderer. AU trace of path, or of 
the footsteps of preceding travellers, are at once 
effaced, and the poles planted to mark the direc- 
tion of the road are frequently overturned. In 
some places the gusts sweep the rock bare of 
snow, neaping it up in others, perhaps across the 
path, to a height of 20 feet or more, barring all 
passage, and driving the wayfarer to despair. At 
every step he fears to plunge into an abyss, or sink 
overhead in the snow. Large parties of men and 
animals have been overwhelmed by die snow- 
wreaths on the St. Gothard, where they sometimes 
attain a height of 40 or 50 feet. These tempests 
are accompanied almost every year by loss of life; 
and, thou^ of less frecjueqt occurrence in summer 
than in wmter and spring, are a chief reason why 
it is dangerous for inexperienced travellers to 
attempt to cross remote and elevated passes with- 
out a guide. 

The gAiides and persons residing on the moun- 

xcvi § 19. — Goitre and Cretinism, 

tain-passes, from the appearance of the sky , and* 
other weather-signs known to them, can generally 
foresee the occurrence of tourmentes, and can tell 
when the fall of avalanches is to be apprehended. 


<*Quis tumiJum guttur miratur in Alpibus? " — Juv. 

It is a remarkable fact that, amidst some of the 
most magnificent scenery of the globe, where 
Nature seems to have put forth all her powers in 
exciting emotions of wonder and elevation in the 
mind, man appears, from a mysterious visitation 
of disease, in his most degraded and pitiable con- 
dition. Such, however, is the fact. It is in the 
grandest and most beautiful valleys of the Alps that 
the maladies of ^otVreand cretinism pre\SL\l. 

Goitre is a swelling in the front of the neck ( of 
the thyroid gland, or the parts adjoining ) , which 
increases with the growth of the individual, until, 
in some cases, in attains an enormous size, and 
becomes ** a hideous wallet of flesh," to use the 
words of Shakspeare, hanging pendulous down to 
the breast. It is not, however, attended with pain, 
and generally seems to be more unsightly to the 
spectator than inconvenient or hateful to the 

Cretinism, which occurs in the same localities 
as goitre, and evidently arises from the same cause, 
whatever it may be, is a more serious malady, in- 
asmuch as it affects the mind. The cretin is an 
idiot — a melancholy spectacle— a creature who 
may almost be said to rank a step below a human 
being. There is vacancy in his countenance , his 
head is disproportionately large ; his limbs are 
stunted or crippled; he cannot articulate his words 
with distinctness ; and there is scarcely any work 

g 10 - Goitre and Cretini$m, icvii 

which he is capable of executjngt He spends his 
days basking in the sun, and, from its warmth, 
appears to derive great gratification. When a 
stranger appears, he becomes a clamorous and 
importunati^ beggar, assailing him with a ceaseless 
chattering ; and t)ie traveller is commonly glad to 
\)e rid of his hideous presence at the expensi^ q{ 9i 

Various theories have been resorted to, to 
account JFor this complaint : some have attributed 
it to the use of water derived from molting snow; 
others, to the habit of carrying heavy weights on 
the head; others, again, to filtny habits ; while a 
fourth theorv derives it from the nature of the soil, 
or the use of spring water impregnated with calca* 
reous matter; and a recent author h^. published 
the following statement regarding it: 

^' The proportion of the inhabitants pf each rock^, 
who are anected with goitre and cretinispi will 
st^nd to the healthy in the following order : 

** Qraniteand gneiss — ^goitre, ~; cretins, none, 

' * Mica-rslate and hornblende slate---goitre, none; 
cretins, none. 

'• Clay-slate -goitre, 7^ ; cretins, non^. 

** Transition-rslate— goitre, -^ ; cretins, none. 

'' Steatitip sandstone — goitre, none; cretins^ 

'* Calcareous rocks— goitre, [ ; cretins, 5^. 

" Are we to suppose that these interesting re^. 
suits are the effects of chance, or Qf an accidental 
association of circumstances confined to a parti- 
cular spot ? W|ien we recollect that a space of upr, 
yards of a thousand s^quare miles has been made 
subject to the inquiry, and that, in every porlioR 
of this space, the saqie invaiiable circumstances 
attended the presence of the^ disease, and that its 
absence was if\var^bly (listiiigaisl^ by tl\ei^h^i\Qe 

xoviii § 19. — Goitre ami Cretinism, 

of those circumstances, it is more philosophic to 
view ihem ia the light of cause aud effect." — Dr. 

As the goitre occurs in Derbyshire, Notts, 
Hants, etc. , where no permanent snow exists — 
and no rivers spring from glaciers — also in Su- 
matra and in parts of South America, where snow 
is unknown, it is evident that the first cause assign- 
ed is not the true one; as for the second and third, 
they would equally tend to produce goitre in the 
London porters, and in the inhabitants of the pur- 
lieus of St. Giles's. If the limestone theory be true, 
all other rocks should be exempt from it, which is 
not the case, as far as our experience goes. Goitre 
is found only in certain valleys ; nor, when it does 
occur, does it exist throughout the valley. It ap- 
pears in one spot ; higher up it is unknown, and ia 
another situation, a mile or two distant, perhaps, 
it is again prevalent. 

A careful attention to the circumstances accom- 
panying its appearance will show that it is con- 
nected with the condition of the atmosphere, and 
is found in low. warm, and moist situations, at 
the botiom of valleys, where a stagnation of water 
occurs, and where the summer exhalations and 
autumnal fogs arising from it are not carried off 
by a free circulation of air. It is found in places 
where the valley is confined, and shut in, as it 
were — where a free draft is checked bv its sides 
being clothed with wood, or by a sudden bend 
occurring in its direction — where, atthesame time, 
the bottom is subject to the overflowings of a river, 
or to extensive artificial irrigation. The conjecture 
which derives the disease from breathing an at- 
mosphere of this kind, not liable to be purified by 
fresh currents of air to cairy off the vapours, is, 
perhaps, the one most deserving of consideratipuv 

§ 1 9. -^Goitre and Cretinism, xci t 

The disease is much more common in females 
than in males, and usually occurs about the age of 
puberty. It becomes hereditary in a family, but 
children born and educated on spots distant from 
home and in elevated situations are often exempt 
from it Iodine has been applied with success as 
a remedy in some cases; but as it is a dangerous 
remedy, the administration of it must be resorted 
to with the greatest caution. 



'The tioints Of the Compass are often marked simply by 
the letters NiS. E. W. 

trf.)Hghti (t ) left, —applied to the banks of a river. The 
rtjzht bank is that which lies on the right hand of a person 
.whose back is turned towards the source, or the quarter fruni 
yhich the current descends. 

' \Mitei, — Distancel are always reduced to English miles, 
e|cept when foreign miles are expressly mentioned. 
• * The names of Inns precede the description of every place, 
(often in a parenthesis,) because the first information needed 
by a travellet is where to lodge. 

Instead ot designating a town by the vague words " large" 
or <* small, ** the amount of the population, according to (he 
latest census, is almost invariably stated, as presenting a more 
exact scale of the importance and size of the place. 
' In order to avoid repetition, the Routes are preceded by a 
chapter of preliminary information ; and , to facilitate rcfo- 
rence to it, each division or paragraph is separately nuni- 

The Map is to be placed at the end of the Book. 





-^ter Thai) , with excursion to tbb wbissbhstbin. 

BASf.E, orBdle. (Germ. Basel, Ital. Basilea.)— /nii< / 
Drei KOni^e (Three Kings), well situated, overlooking the 
Khine, whieh washes its walls--a good inn , but expensive ; 
dioner at the table dlidte , 3 fr. at 1 o'clock.— 4 fr. at 5 o'clock 
— in private, 6 fr. ; — the Stork ( Cigogne ) , good : — Krone 
<Crown) ; Kopf (Tete d'Or)u 

Basle, capital of the now subdivided canton called Basle- 
town, is situated on the Rhine , and the larger portion lies on 
the 1. bank, which is connected with the rt. bj a bridge of 
wood, partly supported on stone piers. The territory of the 
town extends for about 4 miles on th( rt. side of the river. It 
lias ai,iiOinhab., and it enjoys considerable prosperity from 
the residence of many rich merchants, bankers, and families 
■or ancient descent^ and from its position in an angle on the 
frontiers of France, Germany, and Switzerland, about a mile 
l>elow the spot where the Rhine first becomes navigable. It 
has some manufactures , of whidi the most important are 
fhose of ribands and paper. English travellers have hitherto 
l)een too much in the habit of considering Basle merely as a 
tialting-place for the night, which they quit as soon as they 
are furnished with horses : yet its situation on high, sloping 
banks, overloolung the Rhine, which rushes past in a fhll 
broad flood of a clear, light green, bounded by the hills of the 
Black Forest on the one side , of the Jura on the other^bot, 
above all, its If initer, and its Gallery of the Works of Hol- 
bein , deserve some attention. It must be remembered that 
Basle, though poUtieaUy a portion of the Swiss Confedera- 
tion , is yet, hiMtorieaUy, a part of Suabia, and that it retains 
many of the characteristics of an imperial free town more dis- 
tinctly than many of those which have continued German, and 
have become incorporated in modern sovereignties. 

The Cathedral, or Manster, on the high bank on the 1. of 
the Rhine, above the bridge, distinguished by its two spures, 


2 Route 1 . — Basle — Minster — Holbein. 

find the deep-red colour of the sandstone of which it is built, 
is an interesting and picturesque edifice , though not of beau- 
tiful architecture. It was begun by the emperor Henry II. in 
1010, and consecrated 1019 : the choir, (he lower part or (be 
E. end, and the ttypt beneath, are or this period, and exhibit 
a style of ornament widely dilTerent Trom what is usually 
termed Saxon or Norman. The 4 columns, formed of groups 
of detached pillars, with singular and grotesque capitals; (he 
tomb of fhe empress Anne, wife of Rudolph of Habsburg, and 
mother of the line of Austrian princes, whose body was re- 
moved to St. Blaize in 1770: a stone font, date U65; an; 
worth notice in this part of the building. So likewise is the 
portal oTSt. Gallus, leading into the N. transept, and deco<^ 
rated with statues of Christ and St. Peter, and of the wise ami 
foolish virgins. In the W. front are groups of statues: St. 
George and the Dragon, and St. Martin and the Beggar, stand 
forth with great boldness. The church is used now for tte 
Protestant service, and the altar stands between theehofr ami 
nave, nearly underneath a rich Gothic gallery or rood-loft 
(date 1381). On the I. of the attar, against a pillar, is the red 
marble tombstone of Eraspius, who died here in 1536. A staii- 
case , leading out of the choir, conducts into a small apart- 
ment— the Chapter House, or Conciliums Saal^ in which 
some of the meetings of the Council of Basle, or rather of its 
committees, were held between ti36 and liii. It is a low 
room, with four Gothic windows— distinguished not only in 
an historical point of view, but also as being ^uile unaltered 
since the day of the Council. On the S. side of the choir arc 
situated the very extensive and picturesque CloisterS'-a suc- 
cession of quadrangles and open halls— which, with the space 
they inclose, still serve, as they have done for centuries, as a 
burial-place, and are filled wilb tombs. Within them are the 
monuments of the 3 Reformers * OEcolampadius, Gryneus^ 
and Meyer. They were constructed in the 14lh century, and 
extend lo the verge of the hill overlooking the river. It is not 
unlikely they may have been (he favourite resort of Erasmus. 

Behind the Minster is a Terrace, called Die Pfalz, nearly 
60 ft. above the river, planted with 10 cbesnut trees, and 
commanding a beautiful view over the Rhine, the town, and 
the Black Forest hills. Close to it is the Club called Cassino, 
containing a reading-room, etc. 

The Minster is situated in a square of considerable size— in 
one corner of which., in a recess, stands the Public Library, 
containing 50,000 volumes— among them, the Acts of the 
Council of B^le, 3 vols., with chains attached to the binding, 
.many very important MSS., of which there is a good catalogue^ 
and a few of the books of Erasmus; also, a copy of his " Praise 
of Folly, '* with marginal illustrations by the pen ot Holbein. 

RmU i.'^B^U — Minster - Holbein^ 

There are aalosrvplls of Lusher, Melanctbon, Erasmus, and 
ZoindfQSk. Ott the grouod-floor is tbe Gallery ofPainiinge 
andDrawiH§$ by the younger ^olbein— a highly iiilerestiug 
eotfectien of the works of that master, including the Passion 
ef Christ, in 8 compartments; a dead Christ— both Tormerly 
ia the Minster ; Holbein's Wife and Children, with counlc- 
MDces full of grief and misery ; portraits of Erasmus, of Froboii 
the printer— eicellent; of a Mile, von OITenburg— twice re^ 
peated ; two representations of a School, painted by the artist 
at the age of 14, and hung up as a sigji over a schoolmaster's 
door in the town of Basle. Among the drawings are Holbein's 
own portrait--a work of the highest excellence ; heads of the 
family Meyer, sketched for the celebrated picture now in the 
Dresden Gallery ; original sketch for the famous picture of the 
family of Sir Thomas More— the names of the different per<- 
sonages are written on their dresses ; 5 sketches for the fres- 
coes which formerly decorated the Rathhaus in Basle, i^itb 
one or two fragments of the frescoes themselves ; sketches in 
ink for glass windows, for the sheaths of daggers^ for the organ 
in the Minster; the Costumes of Basle, etc. etc! Here are also 
preserved some fresco fragments of the original Dance of 
Death, which once adorned the wdlls of the Dominican Church 
in Basle, and a set of coloured drawings of the whole series of 
figures. The Dance of Death has been attributed without 
cause to Holbein , since it existed at the time of the Council 
of Basle , at least 50 years before his birth. Holbein was born 
at Basle in 1488 : his circumstances were by no means pros- 

Serous; he was even reduced to work as a day-labourer and 
ouse-painter , and painted the outer walls of the houses of 
the town. It is related of him that, beinp employed to deco- 
rate the shop of an apothecary, who was intent on keeping the 
young artist close to his work, and being disposed to repair to 
a neighbouring wine-shop, he painted a pair of legs so exactly 
like his own on the underside of the scaflolding, that the apo- 
thecary, seated below, believed him to be constantly present 
and diligently employed. Erasmus, writing from Bile a 
letter of introduction for the ps^nter to one of his friends, 
complains that '' hie frigent artes, *' and the want of encou- 
ragement, drove Holbein to seek his fortune in England, 
where he met with high patronage, as is well known. * 
In the lower story of the Library are also deposited a number 
of antiquities, bronzes, fragments of pottery, coins, etc., from 
Angst, the site of the Roman Augusta Rauracorum, 7 miles 
from Basle. , 

The University of Basle, founded 1460, was the first freat 
seminary for the advancement of learning established in Swit- 
zerland: it once enjoyed a high repiitation, and numbered 
among tbe lists of iu professors the names of Erasmus, Eolcr, 

4 Route i. — Baste ^ RalMiaus — Arsenal. 

and BernouilU— the two last, mathematicians and natives of 
Basle. The Uoiversity has been greatly injured by the recent 
and ufijust seizare of part ofit^ funds by thecoantry division 
of the canton. Besides the Library mentioned above, there is 
a small and not very important Museumofl^aturalBistory, 
placed in a building near the Minster. 

The RathhauM, in the Market-place, is a building of i^asfiig 
Burgundian Gothic archftecture, founded 1508, and recently 
repaired without changing its character. The frescoes, how'*- 
ever, said to be designed by Holbein, previously partly obli- 
terated, are now removed. The frieze contains the emblazoned 
shields of the original Swiss cantons ; the armorial bearing of 
canton Basle is said to be meant to represent the case of a 
cross-bow. At the foot of the stairs, is placed' a statue of 
Munatius Plancus, the founder, according to tradition, of 
Bdte and of Ae Rqman colony of Augst. 

The greater and lesser councils of the canton hoM their 
sittings in the apartments abovel 

The ArsenQl containsa limited collection of ancient attnour, 
of which the only curiosities ate a suit of chain mail, once 
gilt, with plate mail b€;neath it, worn by Charles the Bold ^t 
the battle of Nancy ; two Burgundian cannon, of iron bars 
bound round with hoops; and several suits of Burgundian 
and Armagnac armour. 

The terraced Garden ofM, Yischery an eminent hanker, 
overlooking the Bhine, is a very pretty spot. 

The gateways , battlemented works , watch-towers, ^nd 
ditch, which formed the ancient defences of the town; remain 
in a good state of preservatlpn. The Paulusthor retains it» 
advanced work or Barbican, similar to those which formerly 
existed at York, and, with Its double portcullis and two flank- 
ing towers, Js particularly picturesque. The machicolation^ 
are supported by strange but clever figures apph)aehing to tli6 

Basle is scarcely surpassed tn cleanliness even by the town* 
ofHolland: its streets are plentifully supplied with fountains; 
end it would indeed be a reproach to the inhabitants, if, with 
the rapid and abundant current of the Rhine to cleanse tliedi 
from all filth, they were allowed to remain dirty. 

Down to the end of the last century (1795), the (Adcks cfT 
Basle went an hoiir in advance of those in other places of Eu- 
rope---a singular custom, the origin of which is not precisely 
known. According to tradition, it arose flrom the etrcumstahce 
of a conspiracy to deliver the to^n to an enemy at midniglA 
having been defeated by the dock striking t InsteiB^ of 19. 
' Attached to the clock-tower oh the bridge is a grotes(|iie 
head, called Lallenkdnig, which, by the movement of the 
fNjndnlum, is constantly protruding its long tongue andiolUng 

RouU 1. — BasU. 5 

i^(![ogil« e|e»-^makiDg faces, k is said, at LitUe Basle, on 
tfae opposite side of the river. . 

. The ancient sumptaary laws of Basle were singular and 
severe. On Sunday all roust dress In black to go to church; 
females could not have their hair dressed by men; carriages 
were not permitted in the town after 10 at night, and it was 
forbidden to place a footman behind a carriage^ The oflficial 
ceiisorf,,caUe4 Unxichterherrn, had the control of the number 
of dishes and wines to be allowed, at a dinner parly, and their 
attUioiily was supreme on all that related tothecut and quality 
of clothes. .At one time the) waged desperate war against 
slashed doublets and hose. 

Since the Beformation,. Basle has been regarded as the 
slroA^okl of Methodtsrn in Switzerland. 1*he pious turn of 
its citizens was remarkably eihibtted; in the mottoes And signs 
placed over their doors. These have now disappeared; but 
two very lingular ones have been.recorded-- 

Auf Gott ich meine Hoffnitng ban, 
JJnd wobne in d6r alien Sau, 

la God my hopes of graee 1 b«g, . 
Aod dwell within the Ancient Pig. 

Wacht auf ihr Menschen nnil that Buss, 
Ich heiss zum goldenen fiiruierfust. 

Wake, and repent your sins with grief ; 
Vni calPcl the Golden 3hin of Beef. 

Even now, should the traveller arrive at the gates of the town 
on Sunday during church-tim^, he will find them closied, and 
his carriage will be detained outside till the service is over. 
The spirit of trade, however, went hand in hand with that of 
religion— and Basle has been called a city of usurers ; 5 per 
cent, was styled a *' Christian Usance " (einen Christlicheii 
zins), and a proclamation of the magistrates (1688-84) de- 
nounced those who lent money at a discount of 4 or 3 1/S per 
cent, as " selfish, avaricious, and dangeroas persons; " those 
wbolent their capital at a lower rate were liable to have it 
confiscated, becaute, forsooth, such persons, *' by their 
a^rice, did irremediable injury tocirarckes, hospitals, church 
property, etc., and arethe ruin of poor widows and or- 
phans. *' • 

. The dissensiOM which broke ont soon alter the Bevolotion 
of 19)0 between the inhabitants of the town of Basle, and 
tkose of the country^ led to a civfl war between the parties, 
and a bloody contest near Liesthal occasioned, in 1832, the 

6 Ro'He i.-^Biisle to DUnne — Munsier Thai. 

Swiss Diel lo pass an act for the formal seiyaration of (hecanton 
into tvo parts, called llasle Ville and Basle- Campagtie. The 
latter consists of two-thirds of the territory of the whole canton, 
and has for its capital- Liesthal.' Each sends a deputy to the 
Biet; but the two divisions enjoy only half a vote each, and 
when the deputies of the two parts take opposite sides (which 
hitherto has been invariably the case), their vote does not 
count. This revolution has left the town of BAle saddled 
with a debt of two millions of francs. 

About two miles out of the town, just within the French 
frontier, is the ruined fortress of Hiiningen, erected by 
Louis XV. to overawe his Swiss neighbours, and dismantled 
in 1815. 

A good representation of the Dance of Death, in burnt 
clay, may be purchased of Maehly and SchablltZr who have 
a manufactory peculiar (it is believed) to the spot of" figures 
plastiques voieen terre cuite. " 

The traveller, entering Switzerland by Basle, is particularly 
recommended to take the. following route, by the ValMoutier, 
ur MOnster Thai, on his way either to Berne qr Geneva. 

Posting ceases at Basle, and travellers should therefore 
engage voiturier*s horses to carry them on their journey. 
Ueiurn-coachmen are generally to be found at all the inns, 
and there are persons in the town who keep horses and car- 
riages for hire. 

PuWfc Conveyances. 

A DiligencB goes daily, in two days and three nights, to 

Postwaggons daily to Berne and NeufchAtel, by Moutiers 
and Bienne ; to Chaui de Fonds and Geneva. 

Moud., Wed., Sat., toOlten, Soleure, and Lucerne. 

Daily, to Aarau, Zurich. 

. Baden, Strasburg, Frankfurt a M. 

'Mahlhausen and Culmar. 

Mond., Thursd., Sat.,Scha(rhausen. 

Bale to Bienne, 

16 1/2 Swiss stundensSi Eng. miles. 

Thence to Berne by Aarberg, 6 stundseSO Eng. miles. 

A diligence runs daily ,to Berne and Neufchdtel. 

The valley of the Birs; commonly called the Val Moutiers 
(Miinster Thai, in Germ.), through which this excellent road 
passes, is the most interesting and romantic in the wholerange 
of the Jura. It consists of a series of narrow and rocky defiles, 
alternatingwithopen basins, covered with black forests above, , 
and verdant meadows below, enlivened by villages, mills, and 
forges. A road was originally carried through the Val Moutiers 

JRouU 1 , — ^asle to Bienne — St. Jacob —Dornach. 7 • 

by tbeRomans, to keep up the communication between Aven- 
ticum,Hiie Helvetian capital, and Augst, their great fortified 
•Btpost on the Rhine. 

At St. Jacob, abont a quarter of a mi)e beyond the ^ates of 
Bale, in the angle between two roads, a small Golt^ic cross 
has been erected, to commemorate the buuU of St, Jacob, 
iought in 14 U, when 1600 Swiss had the boldness to attack, 
and the courage to withstand fur labours, a French army 
tenfold more numerous, commanded by the. Dauphin, after- 
wards Louis XI. Only 10 of the Swiss escaped alive, the rest 
were left dead on the field, along withihrice their own number 
of foes, whom ihey had slain. This almost incredible exploit, 
first spread abroad through Europe thefame of Swiss valour; 
Hod Louis, the Dauphin , wisely seeing that it was belter to 
{^aiUxthem as friends than to oppose them as enemies, courted, 
their alliance, and first enrolled them as a permanent body-., 
guard about his person—a practice continued by the French' 
inonarchft down to Charles X. The Swiss themselves refer to. 
t^ie battle of St. Jacobas the TbermopylQ of t^eir history. The 
vineyards near the field produce a red wine, called Schweitzer. 
Blut (Swiss blood). 

A few miles farther, near Reinach^, on the opposite, bank; 
of the Birs, is another battle-field— that of Jt>ornacA— whcm! 
the Swiss gained a victory over a much larger Auiitrian force 
HI U99, duringaheSuabian war. The bone-house, in which the 
remains of the slain were collected, still exists near the Capu- 
(bin Convent, and is filled, wi I h skulls gathered from the field* 
lo the church of. the village Maupertuis is buried. A monu- 
ment, set up tahis memory by bis friend Rernouilli, was des-. 
iroyed by the cmi of lihe village, who was in the habit of fct^ 
pairing his hearthstone when broken, with slabs taken from 
the churchyard. It has been replaced by a fresh monument 
set up at the eipeiise of canton Soleure. 

Beyond Oesch>the road enters that part of the Can.ton Bern 
which ancienily belonged to the Archbishop of Baste ; the 
valley contracts, increasing in picturesque beauty as you ad- 
vance. The castles of Angerstein and Zwingen are pai^sed before 

4 1/4 La u Cte a,— a walled village. 

21/2 Soy hi^jre,-T-a villa|;e prettily situated, with a.small 
country inn, tolerably good. A contracted |)ass, the rocks of 
which on the rt. are surmounted by a convent, leads into the 
open basin of D^l^mdnt (Delsberg).; but it is unnecessary to 
pass through that little town (situated ou the way toPorten- 
truy), as our road turns to the 1., and, continuing by ifae side 
of the Birs, enters a defile higher, jgrander, and more wild . 
than any that have preceded it. This is, properly speaking, 
ihi^ commencement of the Yal Moutiers. Rocky precipices. 

8 Route 1. — Val Mou tiers — Tarannes. 

overhang the road, and black forests offlr cover thenMHuilaio» 
above. In the midst of it are the iron furnaces and forges of 

1 1/4 Courren del in, supplied with ore in the shape ot 
f mall granulated red masses, varying from Ihe size of a pea to 
that of a cherry, from the neighbouring mines. The remarkable 
rent by which the Jura has b^en cleft from top to bottom, so 
as to allow a passage for theBrrs, exhibits marks of some great 
convulsion of ibc earth, by which the strata of limestone (Jura- 
kalk) have been thrown into a nearly vertical position, and 
appear like a succession of gigantic walls on each side of tke 
road. The gorge terminates in another open basin, in the midst 
of which lies 

1 3/iMoutiersGpandval, or Miinster— (/nn: Krone, 
good)— a village of lt250 inhabitants, named from a very an- 
cient MinslerotSt. Gerrnaiius on the height, founded in the 
7lh century, and now f^st falling to ruin. There is a car rand 
from Moutiers to the summit of the IFeuseiutetn, a distance 
of about 10 miles, up-hill nearly the whole way, and the 
latter part very rough and bad ; (it oiriy for the ears of the 
country, one of which, drawn by two horses, may be hired 
here to go and return for 20 fr. It .passes through the vil- 
lages of Grandval (Grossau) and Ganzbrnnnen; the ascent 
occupies 3 1/2 hours, and the jolting is very severe. The 
Weissenstein is described in Route 3. 

At the upper end of the basin of Moutiers the road is ceo- 
ducted through another defile, equally grand, at the bottom 
of which theBirs foams and rushes, overhung by perpendicu- 
lar cliffs and funereal firs. To this succeeds the little plain of 
Tavannes, in which are situated the villages of Courts Slaile- 
ray, and Dachsfelden, or 

31/2 Tavannes (where the Couronoeand tl^e Croix are 
good i nns, better than that at Moutiers) . There are foot-paths 
over the mountains from Court and B^vilard to Reuehenette, 
by which some distance is saved orithe way to Bienne, but the 
Pierre Pertuis is thus missed. The valley to the £. of Court, 
called Chaluat (Tschaywo), is inhabited by the descendants 
of the Anabaptists, expelled from Berne in 170S-11. They are 
distinguished by their industry and simple manners : the 
young men wear beards. A few miles above Tavannes is the 
source of the Birs; before reaching it our road quits the 
valley, mounting up a steep ascent, in the middle of which it 
passes under the singular and picturesque archway formed in 
the solid rock, called 

1/i Pierre Pertuis. Tt is probably a natural opening, en- 
larged by art. It existed in the time of the Romans, as is 
proved by a defaced inscription on the N. side. - 


Route i,^Pietre Periuis-- Biennc. D 


til"" eXA PERT-I 


It stood od the boomiary-Une, separating the people of the 
Rauracl,i^ho extended to Rale, from the Sequani. The arch- 
way is about 40 ft. high and 10 or IS thick. The pass was 
iTortified by the Aiistrians in 1813. 

1/8 Sonceboz— (inn not vcty good)— a village in the Val 
[^.linier (Germ. Erguel), up which runs a good road to Chaux 
de Fonds, and out of which another li^ranehes S. to Neochfttel 
from Vtllaret. The road to Rientie descends the valley along 
the \, bank of the Siize, which-forms several small cascades. 
iThe projecting rock of Rond Ch^tel was occupied ih feudal 
times by a fOrt, and held by the powerful Rishops of Rdle, to 
whom it gave (he command of this pass. The view firom the 
last slope of the Jura^ over Rienne, and its lake, backed in 
clear weather by the snowy range of the Alp^, is exceedingly 

3 R'i e n n e (Germ. Rfel)^/nn« : H. du Jura, outside the 
town, recently established, and good ;^CouronDe, within the 
town.— Rienne is prettily situate<| at the mouth of the valley 
ofihe SujEe, atihe foot of the Jura ; here mantled mih vines, 
fnd about a mile from the head of the lakeof Rienne (Route i5). 
It Is Still surrounded by Its ancient waHs and watch-towers, 
and is approached by several shady avenues. The number of 
inhabitants, chiefly Protestants, atnounts to 3000. The town 
anciently belonged to the Rishop ofR^le, but the citizens, 
early imbued with the spirit of freedom, fotmed a perpetual 
nlliance with Rerne in 1352, for the defence of their liberties, 
in revenge for which the town was burnt by their liege lord. 
The Reformatiop further weakened the connexion between 
the town and its ecclesiastical ruler, and at tbe beginning of 
t)ie 17th century his authority became nominal. Rienne Is 
an industrious town, situated at (he Jiinction of the high-roads 
from Rerne, Rale, Soleurc, and NeuchJltel, between all which 
places there are poblic conveyances daily. The new road, 
recently completed, along the W. shore of the lake, shortens 
the distance to Neuchdtel by nearly 8 miles i it passes near 
t^e Isle St. Pterre, celebrated as the residence of Rousseau, 
ijnd is described in Route 45. 

. Those who have a ta^e for climbing tnay gratify it by 
nscending from hence the Chasseral, one of the highest 
-mountains of the Jura,. 5616 ft. above the lake, and 4936 ft. 
above the sea, with the certainty of bein^^rewarded with a 
magnificent view if the weather be cleaif, but the ascent will 
occupy 5 hours. 


10 Boute 2. ^ Baste to Scftaffhausen, 

Quitting Bienne the high-road first crosses the SQze, on Hs 
way into the lake, and a ^quarter of a mile farther on, the 
Thiele (Zihl), on its way out of the lake. The last is a navi- 
gable river which drains the three lakes of Bienne, NeuchHtet; 
and Morat, and joins the river' Aar about four miles lower 
down. On the margin of the lake, at the outlet of the Thiele, 
stand- Nydau— (/nn ; Bear)— and its castle, flanked by round 
towers and surmounted by a tall square keep. The lords of 
Nydau, an extinct family, to whom it once belonged, were 
foes of Berne ; their stronghold now bears on its front the 
Bernese bear, painted of colossal dimensions, and is converted 
into the Cantonal salt-warehouse. From the slope of the hill, 
near Belmont, a good view is obtained of the lake and of St.. 
Peter's Isle. 

1/4 Aarbergisa town of 700 inhabitants, on a rocky pro- 
montory, nearly surrounded by 'the Aar, which, indeed, at 
high water, actually converts it into an island. The road 
enters and quits the town by two covered bridges. 
3 1/4 Bekn— in Route 24. 



17 il% stunden=56 i/2 Eng. miles. 

There are two roads of nearly equal length, one on the 
1. bank of the Rhine, which is traversed by the daily diligence 
(13 hours is the time occupied in the journey) ; and the other 
on the rt. bank, through the terHtory of Baden, which is 
provided with post Jiorses at the following stations :— Warm- 
bach, 2 Germ, miles,— SSkingen, 2 1/2,— Waldshut, 31/2,— 
Qber Lauchingen, 1 1/2,— SchafThausen 3. 

The road on th6 Swiss side of the Rhine passes through the 
two villages of 

2 A u g5t, which stand on each side of the river Ergolz, on 
the site of the Roman city Augusta Rduracorum, founded by 
Munatius Plancus, in , the reign of Augustus. Its existence 
on this spot is sufficiently proved by the l]uantity of Roman- 
remains that have been, and still are, discovered wherever 
the ground is turned up. There are indications of an amphi- 
theatre, now converted into pleasure grounds; but the remains 
of buildings are very slight. 

ll/4Rheinfelde n— (/lin ; Drei KOnige)— a town of 1500 
inhabitants, on the 1. |»ank of the Rhine, here crossed by a 
wooden bridge, above and below which the rocks in the river 
bed form considerable rapids and falls. On an island in the 
middle of the river, above, the bridge, rise the ruins of the 
feudal Castle of Stein, which was destroyed by the army of 
the Swiss Confederacy in 1445. 

Route 3. --Basle i\) Solehre. li 

i 1/4 L a u ffe n bn rg— a town of 900 Inhabitants, connected 
by a wooden bridge with Klein Lauflenburg, on the rt. bank 
«rthe Rhine. The river is here interrupted by rnorerapiU» 
and rails, in German caUed Lavffen, whence the name of the 
place. Small boats descending the stream can only pass 
them by unloading tJbeir cargo^ above, and b^ing let down 
gradually by stout ropes^ held by men stationed on the bank. 

The road here, crossiiig ib« Rhine, enters Baden and pro- 
ceeds along the rt. bank to 

2 3/i Waldsbnt, a walled towa or 1000 inhabitants, on 
the^skirts of the Black Forest. 

A mile above this, near a small villagie called r4oblenz (Con- 
fluentia), the Rhine is joined by the Aar. At Waldsbut our 
Eoad turns away from the Rhine, and proceeds by Tbiengen 
and Erzingen to 

5 1/4 N e u«k ir c h, a Swiss village, io the canton of SchafT- 

2 1 /2 jScHAFFHAtSBN. Route 7. 



To Soleare 12 slunden=3*j 1/i English miles; thence to 
Bienne 3 3/i stunde. 

The road, on quitting Bdle, crosses the river Birs, and pror 
ceeds along the 1. bank of the Rhine till within a short dis- 
tance of Augst (p. 10). where it turns S. to 

3 Liesthal^lnns : Schlusse^(la CW) ;— Baselstab. 

Chier town of the division of the canton distinguished as- 
BAle Campagne (Basel Landschaft), which, having revolted 
from the town of Bdle after the July revolution, was sepa-. 
rated from it by an act of the Diet in 1832, though the two 
divisions. are still i;egarded in the Diet but as one estate. Bkie 
Campagne includes 53 parishes, with about 36,000 ^inhabir 
•tants, or about rour-fiflh& of the canton. Lieslhal contains 
2170 inhabitants, and since the Revolution has been hurriedly 
fitted up with the apparatus of government, a **kanzley," or 
ehancery:, an arsenal, a prison, two gens d'armes, and three 
sentry-boxes. The pretty and smiling valley of the Ergolz, jn 
which it is situated, was the scene of a shocking massacre in 
1833 (A^ugust 3). In consequence of the aggressions of the 
country people the inhabitants of B&Ie town were compelled 
to march against them a force of about 1500 men, chiefly citi- 
zens, merchants, and shopkeepers, little skilled in the arts of 
war. The countrymen, having gained . intelligence of the 
movement, at the instigation of a number of foreign refugees^ 
placed themselves in ambush along the sides of a narrow de&le 

it Route 3.-^ Basle to Soleure — Oher Hauenstein, 

overlooking tbe high road/ No sooner were the incautious 
townsmen complelelv enclosed within the snare, than a mer- 
ciless Ore was opened! lipon them by their enemies from behind 
rocks and bushes. They were instantly seized with a panic, 
became totally disorganised, and,, throwing away their arms^ 
attempted to save tbemselves^y flight. Hemmed in, however^ 
on all sides, they were completelv eiposed to the deadly aim 
of the rifles of their opponents, who picked off the officers and 
butchered indiscriminately many or the wounded and priso- 
ners. While of the Bftle countrymen scarcely a man was 
touched, 70 of the townsmen, including some members of the 
first families of B&le, were killed, and 200 wounded, in an 
affair which, from the advantages, both of numbers and posi- 
tion on the side of the countrymen, deserves tbe name of a 
wholesale murder rather than of a battle. 

Beyond Liesthal the valley contracts and assumes a very 
romantic character on approaching 

Sl/3Waldenbur g— a small village of 600 inhabitants, at 
the S. base of the Jura, and at the commencement of the as- 
cent of the Ober-Hauenstein. On the height to the E. may 
be seen the ruins of the castle, destroyed in 1798. 

The road over the Ober-Hauenstein, once formidable from 
the abruptness of the ascent, has been greatly improved, and 
the steepness of the slope so much diminished, that eitra 
Jhorees are unnecessary except for very heavily ladeil car- 
riages. A gradual ascent, easily surmounted in an hofir, leada 
to the summit. A heavy toll, amounting to St batz for a 
carriage with two horses, is paid on crossing it. Oh this 
account the Swiss voituriers generally avoid this road. The 
correction which the road has undergone carries it through 
tbe village of Holderbank, lower down than the ancient route, 
which passed over the crest of the mountain. Down to the 
end of the last century so steep was the old road that loaded 
waggons were drawn up on one side and let down the other 
with a rope and windlass. 

a B a 1 1 s t h a 1— (/nn« : B Ossli(horse) L5we ;)— a village at the 
S. foot of the Hauenstein. Above it, and over the road, 
tower the imposing ruins of the Castle of Falkemtein; it 
rises midway between the two roads to BAle, by the Hauen- 
stein and Passwang, which both unite here. This position 
gave to its ancient owners the power of levying black-mail 
upon each of these passes. It belonged at cne time to Ru- 
dolph von Wart, who was broken on the wheel for his share 
in the murder of the Emperor Albert, aqd was consoled in 
his agony by the presence and fortitude of his wife. (See 
Route 6.) The castle was destroyed by the men of Basle, 
because a waggon, laden with saffron, belonging to their mer- 
chants; had been pillaged by the lords of Falkenstein. 

RoaU d.—SoUurt^ 13 

Bellow BallUhal the road traverses the singular and ro- 
mantic defile of Klus, a rent which severs the Jura chain from 
lop to bottom. It derives its name ft'om having been closed 
(daiisut) in ancient times by gate and wall. It is of much 
Importance, in a mifitary point or view, as one of the main 
portals into SwiUeriand. In the middle ages it was com- 
manded by 8 castles; that of Neu Falkenstein at iUN. 
entrance, on the £. by the Bachburg, and on the S. by the 
Blaoenstein, whose owners eonstitated themselves into toll- 
gatherers, levying taxes on their own behalf from all who 
passed. At the N. of the pass stands the village of KluSg 
with its iron ftamaces, in which the pea-like iron ore (bohn- 
erz), so common in the Jura, is smelted. Near Ktus the 
traveller is greeted by a fine view of the snowy chain of the 
Alps. The Castle of Blauenstein was built in the 12tb cen- 
tury, by the Counts of Falkenstein, a powerful family, from 
which many Swiss abbots and other ecclesiastical dignitaries 
proceeded, while the main branch followed the profession of 
robber-knights. It was one of these Falkensteins wbo burnt 
the town of Bmgg. The pass terminates below the small 
Yillage of Aussere Klus, and the road descends into the 
valley of the Aar. 

Sl/2 Wiedlisbaoh. 

SSoLEURE.— (Germ.Solothurn).^/nn: Gouronne : the best, 
but not very clean. 

The capital of the canton is prettily situated on the Aar, at 
the foot of the Jura range, and has 4250 inhabiunts. In the 
middle of the 17th century it was surrounded by fortifications 
of great eitent, which took 60 years to complete, and con- 
sumed vast sums of money. In 1835 the renBK>val of these 
costly and useless works was decreed by the Great Council of 
the canton,, and they have already, in part, been levelled. It 
is on the whole a dull town, with little trade and few mana- 
factores. The foltowing obects are most worth notice. 

At the end of the principal street, approached by a flight 
of steps, flanked by fountains, stands the Cathedral of 
St, Vr$u9 (a soldier of the Theban legion), a modern builds- 
ing of Italian architecture^ finished 1773; distinguished by iu 
size, and on the whole handsome. 

The eloek tiHoer (ZeUglockenthurm), in the market-place 
(a continuation of the same street), is stated by the guide 
books to bes aRoman work, whUe a German inscription upon 
it attributes its foundation to a period 500 years earlier than 
the birth of Christ ; but it owes its origin in reality to the 
Burgundian kings. It is square in form, and constructed of 
the moist solid masonry, roueh outside^ without window or 
other opening, for 80 feet. If we are to believe the two Latin 
verses on the front of this building, Soleure is the most 
ancient city in N. W. Europe except Treves. 

14^ Route 3. ^ Sole re. 

In Cellis nihil pst Solodoro antiqiiius, iiiiis, 
EiCi'plis Treviris, qiiorum ego dicta soror. 

The Anenal (Zeughaus), not far from the Galhedral,. 
contains the most extensive and curiQus collection , of ancient, 
armour in Switzerland. Here are shown several standards, 
said to have been taken by (he Swiss in their victories over 
the Burgundians and Austrians. Those^ however, attributed • 
to Morat and Sempacb prove, on examination, to be nothing 
but pieces of coarse canvass, painted on one side; the yellow 
flag with the Austrian engle, said to have been broughtXrom 
Dornoch, is probably genuine. Among 600 or 8a0 suits of 
armour are many said to be French and Dargundian. Several 
specimens of wall pieces, or long swivels, for the defence of a 
fortress, are curious. Some of the armour is for sale. 

The Museum^ close to the^ridge over the' Aar, contains 
a collection of Jura fossils, chiefly from quarries near Soleure, 
which will be viewed with great interest by the geologist. 
There are nearly 30 specimens of fossil turtle, rarely found 
elsewhere, togeUier with teeth and palates of fish^ and nu- 
merous fragments of saurians. A suite of specimens of the 
rocks of the Alps were collected in numerous journeys by 
Professor Hugi, to whom belongs the merit of forming and 
arranging this cabinet. 

The Ambassador of France to the Swiss Confederation resid- 
ed here until the French Revolution : his hotel is converted 
Into a barrack. The Catholic Bishop of BAle lives here. The 
elergy are numerous and powerful, both in the town and 
canton. There are several convents at Soleure. The sisters 
of St, Joseph's Nunnery t outside the Berne gate, make 
artificial flowers, sweetmeats, and other articles, which they 
sell at the grating. Their pincushions are clumsy, and them- 
selves not very interesting. 

Thaddeus Kosciusko, the Pole, spent the last years of his 
life here; his house, in which he died, is next door to the 
iPost-officc, No. 5, Gurzelengasse. His entrails are interred 
in the church-yard of Zuchwyl, a mile distant on the op- 
posite side of the Aar, under a stone inscribed ''Viscera 
Thaddei Kosciuszko." 

About two miles N. of Soleure, beyond the village of 
St. Nicholas, lies the chapel and Hermitage of St, Verena, 
at the extremity of a pretty valley, hemmed in by rocks, 
embowered in trees and traversed by a sparkling rivulet. It 
is rendered accessible by paths, originally formed by the 
French emigres, who, at the outbreak of th« French Revo- 
lution, sought an asylum here, to the number of many 
hundred, under the guidance of M. de Breteuil. The valley 
abounds in caves and grottoes, partly natural, partly artificial, 

Boaie 3. — Soieure^St.F erena-The fVeissevsleui. IS 

and at its further extremity, vHhin a natural shelf of over- 
arching cliff, stands the little Chapel of St. Verena; behind 
the altar a small cave has been cut in therqck, and now 
contains a representation of the only sepulchre. This sainW 
a pious maiden who accompanied the Thieban iegion. suffered 
severe temptation in this solitude, according to the legend, 
from the devil, who, on one occasion, was on the point. of 
carrying her off, when she saved herself by clinging fast to 
a small hole in the fock, which stHI remains. On the way 
tt) the hermitage, near the church of St. Nicholas, the Cha^ 
teau of Waldegy is passed ; its. old-fashioned gardens, laid*' 
out in terraces, are worth notice. 

h The TFewenffem.— The most interesting excursion, how<- 
ever, in the neighbourhood of Soleure, is that to the summit 
of the Weissenstein ( Whiterock, probably named from its 
white cliffs of limestone ), t^e mountain immediately behind 
the town. The distance is at)out 8 miles, and the time occu- 
pied in the ascent 3 hours. The mountain is made accessible 
for chars-a-banc, by a road somewhat steep, passing through 
the villages Langendorf and Oberdorf, behind which it is car- 
ried up the face of the mountain in a series of zigzags. 

A'char-e-banc, drawn by 2 horses, may be hired at the Coa- 
ronne, in Soleure, for 10 or IS Swiss francs, to go and return. 
If it be detained on the mountain for the night, % francs extra 
are paid. Pedestrians may find a short cut, and reach the top 
easily in S 1/2 hours ; they may visit the Hermitage of St. Ye- 
rena in their Wayto or fro. 

A Hotel and BatJi^houte has been built at the expense of 
the town on the brow of the mountain, 3950 feet above the sea 
level, and 2640 above the Aar, at Soleure. It furnishes about 
30 beds, and the accommodation, though homely, Is good. 
The charges are— for dinner at table d*hdte, without wine, 1 fr. 
20 rap. ; supper 1 fr. bs. ; breakfast of tea or coffee alone, 50^ 
rp. ; beds from 8 to 10 batz. 

The dairy of the establishment is supplied by 60 cows,, fed 
on the pasture on the summit of the mountain, so that milk 
and cream may be had here in perfection. 

Many invalids take up their residence here during the sum- 
mer months on account of the fresh air, or for the '' cure de 
petit lait" (goat*s whey ), etc., which is recommended in cer- 
tain complaints. The daily charge for those who remain here 
more tham a week ''en pension," is 6 F. francs. 

The greater portion of visitors, however, resort hither mere- 
ly on. account of the view, remaining on the summit one 
night to enjov the sunset and sunrise. 

The Inn of the Weissenstein, and the still more elevated 
summit of the mountain, called Rothi-flue, 2 miles to the £. 
of it, command one of the finest distant prospects of theAlps 

16 EaiiU 4. — BafU to Lweme. 

which can be named. The greet chain of snewy peaks, elc.« .. 
here seen, .spread out along the horizon, extends for a dis- 
tance or nearly 200 miles, from the Mentis, on the E, to the 
MontDlaoc in the W. Immediately in front rise the Jubjbp- 
frau, Schreekborn, and other giants of the Bernese chain. 
In the foreground, amidst a varied expanse of wooded hill and 
verdant vaie are seen the lakes of Morat, NencbAtel, and Bi- 
enne, while the silvery Aar, on which stands the town of So-, 
leare, winds like a snake at the foot of the mountain^ 
Keller has engraved a Panorama of the Weissenslein, in which 
every mountain, town, village, and other object of interest 
visible A*om the top, is marked. One or two copies of it are 
hung up at the inn for the convenience of visitors. 

Anoth<!r road practicable for a char-4-banc, bi|t very rough,', 
descends the opposite side of the Weissenstein, into the Yal, 
Moutiers ( described in p. 8 ). 

J^romSoleuretoBienne is a distance of33/i stunde»12£ng- 
miles.— The road runs along the S* base of the Jura. A new 
line of road now ( 1887) in progress, will curtail the distance 
by miMre than 2 miles. The inn on the Weissenstein conti- 
nues long a conspicuous obiect. , 


On the rt. of the road lie the Baths of G-range (Grenehen ), 
a large building. At Boujean ( Bol^ingen ) almost a suburbi' 
of Blenne, our road falls in with that from the MUnster Thai 

ai/2i»tanna, (p. 9). 


»ASLB TO LtCinlKB« Vt THB VNTElt UAVENStmn, M.tfi!f, 

19 f/^ sconden «* M Eng. tdiles. 

A diligence goes daily. 

The road throughout is good.^As fhr M 

3 Liesthal* it is the same ds BoUte 8: hef(!r,init6«Iof 
taming S., it ascends the vale of the Ergolz, aa far ts 

11 4 Sis sac h, a village of 1 100 Inhabitants, and 

BJ.aufeiflngen. The pass Of the Unter^-eauenstelnCth^ 
hewn rock), which now commences, )s of greai impfkU»t» 
as an outlet for the nrerchandise of Switzerland, and sis- the 
most dh-ect line orcommunicatlon from W. Germany toltaty 
by the St. Gotthard. The improvements^ compleletf between 
1827 and 1830, at an expense of 289,289 tr. have rendered the 
slope on both sides so gradual, that extra hofMsf^^ vamly n^ 
quired for carriages. A toll of 5 b«(z per horse is pBid^ hm 

RcuU k. — Bask <d LacenU'^Simpach. 17 

nolhing is charged Tor Yorspann hones. From the lammit 
of the pass, after crossing the boundary-line of BAle and So- 
leaiv,' a fine view is obtained of the great chain of the Alps. 
2 1/i Often— (Inns : Krone;~HalberMond— Half Moon) 
—though it contains but IdOO inhabitants, promises to rise 
into a flourishing town, to the prejudice of Soleure, of which 
it is becoming the rival. Its prosperity is greatly promoted by 
its position on the new road of the Unter tiauenstein. It is 
bnilt on the left bank of the Aar, and is said to be the Roman 
UlHnum. The roads from Bdle to Lucerne, and from Zurich 
to Soleureand NeuehAtel, cross here.. Tbe old parish church, 
converied into a wood warehouse since the new one was built, 
is of great antiquity : it is mentioned in records as early as 

Our road crosses the Aar by a wooden bridge, and proceeds 
along its rt. bank, through pleasing scenery, to 

3/4 A a r b u r g— (/tins ; Bar ;— &rone), an old town of 1506 
inhabitants, distinguished by its ext^hstve Ciiadel on the 
heights hbove, constructed in 1660 : the only fortress belong- 
ing to the Swiss Confederation, but of no nse as a fortification , 
for although it has bomb-proof casemates hewn out of the rock, 
its works have been allowed to go to decay. It serves as a 
military storehouse for the Swiss Confederation, and forms a 
picturesque object in the landscape, such met with in the 
background of old German pictures. Outside the town is an 
extensive cotton factory. 

At Kreutzstrasse, a mile farther,. the high road from Zorich 
to Berne( Route ld)cro8Ses our route. The Lion is a good inn 

ThQ road continues along a pretty Talley , distinguished by 
its verdant pasture : its substantial-looking houses, many 
of them with gardens, whose walls are often covered with 
thin plates of wood overhipping each other like fishes* scales. 
It is bordered by a varied outline of wooded heights. 

1 Zoffingen. A fragment ofthr|c.stkof|Reiden, and a so- 
litary tree perched on a rock beside it; become conspicuous 
before reaching the village of Rheden, where a toll of 8 batz, 
including all the road to and from .this to Lucerne, is paid. 

A view is obtained of the Lake of Sempach, and of a smaller 
lake called Mauensee, from the height above. 

i S u r s e e— (/im : Hirsch ; bad and dear)— an old walled 
town, whose gate-towers still bear the double-headed eagle of 
Austria carved in stone. ''The traveller may well em|3oy a 
lew moments in examining the Rathhaus, much dilapidated, 
but aflbrding a good specimen of the peculiarities of theGerman- 
Burgundiao style. Thejeneral outline resembles the old Tol- 
booth of Edinburah."— P. Sursee lies at the distance of about 
a mile from the IH. extremity of the lake ofSempach, which is 

1 8 Route h.—^Basie to L ticirne-^ St mpattu 

seen over and among the orchards on the lefl or the road i it 
«/;oJng to Lucerne. It has no pretensions to great beauty, but 
is pleasing, and hi^ly interesting historically Trom theTamou^ 
Battle ofSempach (1336)— the second or those great and sur- 
I rising victories by which Swiss independence was established. 
It was fought on the E. shore of Ihe lake, behind (belittle 
town of Serapach, opposite which ihe lake comes Into futl. 
view from our road. In 1805, a portion of the water of the 
lake was let off, in order to gain land along its banks; thus its 
extent is diminished, its surface lowered, and its form some-^ 
what altered from what it was at the time of the battle. 

A small chapel, /in the form of a portico, is erected to com- 
memorate the victory, on the spot where Leopold of Austria 
(son of the Duke of (he same name who had been defeated 71 
years before ai Morgarten) lost his life. The name of those 
who fell, both Auatrians and Swiss, were inscribed on the- 
walls, which also bear a nide fresco representation of the noble 
devotion o{ Arnold of Winkelried. 

He of battle martyrs chief I 

Who, to recall his daunted peer^, 
^ For victory shapeti an open «pac«. 

By gatli'ring, in a wide emhracti, 
. ^ Into his single heart, a sheaf 
. Of fatal Austrian spears. , 

Hewasaknightofl^nterwalden, who, observingall (he elTorts 
of the Swiss to break the ranks of their enemies foiled by their 
long lances, exclaimed " Protect my wife and children, and I 
will open a path to freedom." He then rushed forward, and 
gathering in his arms as many lances as he could grasp, buried 
them in his bosom. The confederates were enabled to take 
advantage of the gap thus formed in the mail-clad ranks of 
the foe, before the Austrian lancers had time to extricate their 
entangled weapons from his corse. In order to oppose the 
Swiss, who fought on foot, many of the Austrian nobles had 
(Hsmounted to form a serried phalanx ; but the armour which 
rendered them almost invulnerable on horseback, and which, 
while they remained united vnd in close column, had formed, 
so impenetrable a barrier to the attack of the Swiss, now 
that their ranks were broken, disabled them from coping 
with their light-armed and active foe&. 600 nobles were 
slain, and more than 2000 common soldiers; while the entire- 
force of the Swiss, who achieved this victory, is said not to. 
have exceeded liOO men. 

At Buttisholz, a village about 3 miles from Sursee, and on 
the S. of our road, may be seen a mound, called the English 
barrow, because it contains the bones of 3000 of our coun<« 

Bo^He b.— Basle to Aarak ~ Tlu SiafftVuk. 19 

try men, followers of the celebrated Gondotiiero leadtr. 
Ingelram de Coney, who were defeated here, 1376, by the 
ihjbabitauts of Enliebuch. This Ingelrain de Goucy was soii- 
iB-law of Edward III., King of England, and EarL of Bed* 
ford, Having a feud against Leopold of Austria, he not only 
laid waste his territories, but made devastating inroads into 
the neighbouring Swiss cantons, from the Jura to the gales 
of Berne and Zurich, until his career was suddenly arrested 
liere by a few hundred Swiss peasants. This action put 
an end to a struggle known in •Swiss history as the English 

The approach to Lucerne is charming : on the 1. rises the 
Rigi, in shape somewhat resembling a horse's back; on the 
rt. the Pilatus is distinguished by his serrated ridge. After 
crossing the small stream of the Emine by a wooden bridge, 
we reach the banks of the green Reuss, rushing out of the 
lake of Lucerne. On the rt. the new road to Berne, by the 
Entlebiich, is passed. Lucerne is surrounded on this side 
by a battiemented wall, flanked at intervals by a number of 
tall Watch-towers, descending to the margin of the river. 

i Lucerne. Route 16. 



19 8tunden»62 1/i Eng. miles. 

Diligences <laily. 

The road is the same 9A route 3, as far as 

3 1/4 Rbeinfelden. At Stein it quits the side of the 
Rhine, aiid ascenda the Frickthal to 

3 3/4 F rick, a village of 1800 inhabitants, with a church 
oo a height, tiere our route branches out of the hi^h.-n)a4l 
te Zurich. The Frickthal and surrounding district belonged 
to Austria down to 1801. 

1 S/3 Sta/felegg. Above this village- is a depression or 
col in the chain of the Jura, over which an easy carriage-road 
luis been constructed at the expense of the government of the 
canton. A gradual descent leads down into the valley of the 
Aar, which is crossed in order to enter 
^ 1 .1/3 A arau. — fnn» .* wilder Mann, (Sauvage)— Ochs 
(Bosui)— Gigogne.— The chief town of the canton, Argovie, 
which wa^ flrst included in-the Confederation 180:1, having, 
previously formed a subject provyice of Canton Bern, con-- 
tains 4500 inhabitants, and is situated on the rt. bank of the 
Aar : the bridge over it was swept away by an inundation in 
1831. Simond calls it '' an odious little place." It lies at the 
S. base of the Jura, here partly covered with vineyards. 
There are many extensive cottommills here. 

20 Route 6. — BasU to Zurich —Brugg. 

The R<ithha»i, 4fi which iht eantoiml cewioili ^re held, 
indudes withio its circuit the tower of a feudal castle of the 
Counts Ton Rore, whfch may be regarded as the nucleus of 
the town. In the parUh church. Protectant and Catholic 
services are performed alternately. 

Henry Zschokke, the historian and novel-writer, retfides 
here. When the armies of the French Revolution took pot- 
session of Switzerland in 1789, and destroyed lis ancient form 
of Government* Aarau was made capital of the Helvetian Re- 
public, but it was soon transferred to Lucerne. 

The batlu of Schinlznach (p. 23) are about 10 miles from 
this. The road to them runs along the rt.. bank of the Aar, 
passing several castles, the niost conspicuous of which is that 
of Windeck. Close to Schinlznach rise the ruins of the Ca$th 
of Habsburg, the cradle or the House of Austria. 


Alto BADBir. 

16 1/3 stunden » 53 Eng. miles. 

Diligences go daily. 

YFrick.Thos far the road is identical with Rpntes 3aod5. 
Passing through the villages Horiiussen and EJIingen, it 
crosses the hill ofRotzberg, whose culminating point, 1850 ft. 
above the sea, commands a fine view of the Alps. It was 
called Mont ^oeetiui by the Romans, who constructed a 
highway across K; and on this spot, according to Swiss anti- 
quaries, was fought the battle so fatal to the Helvetians, in' 
which ihey were defeisited by Coecina, and the Legion called 
by Tacitus Rapax,. from its eiactions and cruelty, a. d. 69. . 

A wooden bridge, 70 ft. long, leads across the Aar, which 
here flows, in a contracted bed, to 

^ R r u g g, or firaek— ( hint : Stem, Etoile;-^Rpthes Haus, 
MaisonRouge)— a walled town of great antiquity having b^en 
an ancient possession of the House of Habsburg, containing 
800 inhabitants. li '^ the birth-place of Zimmerman, physi- 
cian of Frederick the Great, who wrote on Solitude. 

I'he country aroupd Rrugg is interesting, both in a |eo- 
graphical and historical point^bf view. In the plain, a little 
below the town, three of the principal rivers of Switzerland 
which drain the N. slopes of the Alps^ from the Grisons to 
the Jlira, the Limmat, tne Reuss, and the Aar, form a 
junction, and,\onited under the name of the Aar, throw them- 
selves into the Rhine about 10 miles below Rrugg, at a place 
called Coblenz. • < 

Close upon this meeting of the waters, and on the trian- 

Route 6. — F inUonisBa-^KasnigsfgUien. 21 

snlar tongue of kmd between the Aat and ReuM, it«ofl 
VMoniiia, (be most important aettlement.of the Bomans 
in Helvetia, as well as their strongest for tresa on this frontier, 
OB whidi they plaeed their chief dependeoee for maintaining 
Ihis fortionof their empipf. Us woika eitended IS miles 
from N. to S. 

¥el scaroiely any portion of it no^ Appears abOTe ground.; 
traces of an amphilheAtre, a subterranean aqueduct, which 
conveyed water from Brauneggberg, 3 miles off, foundations 
'of Willis, broken pottery, inscriptions, and coins have been 
•turned up by the spade from time to time, and its name is 
preserved in that or the miserable little village of tFindUch. 

** Within the aiicieni walls of Vindcnissa, the castle of 
Habsburg, the abbey of Kofiigsfield, and the town of Brock, 
have successively arisen. The phitosophic traveller may 
compare the monuments of Roman conquests, of feudal or 
Austrian tyranny, of monkish sii|)erstitioii, and of indttstriom 
freedom. If he be truly a philosopher, he will applaud the 
merit and hapj^neftg of his own time."-^6<6^. 

Haifa mile beyond the waits ofBrbgg stands the ahh$yot 
XeBnigtfeldm (King's field), founded; 1310, by the Empress 
Elizabeth; and Afmes, Queen ofHungary, on the Spot where, 
two years before, thfir husband and fa^er, the Emperor Albert, 
was assassinated. The convent- was suppressed in ISSg, end is 
tow cotiverled into a lunatic asylum. The ehureh, ftist fiiB- 
Ing to decay, oontalns some tine painted glass; and the efll- 
gies in' stone, as large as life, of a loqg train of nobhM, who 
fell in the battle pf Sempach. T4ie vauHs beneath were the 
bnrfftl-place of many members «f the A ustrlan family, indn- 
dingi Agnes and Leopold, who fell at Sempach, but they 
were removed hence into the Austrian domirilona in 1*119. 
According to tradition, the high alta'r stands on the spot where 
Albert felU He had crossed the ferry 'of the Reuss in a small 
boat, leaving his suit^ on the opposite bank, and attended 
Only by the four conspirators. Tne chief of them, John of 
Siiabla, nephew of Albert— who had been instigated to the 
design by tne wrong he endured in being kept oi^t of his pa- 
ternal inWitaQce mr bis unele-^rst struck him in the throat 
wi0i his lance. Balm ran l»m through wHh his sword, and 
Walter vou Eschenbach cleft his skuM with a fdhng-stroke. 
Wart, the fourth, todk no share In the murder. Allhough 
tte deed was so openly done In broad day, almost under the 
walls of the Imperial Castle of Habsburg, and in sight of a 
large retinue of armed attendants, tke murderers were able 
to escape in different directions ; and the Imperial retainers 
took to flight, leaving their dyin^ mjuster to breathe his Ici^t 
in the armt of a poor peasaiit whq happened to pass. 

22 Route 6. — Kcemgsfelden— CoBlle ofHaMurg, 

A p<>asatit-gir/ that royal heaii upon \\er bosom laid, 
And,shrinkingnoiforwonian*9drRatl, th« face of d«*alh surv^yM : 
Alone she sate. From hilland wood low sunk the mournful sun; 
Fast gushed the fount of nohic blood . Treason his worst had d one. 
With \\9r long hair she vainly. pressed the wounds t^ staunch 

their tide; 
Unknown, on that meek, humble breast, imperial Albert died. 

Mn. Hemams. 

A direful vengeance was wrecked by the children of the 
murdered monarch; not, however, upon the murdercrs-^for, 
with the exeeption of Wart, the only one who did not raise hi» 
hand against him, they all escaped— but upon their families, 
relations, and friends; and 1000 victims are believed to have 
expiated, with their lives, a crime of. which they were totally 
innocent. Queen Agnes gratified her spirit of vengeance 
with the sight of these horrid executions, exclaiming, while 
63 unfortunate men were butchered before her, ''Now I 
bathe in May-dew 1 " She eqded her days in the convent of 
KOnigsfelden, which she had founded and endowed with the 
confiscated property of those whom she had slaughtered. 
. Penance, prayer, and alms- giving would avail hot little ^to 
stifle the qualms of a guilty conscience for the bloody deeds 
which she had committed; and it is recorded that a holy 
hermit, to whom she had applied for absolution, replied to 
her—** Woman ! God is not to be served with bloody hands, 
nor by the slaughter of innocent persons, nor by convents 
built with the plunder of orphans and widows— but by mercy 
and forgiveness of injuries." The building in which she 
passed 50 years of her life is destroyed— that which is shown 
as her cell is not so in reality. 

About two Tniles above Brugg, on a wooded height called 
Willpelsberg, stand the remains of tl^e Castle of Habsburg, 
or Habichtsburg (Hawk's Castle), the cradle of the House of 
Austria, built in the 1 1th century by Bishop Werner, of 
Strassburg, an ancestor of the family. A mere fragment of the 
original building now exists. The tall, square keep of rough 
stones has walls 8 ft. thick; and beneath it a dungeon, to be 
entered only by a trap-door in the floor above. The view 
f^om- it is picturesque and interesting; the eye ranges along 
the course of the three rivers, over the site of the Roman 
Vindonissa, and K5nigsfelden,.tbe sepulchre of imperial Al- 
bert : on the S. rises the ruined castle of Braunegg, which 
Jselonged to the sons of the tyrant Gessler; and below it Birr, 
where Pestalozzl, the teacher, died, and is buried. It takas 
in at a single glance the whole Swiss patrimony of the 
Habsburgs— an estate far more limited than that of many a 
British peer— from which Rudolph "was tailed to wield the 

Route d. — Baths of Schintxnath - Baden, 23 

sceplre of Charlemagne. The house of Austria were deprived 
or their Swiss territories by papal ban, 150 years after Ru- 
dolph's elevation ; but it is believed that the ruin has agaiu 
bec'on>e the pro|)erty of (he Austrian Emperor by purchase. 

Below the caslle, at the foot of the Walpelsberg^and about 
3 miles from Brugg, Ke the Baths of Schintznach, also called 
Ilabsburger Bad', the most frequented watering-place in 
Switzerland. The principal buildings are the Great Inn, 
Grosser Gaslhof , and the Bath-house , erected within a few 
years, in a semicircular form. In May and June., 300 people 
often dine here in the splendid saloon. The house contains 
^ieepin^ accommodation$ for 200. and 50 baths. The waters 
are of the saline sulphureous kind, and have a temperature of 
60O Fahr. They are efficacious in cutaneous disorders , in 
rheumatism, and for wounds. Schintznach owes little to na- 
ture, except its waters. Some pretty walks have beeii made 
near the houses, and winding paths, under the shade of trees, 
lead up the hill to Habsburg. 

BALE TO zcBicH — (con<tnti6d). 

On quilting Brugs, the road passes the convent of Kdnigs- 
felden, traversin^Oberdorf (near which are scanty remains of 
;i Koman amphitheatre) , and skirts on the I. the village of 
Windisch(p. 21), before it crosses the river Beuss. It then 
proceeds up the 1. bank of the Limmat, lo 

2 Badsn — {Inns : Ldwe, Lion ; — Engel, Ange). These 
• inns in the town are inferior to those at the baths. — This an- 
lient walled town, of ISOO inhabitants, is squeezed within a 
narrow defile on thel. bank of the Limmat, here crossed by a 
wooden bridge. The ruins of the Castle^ nearly as large as the 
place itself, overlook it from a rocky eminence. It was an- 
ciently the stronghold of the Austrian princes, and their resi- 
dence while Switzerlandbelongedtothem.Here were planned 
the expeditions against the Swiss, which were frustrated at 
Morgarten and Sempach. At length when the Pope, in 1415, 
excommunicated the Archduke Frederick, the Swiss took it 
and burnt it. In the RathhausotBAden the preliminaries pre- 
ceding the treaty, of peace which terminated the war of Suc- 
cession were arranged by Prince Eugene, on the part of Aus- 
tria and by Marshal Yillars, for France, in 1712. 

Baden, like its namesakes in Baden and Austria, was fre- 
quented on account of its mineral waters by the Romans, 
who called it Thermm Helvetica^. It was sacked and des- 
troyed by Ccecina. 

the Baths— (Inns : Stadthof, best;— Hinterhof;~Raabe) 
—are situated on the borders of the Limmat, a quarter of a 

S& Route 6^Dietikm. ~ Bad^n. 

mile below or N. of the town. They are resorted to between 
the months of June and September by numerous visitors, 
chiefly natives of Switzerland. The waters are warm and 
sulphureous, having a temperature of 38 Reaum., and are good 
,fior rheumatism, etc. 

The Great BathM, on the 1. bank of the river, are frequen- 
ted by the upper classes^lhose on the opposite side by the 
lower orders. 

The Swiss Baden, though not equal in beauty to some of its 
namesakes in other parts of Europe, has considerable attract 
(ions in the country around it, which is particularly interes- 
ting to the geologist , as affording proofs of some great con^ 
vulsipn of nature, by which the Limmat and other rivers des- 
cending from the Alps forced their way through the opposing 
barrier of the Jura, to join the Rhine and the sea. The rocky 
heights on each side of the river— the one surmounted by the 
rained castle, the other partly covered by vineyards^form 
the portal through which this great eruption of waters was 
poured out. Before this gorge was formed, Baden and the 
country above it must have been a vast lake. 

Agreeable walks are formed for invalids by the side of the 
Limmat, and many pleasant excursions may be made in the 
country around— the most interesting being that described 
above, to Schintznach (8 miles), by Windisch, KOnigsfelden, 
and Habsburg. 

Roman relics are constantly discovered in this district. 
Gambling appears to have been a prevailing vice among the 
visitors to the baths, and the Roman Legions stationed here, 
since a nelghbourinff field has obtained the name of Dice 
Meadow (Wihrfel Wiese), from the quantity of dice dug up 
in it. 

The pleasantest road to Zurich from Baden is said to be 
that along.the it. bank of the Limmat. It passes at the dis- 
tance of about two miles the convent of Wettingen, situated 
In an angle formed by a bend of the river. Its church, 
founded in . 1297, contains tombs of some early Counts of 
fiabsburg and Kyburg, painted glass, carved stalls, etc. 

The route taken - by the diligence follows the I. bank of 
(he Limmat to 

3 1/4 Dietikon. Near this village the French, under Mas- 
sena, crossed the river. Sept, 24^^t79»— a masterly move- 
ment, which led to the defeat of the Russians and the capture 
of Zurich. 

1 3/4 Zui^icH. In Route ». 

fiouie 7. -SrhaffHiaaHn- The Minster. 25 


SCHAFFHAUSEW.— (/tin»: Faucon, best; Couronne, not 
Teeommended. There is* good inn close to the Rhine fall 
About « miles ontof the town.) The Baden post-house is near 
the Faucon, but the innkeepers will do their utmost to nre- 
•vent the traveller availkig himself of this mode of travel- 


Sehaffljausen, a town of 7,500 inhahitants, stands on the 
right bank of theRhme, just above the spot where the rapids 
and falls commence, which render that river unnavigable as 
far as Basic. It was originally a landing-place and magazine, 
«t which the portage of goods beffan and ended, and owes its 
origin and name to the boat or skiff houses, here er«cied It 
as distinguished above almostevery other town In Switzerland 
by the antique architecture of its houses, whose fronts and nro- 
jecung oriel windows are decorated wiih carvings and stucco 
•work. Many of them were originally entii^ly covered exter- 
nally with fresco paintings, but of these there are now few 
examples; the house called Zum Hitter, nearly opposite tte 
Couronne, is one of the most remarkable of those that re- 
main. The houses or halls of the ancient Guilds, or Ziinfis 
are worthy of attention, on account of their quaint inscrin^ 
iions and aUusive ornaments. The wall and lurreted Rate- 
ways of the town have been preserved, and fOTnish verr 
picturesque subjects for the pencil. ' 

It is almost excHisively on account of its vicinity to the 
celebrated Falls of the Rhine that Schafflmusen is visited 
It has hUle resort, except from the influx of travellers it 
toeing one of the portals of Switzerland, and there is little 
vfithin the town to deserve notice. On the height above it 
rises the curious and perfect feudal castle called Unnoth or 
Munnoth, Its towers have walte of great thickness (18 feet) 
«aidtobeof R«man (?) construction; the building, however 
was notfiniahed m its present state till 1564. It is provided 
with bomb-proof casemates, capable of sheltering many hun- 
^^^^^^^^^^' ^***"y subterranean passages lead from it. 
r ^*fj*J«M5«»---oi-iginally the Abbey of All Saints -was 
founded 1052. It is a building in the Romanesque, or ronuy 
arched style, remarkable for its antiquity, the soUdity of its 
construction and as exhibiting an unaltered spechnen of 
that style. The arches of the nave are supported bTslSrfe 
Circular columns, and those in the centre of the transeot bv 
s^iare piers of the most massive kind. The cloister attached 
to the church contwns a profusion of monuments of the ma- 
gistrates find patrician' families. . 


26 Route 7.-r Schaffhausen - FaiU. of the Mine. 

The celebrated wooden bridge, over the Rhine, of a single 
•rcb, 365 feet in span, was burnt by the French in 1799, and 
is replaced by one of the most ordinary construction. A 
model of the original may be seen in the town library ; the 
architect was a carpenter from Appenzell, named Grubenman. 

The Town Library contains the collection of books of the 
celebrated Swiss historian Miiller, who was born here. 

Diligences go daily from hence to Zurich and Offenburg (on 
the road to Strasburg and Frankfort), three times a-week to 
Constance. . , ^ o ,. -u j 

A steamer rims twice a week between Schaflhausen and 


The Falls are about 3 miles below Schaffhausen ; the road 
to Zurich passes within a quarter of a mile of them. At tlie 
vUlage of Neuhausen, 10 mmutes' walk from the fall, there is 
a clean and moderate small inn, Zum Rheinfall : charges — 
•beds 2 fr. ; dinners 3 fr. ; breakfast 1 1/2 f . 

These quarters are convenient for those who would enjoy 
the aspect of the cataract at various hours, at sunrise and by 
moonlight. It will take at least 2 hours to see the falls tho- 
roughly and return to Neuhausen, including the time occupied 
in crossing and re-crossing the river. Close to the fall is an 
iron furnace ; the wheels of the hammers are turned by the 
fall, and the draught caused by the rush of the water supplies 
the place of bellows. ^ ^ „ ^ « ,. «. 

The best mode of visiting the falls from Schaffhausen is |o 
hire a boat from thence (costs 48 fr.), and descend the river, 
which already forms a succession of rapids, by no means dan- 
gerous under the guidance of a boatman accustomed to the 
river. When the increased celerity of the current and the 
audible roar announce that the skiff is approaching the falls, 
the steersman makes for the I. bank, and lands his passengers 
under the piauresque castle of Lauffen, situated on a high 
rock overlooking the fall, within the Canton of Zurich. It is 
occupied and rented by. an artist who speaks English and 
charges 1 Oranc admission for each person. 

The advantage of approaching the fall on this side is, that 
nothing is seen of it until it is at once presented in its most 
magnificent point of view, from the little pavilion perched on 
the edge of the cliff immediately above it. Its appearance 
from the opposite side of the river is tame in comparison, and 
the first impression from thence, made by the finest cataract 
in Europe, will most probably prove disappointing. Several 
flights of very rude and slippery wooden steps conduct from 
this pavilion to a projecting stage, or rude balcony, of stoul 
timbers, thrown out, like the bowsprit ofajship, from the 

RouU 7. — Schaffhausen io Coiutancg, J7 

vertical cliff to witbin a few feet of the fall. It aetoalty 
overhangs the roaring shoot, and, though perfectly secure, 
seems to tremble under the inripalse' of the water. Here, 
covered with the spray, the traveller may enjoy the full gran-> 
deur of this hell of toaiers ; and it is only by this close 
proximity, amidst the tremendous roar and the uninterrupted 
rush of the river, passing with the swiftness of an arrow 
above bis head and beneath his feet, that a true notion can 
be formed of the stupendous nature of this cataract. The 
best time for seeing the fall is about 8 in the morning, when 
the Iris floats within the spray (provided the sun shines), 
and by moon-light. The river is usually most fbll in the 
month of July. The Rhine, above the fall, is about 300 feet 
broad ; the height of the fall is reduced to 70 feet. Two 
isolated pillars of rock standing in the middle of the stream 
divide the fall into 3 shoots. Seen from behind, these pin- 
nacles seem eaten awav by the constant friciion of the 
water, and tottering to their fall ; indeed, as the rock is soft, 
the waste of it witbin the memory of man must be consi- 

* ^be river, after its leap, forms a large semicircular bay, as 
it were to rest Itself; the sides of which are perpetually chafed 
by the heaving billows. Here, in front of the fall, on the rt. 
bank, stands the Castle of Worth, a square tower, contain- 
ing a camera obscura, which shows the fall in another and a 
very singular point of view. From this tower to the foot of 
the rock on which the castle of Lauffen stands, several ferry- 
boats ply, to convey visitors across ; -charging 4 batz each. 
The boats are much tossed about in their passage, but some- 
times approach the base of the pinnacles above-mentioned 
without risk, provided they keep clear of the eddies. 

The walk from the Falls to Schaffhaosen is very pleasant, 
and commands (as you approach) several pleasant landscapes, 
«f which the town is the principal object. 

Sehaffhauien to Constance, 

9 stande»89 1/2 English miles. 

A diligence goes 3 times a-week in 5^ hours. 

A steamer goes twice a^week, but, in ascending the Rhine 
to Constance, it is necessarily a tedious conveyance, owing to 
the force of the current against which it has to contend. 

The journey may -be made more expeditiously by following 
Che road through Baden, on the N. of the Rhine, than along 
the Swiss side of the river, because it is provided with post- 
horses. The cost of posting Is not so great as that of Yetturin 

The relays are— 

8 1/2 Singen. Near this place you pass at the foot of 
Hohentwiel. The castle is now dismantled. The lofty rock 

28 \ RouteT.-Rudolf^zeU—Steifi. 

upon which it stands gives it the appearance of an Indian' 
hill fort 

11/8 Bvdolftsai. A desolate town, with a fine church, in 
the true German-Gothic style. 

The scenery throughout the vhole of this road is eiceed- 
itigly agreeable, often striking. The woods abound in mpst 
splendid butterflies. Collections of these insects may be 
lK»ught at Singen, and also at Rudolfszell. 

The inn at Rudolfszell. the *' Posthaus,*' is very good ; that 
at Singen poor and eitortionate. 

The Rhine here; suddenly contracted from a lake to a 
river, is crossed by a wooden bridge, in order to reach 

The Swiss road runs along the 1. bank of the Rhine past 
the Nunneries of Paradies and Katherinethal, the former 
belonging to the order of St. Clara, tbe latter of St. Dominic ; 
but the revenues and the number of sisters in both are now 
much reduced. The Austrian army under the Archduke 
Charles crossed the Rhine at Paradies 1799. . 

1 3/iDies8enhofen. 
. S Stei n--(/ntM:Schwto; Krone)— a town of 1270 inhabi- 
tants,, on the rt bank of the Rhine, belonging to St^halT- 
hauseB, united by a wooden bridge with a suburb on the L 
bank. The Abbey of St. George is a very ancient ecclesias- 
tical foundation. The owners of the ruined ' castle of Ho- 
henkli»g«n, situated on the rocky height, were originally the 
feudal seigneurs of the town, but the citizens obtained inde- 
pendeac#from their masters by purchase. 

Threa miles £. of Stein, at a height of between 500 and 600 
feet above the Rhine, are situated the Quarries ofOEhniur- 
gen^ remarkable for the vast abundance of fossil remains of 
terrestrial and fresh-water animals found in them, including 
ipammalia, birds, reptiles, fishes, shells, insects, and plants, 
some of them identical with species now .living. The most 
curious discovery is that of the perfect skeleton of a fossil fox, 
made by Mr. Murchison; a very large tortoise had previously 
been brought to light. The beds of rock in which the <]uar- 
ries are worked eonsistof marls, limestones, shales, and build- 
ing-stone ; they lie immediately above the formation called 
Molasse, and differ in their organic contents from all other 
fresh-water formations hitherto discovered. 

Above Stein the Rhine expands into a lake called Untersee 
(lower lakej, connected again by the Rhine at its upper extre- 
mitywith the larger Lake of Constance. In the midsiof it is the 
pretty island Heichenau; near Stein, as mallei- island (Werd) is 
IMSsed. Feldbach, also a nunnery a belonging to sisters of the 
Cistercian order, is passed before reaching 


Botiie 7. --jirenaberg— fVolfsberg i9 

llziiang, a small YJIlage on the opponite shore of the lake, 
within the territory of Baden, is the birtfa-place of Mesmer, 
th« inventor of animal magnetism. 

Near the village, of fierlingen the pretty chateau of the Do- 
chess of Dino appears, and a little furl her that of At'enaberg, 
the residence of the late Duchess of St. Leu (Hortense, ei- 
Queen of Holland), and of her son, who foolishly attempted a 
revolution at Strassburg in 1836. The death of the one and the 
foolish exploitsof the other, will probably cause the mansionlo 
change owners. Perviously it was the centre of a little colony of 
Napoleonists;>-Salenstein, Eugensberg (front its owner Eugene 
Beauharnois), Wolfsberg, all belonged to friends of Napoleon. 

A road turns olTfrom the lake at 

1 2/3£rmatingento the chateau of Wolftberg, formerly 
celebrated as a pension, but as its owner, an old officer of Na- 
poleon, was involved in the mad enterprise of Strassburg with 
the son of Hortense, it is believed that the establishment will 
be given up, at least by him. The following description of 
Wolfsberg is by a lady who resided in the house in 1835. 

" Wolfsberg is a chateau 2 leagues from Constance, well 
ailuated on a height above the Untersee. The view from the 
houseand sloping lawn of the lake, and thelsleof Reichenau, is 
very pleasing, though it cannot boast the grandeur of Swiss 
scenery in general. Col. and Mad. Parquin are its proprie- 
tors, but devolve on Madame 06n<^zil, a very active good- 
humoured person, all the details of the establishment. The 
price is 10 francs a-day, and 4 for servants. The accommo- 
dation is so superior to that of Interlachen, that it cannot be 
considered dear. There is one private sitting-room. The 
salon is very large, and the society generally a mixture of 
French) Germans, Russians, Italians, and English, who meet 
in the evenings, when dancing, music, and charades amuse 
the younger, and chess and cards the elder part of the com- 
pany. As M. and Madame Parquin are very well-educated 
and agreeable people, the tone of the society is particularly 
good, and there is very little risk of meeting objectionable 

**If travellers stay less than a week they pay 12 fr. a-day. 
Rides in the woods on donkeys, boating-parties, and excur- 
sions to (be chateaux andpoints-de-vuein the neighbourhood, 
occupy the morning. 

''To tourists who wish to enjoy comparative rest in cheer- 
ful society and a pleasant country, the advantages of Wolfs- 
berg are great, and, for those who wish to leave children in 
a safe and healthy spot while they are making mountain ex- 
cursions, no situation can be superior.— L." 

The island of Reichenau formerly belonged to the rich Be- 


56- ReuU 7. — Constance ^Th$ Minster. 

nedictine Abbey situated on it, founded 724, and sequestrated 
17tt9. The estates belonging to it were so numerous and ex- 
tensive, tbat it is said the Abbot, on his way to Rome, need 
not steep a night out of bis own dbmains. Within the Min- 
ster Church (Founded 806) Charles the Fat is buried ; be died 
here in want 888. The church possesses, among its treasures,, 
one of the waterpots used at the marriage of Gana! an emerald, 
weighing 281b., presented by Charlemagne, now ascertained glass, etc. 

The Castle of GoUlieben, on ihe 1. of the road, built by the 
Bishops of Constance 12d0, on the Rhine, at the point where 
it enters the Untersee, is remarkable for having been the pri- 
son of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, who were confined 
within its dungeons by order of the Emperor Sigismund and 
Pope John XXIII. The latter was himself transferred a few 
months later to the same prison, by order of the Conjicil of 
Constance. In 1454 Felix Hammerlin (Malleolus), the most 
learned and enlightened man of his time in Switzerland, was 
also confined here. The building is now private property. 

2 1 /2 Constance.— ( Inns : * * The Hechty or Brocket, ahd 
the Couronne Imperiale. both good ; but the latter is to be 
preferred as the posting-house. The other is in the voituriec 
connexion; and they do all they can to advise travellers to 
adopt that mode of transport, saying that you cannot rely upon 
finding horses, and the like.'*— P. ) 

. Constance, a decayed city, of 4500 inhabitants, instead of 
40,000, which it once possessed, is remarkable for its antiquity, 
since its streets and many of its buildings remain unaltered 
since the 15th century. Although situated on the I. or Swiss 
bank of the Rhine, it belongs to Baden. It is connected with 
the opposite shore ))y a long wooden covered bridge, and oc- 
cupies a projecting angle of ground at the W. extremity of the 
Bodensee or lake of Constance; its agreeable position and in- 
teresting historical associations make amends for the want of 
life perceptible within its venerable walls. 

The Minster is a handsome Gothic structure, begun in 
1052 : the doors of the main portal, between the two towers, 
are of oak, curiously carved with a representation of the Pas- 
sion of our Lord, executed in 1470 by one Simon Bainder. 
The choir is supported by 16 pillars, each of a single block, 
and dates from the 13th century. The pulpit is supported by 
a statue pf the ** Arch*h.eretic Huss ;" and the spot where he 
stood, as sentence of death by burning was pronounced on 
him by his unrighteous judges, is still pointed out. Robert 
Uailam, Bishop of Salisbury, who presided over the English 
deputation to the council, is buried here, in front or the high 
altar, " under a tomb, which is very remarkable, as being of 
English brass; which is fully proved by the workmanship. It 


Route 1. — €omtanc$ ^Th$ MinnUr-^Huss, 31 
was probably sent over, from England by his executors. Two 
sides of the ancient cloisters, whose arches are fiUed in with 
exquisitely beautiful tracery, are yet standing. The other 
sides were not long since destroyed by Are. By the side of 
uie cathedral is a curious circular chapel, perhaps a baptistry, 
in the centre of which is a Gothic model of the Holy Sepul- 
chre. The chambers on the cloister portion of the ancient 
Episcopal palace contain many curious vestments and dustr 
relics of the past grandeur of the see."— P. 

** The Dominican Convent , now a cotton factory, is very 
interesting. The chur<*h forms a most picturesque ruin, iu 
the earliest style of German Gothic. The cloisters are perfect, 
ihe little island upon which this building stands was fortified 
by tfcfe Romans, and a portion of the wall, towards the lake . 
can yet be discerned "—P. 

In a Hall of the Kaufhaus (an ancient edifice, dating from 
i3«8), lookrag towards the lake, the Great Council of Con-, 
stance held its sittings, 1414—18, ina larseroom supported 
by wooden pilhirs. That famous assembly, composed, not 
of bishops alone, like the ancient councils , but of deputies » 
civil and ecclesiastical, from the whole of Christendom inclu- 
ding princes, cardinals (30), patriarchs (4), archbishops («0) 
bishops (160), professors of universities and doctors of theo- 
logy (200), besides a host of ambassadors, inferior prelates, 
abbots, priors, etc., was convened for the purpose of reme- 
dying the abuses of the church: and as those abuses began 
with its head, the proceedings were prefaced by a declaration, 
that a council of the church has received, by Divine right, an 
authority in religious matters, even over that of the Pope. 
It exerted its influence in curbing the Papal power, by depo- 
sing the infamous John XXIII. and Benedict XIII., and by 
electing in their place Martin V. But there is one act of this 
council which fixes more lasting and odious celebrity than all 
the rest— the treacherous seizure and cruel murder of John 
Huss and Jerome of Prague, in spite of the safe-conduct 
granted to the former by^ the Emperor Sigismund, the presi- 
dent of the assembly. 

The chairs occupied by the emperor and pope , the BiWe 
of Huss, the door of the dungeon, now destroyed, in which 
he was confined, the hurdle on which he was dragged to exe- 
cution, and some other relics of the council, still remain in 
the hall^ besides a collection of Roman and German anti- 
quities, dug up in the neighbourhood. 

The house in which Hnss lodged, bearing a rude likeness 
of him, is pointed out in the PauVs strasse, near the Scbuetz- 
Ihor. He was thrown into prison sobn after his arrival, in 
the Franciscan Convent^ now a ruin, whence he was remo- 
ved to a more irksome dungeon bclow^round; affording scarce- 

32 Route 8. — Sefiafpidusen to Zurich. 

ty room to moye, in the before -mentioned Dominican 

^ The field— OQtside of the town, in (he suburb oFBrtih], in 
which he suflTered martyrdom, with a fortitude which moved 
even his judges and executioners to admiration— nay even 
the place where the stalie was planted, are still pointed out; 
and rude images of Huss and Jerome, formed of clay taken 
from the spot, are offered for sale to the stranger. 

In U74 a perpetual treaty of peace was concluded at Con- 
stance, between Sigismund of Austria and the Swiss Confe- 
deration, which put an end to the conVstswhich had endured 
for more than a century dnd a half, beginning with the fights 
of Morgarlen and Sempach. Constance belonged lothe crown 
ef Austria from 1549 to 1805, when, by the treaty of Pres- 
burg, it was transferred to Baden. Since 1803 it has ceased 
to be a bishopric. 

Petershausen , on the opposite bank of the Bhine, was 
until 1803 a Benedictine monastery: it isnowachAteauof the 
Grand Duke. It is still surrounded by its ancient fosse and 
ramparts. An excursion to the litUe Island of Meinau, 
about 4 miles N. of Constance, will well repay the trouble r 
it is decidedly one of the prettiest spots on the borders of the 

The lake of Constance is described in Boute 66. Two stea- 
mers run regularly, 5 times a-week , between Constance and 
the different [)orts of the lake. 



stunden » 29 1/2 Eng. miles. 

A diligence runs daily, in about five hours. 

There is another road, somewhat longer and more hilly, on 
the 1. side of the Hhine, by Andelfingen— (/nn; Bar)— a 
village of 2000 inhabitants, and the large manufacturing town 
of Winterthur (5 stunde) , described in route 9. 

The route by £glisa.u passes within a short distance of the 
Bhiue-fatl. The roar of the cataract is audible 4 or 5 miles 
off in a calm night, and the column of vapour from it—'' ri- 
fting like incense from the altar of nature"— is visible at a 
considerable distance. A corner of the territory of Baden, 
including the villages of Jestetten and Lostetten, is traversed 
before reaching 

4 Eglisau^(The Lion d*Orisa clean little inn by the river 
side; Mirsch, Stag).— A little town of 1600 inhabitants, in a 
contracted valley on the rt. bank of the Bhine, which here 
flows in a dark green stream, between wooded hills. At the 
end of the wooden bridge which traverses it rises a tall, square 

Route S.— Zurich. 33 

waU'h-tower of massive masonry : it belonged to a castle now 
removed. Close to it is a toll-house. This road is much tra- 
versed by pilgrims to the shrine of our Lady of Einsiedeln 
(ftoute 74); and the traveller encounters, at every step, troops 
'>r the poor peasantry of the Black Forest, religiously coun- 
ting their beads, and muttering their aves and paternosters. 
From the heights above the town of 

1 1/3 Balach (4000 inhabitants) the snowv Alps maybe 
discerned in fine weather, with the Righi in the middle dis- 

The descent upon Zurich, between vineyards and gardens, 
amidst neat villas and taverns, with the windings of the Lim- 
riiat, and the lake and town of Zurich in front, is very pleas- 
inf^. A little to the rt. of the road rises the hill oC Weid, 3 
miles from Zurich, commanding the finest view of the town 
and neighbourhood. A short distance outside of the town 
may be seen the junction of the Sihl with the Limmat. Since 
1833, Zurich has ceased to be a fortress; a large portion of the 
ramparts are already swept away, and the stranger finds him- 
self within its waUs without encountering drawbridges and 
bastions as heretofore. 

1 2/3 Zdbich— fnfM ; Scbwert (Ep^e)— overlooking the 
Limmat, close to the broad wooden bridge which serves as a 
mark^-place;--expen8ive, and neither very good nor clean. 
Beds^ 3 fr.; dinner, table d*hote, 3 fr.— in private, 4 fr.; tea 
and breakfast, 8 fr.— Raabe (Corbeau);— Storrh (Cycogne) , 
t«ble d*bdte, with wine, 2 fr. 8 sous; bed, 2 fr.; breakfast, 1 fr. 
4 sous. 

The inns at Zurich are notoriously dirty, high priced and 
ill attended : they have hitherto enjoyed a monopoly, and 
there has been no inducement to improve. But at this time 
(1837) two large new inns are building->one near the outlet 
of the Limmat from the lake, on the rt. bank of the river; the 
olher near the new post-olfice. 

Zurich, the most important manufacturing town of Swft- 
zerland, and the capital of a canton distinguished above all 
others for prosperous industry, has 14,500 inhabitants, and 
lies at (be N. end of the lake of Zurich, and on the banks of 
the Limmat, just where it issues out of the lake in a rapid and 
lieallhful stream, clear as crystal. A Roman station, Thuri- 
etwi , fixed On this spot, probably gave rise both to the town 
imd its name. Zuricn is the seat of the Swiss Diet (Vorort) 
alternately with Berne and Lucerne, for a period of two years 
together. The flourishing condition of the town Is visible in 
ihe improvements going fonvard in it, in the number of the 
new buildings rising in and around it. The banks of (he lake 
and Limmat, and all the neighbouring hills, are thickly dot- 

34* Route 8- ~ Zurich, — Munsier, 

ted over with bouses, which, by ihe removal of the useless aod 
iDconvenient ramparts^ will soon be united with the town it- 
self, forming a wide circle of suburbs. 

Apart from its agreeable situation and thriving manafac^ 
tures, there is not much to be seen in Zurich. There are do 
fine buildings here : that of the most consequence is the 
Cathedral, or Gross Miinster, on the rt. bank of the Lim- 
inat. It is venerable from its age, having been built in the 
ioth or 11th century, and worthy of respect from having been 
the scene of Zwingli's bold preachings of reformation in the 
church, and amendment of morals. It is a heavv^ massive 
building, in a style of architecture resembling tnat called 
Norman in England; very plain within and without, but in- 
teresting in the eye of the architect and antiquary. Its nave 
is supported on square pillars and round arches; beneath it is 
a very perfect crypt. Its circular portal, and the adjoining 
4iloitters raised upon small low triple arches, with slender 
columns and capitab of various patterns, fantastically carved, 
are very eurious. 

The house in which the reformer Zwingli passed the last 
six years of his life is still standing : it is No. 185 in the Grosse 

The Ckureh of St, Peter (with the large clock), on the 1. 
bdnk of the Limmat, had for its minister, for S3 years, Lavater, 
the author of the renowned work on pnysiognomy, who was 
born at Zurich. On the capture of the town by the French 
army, September 26, 1799, he was shot, within a few steps 
of his own door, by a brutal French soldier, to whom, but 
two minutes before, he had given wine and offered money, 
and while he was in the act of assisting another soldier who 
had been wounded. A high reward was offered by Massena, 
the French commander, for the discovery of the murderer ; 
but, though known to Lavater and his family, he refrained 
from informing against him. After lingering through three 
months of excruciating agony, he expired, Jan. a, 1801, at the 
parsonage : his grave is marked by a simple stone in the 
churchyard of St, Anne ; where Ebel, author of the Swiss 
Guide, and Escher von der Lintb, are also buried. 

The Rathhaus, a massive square building close to the 
lower-bridge, and opposite the Sword, is the place of meeting 
of the Diet, when it assembles at Zurich. In the council- 
chamber is an extravagant painting of the Oath at Grutli, by 
Henry Fuseli (properly Filssli), who was born here. 

The Town Library, close to the New stone bridge, in a 
building formerly a church (Wasserkirche), contains, in addi- 
tion to 45,000 printed volumes and MSS.. three autograph 
Latin letters of Lady Jane Grey, addressed to her preceptor, 
BuUinger , in a beautifully clear and regular hand—a few 

Route 8. — Zurii h, — PromenoiU, 35 

Simmatieal errors have been remarked in them; a bust of 
vater, by Danneeker; a portrait of Zwingli and his 
daughter, by Hans Asper; a model in relief of a large part 
of Switzerland ; some very curious fossils from OEhningen, 
including one described by Scheuchzer as a human skull » 
though In reality a portion of a lizard— fossils of the Glarus 
slate, chiefly fishes, from the Piatt enberg. 

The Old Arsenal (Alt-Zeugbaus) contains some. ancient 
armour; also a cross-bow, said to be(?) that with which Wil- 
liam Tell shot the apple from his son*s head; and several tat- 
tered standards, taken by the Swiss from their enemies, 
including one of Charles the Bold of Burgundy. This collec- 
tion is inferior to those in several other Swiss cantons. 

The tall and picturesque Tower of TFeflenbura, rising out 
of the water at the outlet of the Limroat from the lake, is used 
as a prison- State-criminals were formerly confined in it : 
Count Hans of Hapsburg passed more than two years in it. 
The Heretics* Tower (Ketzer Thurm) receives its name from 
the unfortunate Reformers confined in it during the religious 
troubles of Switzerland. 

In 1832-3 a Universtrywas established at Zurich, and many 
professors, expelled from other countries for their political 
opinions, have repaired hither as teachers- The most emi- 
nent among them is Oken. As yet the number of students is 
not great. The building of the suppressed Augustine Con- 
vent has been appropriated to its use, and considerable addi- 
tions to it are contemplated. The Library contains many 
original MSS. of the early reformers, and the Museum of A'a- 
lural History some good specimens of Swiss minerals and 
fossils, together with the Herbarium of John Gessner. 

One of the most pleasing features about Zurich is its pro- 
menades and points of view. The best of them is decidedly 
the Cats* Bastion (]i;atzen Bastei), an elevated mound com- 
manding a delightful view of the town, lake and distant Alps, 
which originally formed a part of the fortification, and it has 
been deservedly preserved, though the adjoining ramparts 
are cut away. It has now assumed the peaceful shape of a 
garden and shrubbery.' 

Nothing can be more delightful than the view at sunset 
from this point, extending over the smiling and populous 
shores of the beautiful lake to the distant peaks and glaciers 
of the Alps of Glarus, Uri, and Schwytz, tinged with the 
roost delicate pink by the sinking rays. 

The Hohe Promenade, another rampart on the rt. bank 
of the Limmat, also commands a good view^ but more eon- 
fined than the former. Those who desire a complete panorama 
should ascend the Weid, a hQl about 3 miles N. of the town, 
where an inn has recently been built« The triangular piece 

36 RouU 8 - Ztirich, — Mmtam. 

of ground at the junction of the Limmat and Sihl, below tbe 
town, is also a public walk : it is planted with shady avenues, 
but commands no view. Here is a simple monument to the 
memory of Solomon Gessner, author of'^ The Death of Abel,*' 
who was a native of Zurich. 

'Zurich is historically remarkable as the place where the 
Reformation first commenced in Switzerland, under the gui- 
dance and preaching of Ulric Zwingli, in 1519. It was the 
asylum of many eminent English Protestants banished bv 
the persecutions of the reign of Queen Mary : they met with 
a friendly reception from its inhabitants during their exile. 
The first entire Engliih version of the Bible, by JUiles Cover- 
dale, was printed here in 1535. 

Zurich is the native place of Hammerlin, the reformer; of 
Gessner, thepoet, and Gessner, the naturalist; of Lavater; 
and of Pestalozzi, the teacher. 

The principal manufactures are those of silk, the weaying 
of which occupies many thousands in the town and alon^ the 
shores of the lake. There are one or two large cotlon-i'acto-- 
ries. The cotton and silk goods made in the neighbourhood^ 
and in other parts of the canton, are the object of an eiten- 
sive commerce with Germapy and Italy. Many of the manu- 
facturers of Zurich have the reputation of great wealth, wilh-r 
out mhch poliiti. 

The MuseumClvh contains a capital reading-room, where 
Galignani. The Times, John Bull, Examiner, Athensum, antf 
Literary Gazette, Quarterly and Edinburgh Reviews are 
taken in ; besides all the best Continental journals. Travels 
lers can be introduced for a few days by. a member. 

At the shop of Henry Fussli and Co., near the stone bridge, 
will be found the best collection of maps, views, etjC.,. such as 
travellers often require to supply themselves wjlh. t 

The New Post and Diligence Office is built near the Lieb- 
frauen Kirche. A letter reaches England in six days. 

Diliaences go daily to Schaffhausen, Constance, Basle, 
Bern, Neuchdtel, Lucerne, Schwytz, Wintherthur, and St.r 
Gall, Rapperschwyl, and Coire; four times a-weekio.Glar 

A Steamrboat goes twice a-day from Zurich to the other 
end of the lake (Rapperschwyl) and back. Diligences convey 
passengers thence to Wesen, where another steamer is pre- 
pared to carry them across the lake to Wallenstadt. (Route 
U.) Travellers proceeding to the Righi may take the boat as 
far as Horgen. 

The voiiuriers (Lohnkutschers) of Zurich have the reputa- 
tion of being extortioners and uncivil. The writer can, from 
experience, recommend as an exception to this rule (if rule it 
be) one Jacob Aberli, living, in the Hirscbgasse, as having 

■«. i^: 

■ T T r L enfholH., Edileitr. 



Houie 9. — Zurch to Co*sianC€. 37 

served him with honesty, punctuality, %nd civility, for more 
than four weelis. 

ROUf £ 9. 


12 stunden=39 1/4 Eng. miles. 

A diligence daily in 9 hours. 

The road passes through Scbwammendingen and Bassers- 

On the banks of the TOss, about 3 miles on the rt. of the 
road» and nearly 4 miles from WIntertbur, rise the ruins of 
the Ceath of Kyhurg, memorable in history as the seat of a 
powerful family of counts; who, between the 9tb and 13th 
centuries, gained possession of the N. of Switzerland, as far 
as the Rhine and lalie of Constance, and numbered as their 
dependents and vassals 100 lords of minor castles, now for the 
most part in ruins. The line becoming extinct in 126 i, their 
domains fell to the share of Rudolph of Babsburg, aad the 
Austrian family, though long since deprived of them, still 
retain among their titles that of Count of Kyhurg. The ruins 
now belong to a citizen of Wintenhnr. 

The ancient Dominican Convent of TOss, on the road, now 
converted into a factory, was the chosen retreat of the Em- 
press Agnes aficr the murder of her father, Albert of Austria. 
Here her daughter-in-law, St. Elizabeth of Hungary, took 
the veil, and died in the odour of sanctity :her monument, 
with the arms of Hungary, is visible in the existing church. 
The cloisters, built with the church in 1460, are ornamented 
with fresco paintings from the Old and New Testaments. 

41/2 Winterthur~-(/nn«;wilder Mann, good; Sonne;) 
—an industrious manufacturing town, of nearly 3500 inhabi- 
tants ; consisting of two long parallel streets, crossed by eight 
sm^iler ones at right angles. 

The weaving of muslin and the printing of cotton are the 
most thriving branches of industry here. 

21/4Erauen f eld-^(lnns : Krone, best and clean ; Hirsch) 
—the chief town of the Canton Thurgovie (Germ. Thurgau), 
has 1^ inhabitants, and is situated on the river Murg, 
which sets in motion the wheels of numerous cotton, dyeing, 
and printings mills. 

The stately CctatUy on tiie summit of a rock, was built in 
the 1 1th century by one of the vassals of the Count&^f Kyborg. 

On a hill to the S.of the town stands the CapodiiaConvent 
founded In 1595, now occupied by only sdVefl'or eight 
brothers. . •» . 

t Pfyn, a village on 4he Thur, wis, in R^slnftn times, a 
frontier furt, called Ad fines; whence its modern uaine. 


38 Ro9d§s 10» ii.^Zurich Mf £<rft«. 

»/4Mfihll&ejLin. • 

1 1/4 W&'ldi. A wooden tower bus been erected on the 
summit of a hill near tbia, called Hohenrain^ on account of 
the extensive view it commands. 

9 1/i CoxsTAiiCBy inRoute 7. 

ROUTE 10. 


14 3/4 8tandena48 English miles. 

A diligence c oes daiJy. 

The road isihe same as Route 9 as^ Car as 

i 1/8 WHUertlwr* Hence by Elgg and Duiwyl, croMing 
the Murg to 

3 8/4Mttnehwyl, 


a Flahwyl, station of postrhorses, by the Kratzeen bridge 
rRoute 69), to 

3 1/2 Sft^ Gail. Route 66. 

ROUTE 13. 


^ StundeB»>75. 1/8 English miles. . A malleposte goes 
daily in 14, and a diligence in 17 hoiirs. As far as 

4 1/3 Raden the road i& the same as Route 6. This route 
isvery circuitous^ There is another direct road to Lenzhurff, 
by Rremgacten, but it is a n^ere orosa road, not practicable 
for heavy carriages. 

At Melliiigen, the river Reuss is crossed by a wooden 
bridge. Some have supposed that the battle in which the 
Roman general C«cina beat the H^vetians, a.o. 70, was 
fought here. 

3 Lenzburg— (/nn«: L6ve, good; Krone;)— a manufac- 
tnrmgtown of 9000 inhal^ilapts, on theAa, a stream which 
drains the lake of Halwyh The old golhic castle on the 
aulnmit of a sandstone eliff, is^now coAver^d into a school, 
OB the plan of that at Hof^yl. 

At a village called Hunzenschwyl, the road to Aacau turns 
off to theri^l., and. that tvam Schfntzpt^ch aod.Rrugg joiuB 
our route. 

1 8/4 Sahr. Oo' the right riaes llie. ancient fortress of 
Aaihnrg (p. 17). . 

8 3/4Kreatistpaase— (/nn.-tOwe.)— The high road* 
horn RMe to Lucerne heiie crosses. oi^r rpute. At nothrist^ 
f 1/2 farther on, there is a good inn (Cheval Rlanc-r- 
BOssli), kepi hy a civil landlady. The road runs along the 
rt. bank of the Aar to . . . 

1 %A Her g«s»toM'M • I'Awe, g^od.) 
Sl/d]IerzogeiilHieiif«ei-(itia;Sqiine;)h-ii vMlage of 
4500 inliabiUttI*. 
1 1/2 Hoek»l«tten. 


iBllie village dMirohis the odebraled Monmmmt ^madtmu . 
XiHHrJ^ani> wife of the IliQister, who died in child-birth« It i* 
hy « soiUpter^jiamed NaU, and represents her with her child in 
her wm, hurating th^mh the titmb at the sound of the last 
tcnupet. Its merit, as a work of artf has heen reach esi|g* 
fterat^. Its chief enaflle^ce ^secms to be the naliKid manner 
in which the crack in the Atone is represented, the epitapkr 
was written by Hatl^. Thin t4Mnb is formed of sandstone, 
and ia 1ft ioto^be pavemieBl of the chm-cb. The elder figure 
is.ingured by the hm of the nose, which Giatz Blotshein 
asserts (it isto be hoped wJfoiHid^y) ^aa the wanton act of 
an BngUsbDiaQ. 

The Ca^^le en tjhfi neighhowing height^ betongs to the 
Eriach family. 

8 3i4 BuiKB, (la Home 94.) 

aOUtB 14. 

Xepaca to COIBB, BT fSBtAKES or Z1JBICH Alf0 WAL- 

S5 StBDden*-M Bag. miles. 

A fliligeBce goes daily; bnl il is a tedious conveymce. 
Ikmu to iBtT it took $0 hours lo petfwm the journey. 

A istcsan^-boat trav<erM9 tfte lake otZiiri<dL to md M, 
twice a day, iii 8 i/8 or 3 hours, starting from Rappers^wyl, 
at a AM,, and 9;' aad from Zuriehr at 8 am, and 5 p.m. 
It is not a ^liek convayaace, as it zigzags Arom oaa side of 
the lake to the ether, to trite in aad let eat passengers at the 
dHlBipenl towns. Nor is it cheap, the piiea of a place from 
Happerschwyl to Zut>ieh betag at bair {^^ fr. eg c.) ; and tbe 
chargblbr a 4^wheeled carriai^, With A pei«oaa,.ameant» to 
33 fr. Those who hare a cwriage of thaiv own may proceed 
as speedily, Md at a If as eoist by hmd. There is a threat of 
startiag an eppositlOB steamer, na whloh easa sU this may be 

fiftligeiiDes are in readineas an the arriwil' of the steamer 
atBapperschwyl and WaUenstadt, to carry on the passengers^. ^ 

Good carriage-roads ran along both sides of tha lake, and 
asa tiaversed daily hy diligences. TUm vaed to WaKeaatadt 
and Coire fobs along the rt. or N. bank* 

The Lake ofZunch has no pretensions to grmdear of see- 
nevii;^ fhit HMMt be soaght for on the Mleat and savage shores 

^0 Route ik. — i^ke of Zurich. 

or the lakes of Lucerne, Geneva, and Wallenstadt ; bat ithat c 
cfaarm peculiarly its owo--tiiat of life and rich cultivation. Its 
borders are as a bee-hive, teeming ivith population, and are 
-embellished and enlivened at every step by the work of man. 
Its character is smiling and cheerful. The hills around il are 
less than 3000 feet high above the sea, and descend iu gentle 
slopes down to the water's edge : wooded on their tops, clad 
with vineyards, orchards, and gardens on their slopes, and 
carpeted with verdant pastures, or luxuriantly waving crops 
of grain at their feet. But the principal feature in this land- 
scape is the number of human habitations : the hills from one 
eitremity to the other are dotted with white houses, villas of 
citizens, cottages, and farms, while along the margin of the 
lake, and on the high road, ihey gather into frequent clusters 
around a church, forming villages and towns almost without 
number. Every little stream descending from the hills is 
compelled to do duty by turning some mill ; at the mouths of 
the valleys enormous factories are erected, and thus the shores 
of the lake, on either side, have the appearance of one vast 
uninterrupted village. 

The effect of this lively foreground is heightened by the ap- 
pearance of the snowy peaks of the Senlis, DOdi, and Gl&r- 
nisch, which are seen at different points peering above the 
nearer hills. The charms of the Lake of Zurich, inspired the 
Idylls of Gessner : they are celebrated in an ode of Ktopstock, 
and in the prose of Zimmerman. The lake is a long and nar- 
row strip of water, about 86 miles in length from Zurich 4o 
Schroerikon, and not more then three broad at the widest part, 
between StAfa and WAdensweil. The principal river fall^ig 
into it is the Linth, which issues out at Zurich, under the 
name of Limmat. 

Scarcely any of the villages or towns on the lake are at all 
remarkable except as the seats of flourishing industry. A few- 
only of the principal places are enumerated below» with their 
distance J)y land from Zurich; the banks are distinguished as 
rt. and 1., in reference to the cjourse of ihe Limmat. 

(1.) The high ridge rising on the W. of Zurich, and bor- 
dering the lake for more than 18 miles, is the Albis. 

(rt.) 1 3/4 Kassnacht— (/tm : Sonne;)— a village of 8IU 
inhabitants; not to be confounded with its namesake, on the 
Lake of Lucerne, famous in the history of Tell. 

(I.) Ruschlikon; behind this are the baths ofNydelbad, 
with a bath-house. 

81/4 Thalwyl— (/nn ; Adler.) 

Lavater is said to have written a portion of his work oo 
physiognomy at the parsonage of the village of Ober-Rieden, 
about 31/8 miles farther on. 

(1.) 1 uorgeft^C'nns; Schwan ; LOwe.}— Here paHeB>* 

Route 14« Zurich to (aire — Aufnaa. ki 

gers, bound for tbe Rigbi, by way of Zug, disembark and^ 
cross the hills. (Route 15.) 

(ft.} i2/3Meil€n— (/nn«; LOwe;Sonne;)— a veryconsir 
derable village of 3036 inbabi tan U, witba gothic church, built 
1190-9. Its poorer inhabilaDts are chiefly silk-weavers. 

(I.) 1 Wadenschwyl;— a pretty village of 4357 inhabit 
tants» coDtaining silk factories. Above it stands the castle, 
formerly residence of the bailiff (ober-arotman), now private 

(l.)3/4 Richtensweil,— here isooe of the largest cotton 
fact ries on the borders of the lake. The village is built on, 
the boundary line of Cantons Zurich and SchwyU; behind It 
the| road to £insiedeln ascends tbe hills. The pilgrims 
bound to that celebrated shrine usually disembark here- (See 
Route 74.) Zimmerman resided here as physician, and in his 
woffk OB "Solitude*' praises the beauty of this spot. 

(1.) 1 2/3 S t a f a— (/nnf ; Krone ; Stern ;)— an industrious 
village of 3026 inhabitants, by whom much silk and cotton 
is woven. The extremity of the lake beyond this lies out of 
the limits of ihe Canton Zurich. It has been calculated that 
th& number of inhabitants on each of its banks, hence to 
Ihe town of Zurich, a distance of 16 miles, is not less than 

- On approaching Rapperschwyl and its long bridge, the 
pretty little isle of Aufnau becomes a conspicuous feature 
and ornament to the landscape. It has some celebrity as the 
retreat and burial place of IJIric Yon Hutlen, a Frauconian 
knight, the friend of Luther and Franz of Sickingen, distln*^ 
guished equally for his talents and chivalrous bravery, but 
withal a bit of a roue. His satirical writings contributed not 
a little to the spread of the Reformation,, but raised up against 
bim such a host «f enemies^ that he was forced to fly from the 
court of Charles Y., and take refuge from their persecution, 
first, with Franz of Sickingen, and, after his death, in this 
little island. Zwingli bad procured for him an asylum here, 
in the house of the curate, where he died a fortnight after his 
arrival (1523^, at the age of 36. He was buried by a faithful 
friend, but all record of the spot in which he lies has long 
since disappeared. 

The Bridpe c/ Rapperschwyl Is probably the longest in 
the world; it extends from the town to a tongue of land on 
ihe opposite side, completely across the lake, a distance of 
4800 feet, or more than 3/4 of a mile. It is only 12 feet 
broad, is formed of loose planks laid (not nailed) upon piers, 
and is unprovided with railing at the sides, so that only on^ 
carriage can safely pass at a time. Tbe toll is heavy--24 batz: 
for a cbar-a-banc. It was originally constructed by Leopol;!; 
Hi Austria, 1^58 t the existing bridge dates from 1819. 

41 Route ik ^Zurich to Coire — Tke Linlh Canal. 

4 'SiiiaII ^Ume pi«r hns recently been thrown out into the 
lake, a little below the bridge, outside the |[ate or the town, 
receive fuissengers to from the steam-boat. 

(rt.) 1 1/8. Rapnerschwy I— (fnn* ; Pran(Paon fTOr), out^ 
sioetne town, best, but dear; Freienhot)-- This is a very pictu- 
resque old town, in Canton St. Gall, stilt partly surrounded 
by walls, and surmounted by an old Cattle and a Church, 
near which, from the terrace called Lindenhof, a fine view 
is obtained. 

Rapperschwyl is about 18 miles from Zuricli, and the same 
distance from Wesen. The diligence takes about d 1/2 hoars 
either way. A char costs IS f.; and a caliche, with tWo 
horses, 80 to 2i f. Roads run from hence to St. Galf, and 
across the bridge to Einsiedeln.^Roate 7i, and Glarus by 
Lachen, R. T2.) 

At Schmerikon, the road quits the lake of Zurich ; th^ castte 
ofGrynau, on the rt., stands on the Linth» a little above its 
entrance into the lake. Pedestrians will find the towing- 
path along the Linth canal shorter than the carriage-road from 
Schmerikon to Wesen. 

a 3/i Usnach,— a small town of 900 inhabitants, on an 
eminence, the summit or which is occupied by a small square 
tower of the ancient castle and by that of the church; The 
road to St. Gall (Route 69} turns off here. There are mines 
of brown coal at Oberkircn about a mile firom Uznach, in a 
liill 1500 feet high. 

Soon after leaving Vznach the valley of Glarus opens out 
Into view with the snowy mountains near its head ; a very 
beautiful prospect. Out of this valley issues the river Linlh, 
on impetuous torrent, fed by glaciers, and carrying down 
with it vast quantities of debris, which had accumulated to 
such an extent 80 years ago, thai its channel was obstructed, 
and its bed raised roanv feet above the level of the lower part 
of the valley. From this cause arose repeated and most dan- 
gerous inundations, wbieh covered the fertile district on its 
banks with stone and rubbish, and converted the meadows 
into a stagnant marsh. Nearly the entire valley between the 
lakes of Zurich and Wallenstadt was reduced to a desert, and 
its inhabitants, thinned in numbers by annual fevers, arising 
from the pestilential exhalations, abandoned the spot. The 
valley of the Linth was relieved from this dire calamity by Mr. 
Conrad Escher, who suggested to the Diet, in 1807, the in-> 
genious plan of digging a new bed for the waters of the Linth, 
and turning it into the Lake or Wallenstadt, in whose depths 
it might deposit the sand and gravel which il brought down, 
without doing any damage. He at the same time proposed 
to improve the issues of the lake of Wallenstadt by digging a 
navigable canal f^m it io the lake of Zurich, so «s to carry 

BohU Ik. — Zurich to Gfarus — Linth Canal. 4-3 

olT ihe waters of (he LInlh and the oiher streams railing into 
it, so (hat it might drain the intervening \allev, instead of 
mandating it. This important and useful puhlie irork was 
completed by EKher in 1828, and hAs been attended with 
perfect success. In consequence of it the valley Is no longer 
steril and unwholesome, and the high road to Westn, which 
was often cut off and broken up by inroads of the river, is now 
carried fn a straight line along its rt. bank. Immediately 
opposite Ihe opening of the valley of the Linth, at whose ei- 
treniity the mountains of Glarus now appear in all their gran- 
deur, a simple monumental tablet of black marble has been 
let into the face of the rock by the roadside, to the memory 
of the public-spirited citizen who conferred this great benefit 
on the surrounding country. He earned Arom it, in addition 
to his name, the title Von der Linth, the only title which a 
republic could properly confer, and which his descendants 
may be mor^ proud of than that of count or baron. The 
Linth if here crossed by a bridge^ called Ziegelbrttoke, oyer 
which runs the road to Glarus. (Route 79.) Near it are a 
coCton maauCictory and an establishment for the education tff 
the poor of the canton Glarus. It is called the Lkith Colonff, 
because it owes iis origin to a colony of 40 poor persona, 
aflerwards increased to 180, who were brought hither by 
charkable individuals from the over-peopled villages of the 
canton, and settled on this spot, which was the bed of the 
Linth previous to Escher's improvemenO, in order to reclaim 
it by removing the stones and rubbish, and rendering it fit 
for cultivation. They were lodged, fed, and allowed a small 
sum for wages, (he eipense being defrayed by subscription. 
After having, In combination with the correction of the Lintii, 
described above, restored the valley to a state fit for agricul- 
ture, and having, above all, been saved themselves from 
starvation. In a season of scarcity, they were dismissed to seek 
their fortunes with some few savings to begin the world; and, 
what was of more importance, with industrious habits, Which 
they had learned wnile settled here. In the school which 
now replaces the colony children from 6 to 12 are taught, and 
teachers are also instructed. 

8 1/4 We sen.— (Inn: L'£p<$e, well situated, but not very 
good fare; had once the reputatioh of being dear. The fol- 
lowing are the charges at present. — for the best bed-room» 
with two beds, 8 fr.; dinner 8fr«; breakfast 9 fr.) 

W«sen is a village of about ftOO inhabitants, at the W. ex- 
tremitv of the lake of Wallentdtadt, and hi the midst of sce^ 
nery of great magnificence. 

Glarus is sli miles from Weseti Tftoute 72). 

44- RouteV*, - Zurich to Coire — Lak' afJVdUevHadi. 

Lake of Wallehstabt. 

A sleam-boat yiu established on this lake, between Wesen 
and Wallenstadt, in 1837. It made 3 voyages to and fro daily 
in summer, 2 in autumn, and 1 in winter. The voyage takes 
up abput 1 hour and 10 minutes ; by the common boats it occu- 
pied between 2 and 3 hours. Fares— 1st place t florin (»lFr. 
fr. 35 cents.); carriages, with 2 horses, 4 florins ( »» 9 fr. 41 
cefits.) ; with 3, 7 florins ( « 16 Fr. fr. 47 c.) ; with 4, 10 flo- 
rins ( »23 F. Tr. 53 cents.) 

A diligence is provided at either end of the lake to carry on 
passengers as soon as landed. 

Previous to the construction of the Linth canaU the onW 
outlet for the lake of Wallenstadt was a small stream called 
the Magg, which encountered the Linth, after a course of 
4ibout 2 miles, and was arrested by the debris and stones , 
brought down by that river, so that not only were its waters 
often dammed up behind, but the surface of the lake was 
raised several feet above its ordinary level, in consequence of 
which, they overflowed the valley both above and below it, 
and laid the villages of Wallenstadt, at the one end, andWes- 
en, at the other, under water for many months during the 
spring. By £seher*s correction of the coufse of the Linth, its 
waters are now carried into the Lake, where they have already 
formed, by their deposit of mud and gravel, a delta nearly 
half a Kiiie long. Another canal, deep and protected at the 
side with strong dykes, now supplies the place of the Magg, 
and drains the lake of Wallenstadt into that of Zurich. 

The lake of Wallenstadt is about 12 miles long by 3 
broad ; its scenery is grand, but not first-rate ; far inferior to 
that of the lake of Lucerne. Its ]H. shore consists of colossal 
clifls of lime and sand-stone, regularly stratified, and so nearly 
precipitous that there is room for no road, and only for a 
very few cottages at their base, while their steep surface, al- 
most destitute of verdure, give to this lake a savage andarid 
ehaiacter. The S. side consists of more gradually sloping hills, 
covered with verdure and overtopped by the tall-bare peaks 
of more distant mountains. On this side there are several 
villages, and a very rough and irregular road runs along it. 
The lake had once the reputation of being dangerous to navi- 
gate, on accpunt of sudden tempests ; but in this respect it 
does not differ from other mountain-lakes; and there can be 
little risk in intrusting oneself to experienced boatmen. The 
courier who has passed it 3 times a -week for many years re- 
members no instance of an accident. 

The precipices along the N. bank vary between 2000 and 
3000 feet in height, and the stranger is usually surprised to 
learn that above them are situated populous villages and ex- 

HoaU 14.— ZttnV/i to Coke*'^ ff^aiUnstadti $ft 

tentive pastores crowded with cattle. Such a one is the vil-* 
lage of Aaimon containing 3000 inhabitants, nearly 2500 feet 
above the- lake, with a church, gardens, and orchards. It is- 
apinroached by one narrow and steep path, which maj be* 
Iraeed sloping upwards fromWesen along the face or the 
mountain-. Several waterfalls precipitate themselves over this 
wall of rock, ordeacend^ by gaahta or rents in its sides, into 
the lake; but they dwindle into in6ignific«nce by the end of 
aunimer, and add no beauty to the scene. The principal ohe»< 
are the Beyerbach, 1S00 feet high (above which lies Ammon), 
and the Serenbach, lOOafeet high. 

The Hamlet of St.-Qoentin is the only one on this side of 
tlie laiEO. On the opposite (S.) side there are numerous vil- 
lages at the months of the streams and gullies. The p^incipa^ 
of them isMurg, iH$ar which a large eolton-flictory has been 
recently built. Behind it rises the mountain Murtschenstock. 
Its summit, 7S70 feet high, and almost inaccessible, is tra- 
versed* through and through by a cavern, which though oflarge 
. size, looks from the lake like the eye of a bodkin. The hole iS' 
best seen when abreast of the village ofBftihIehorn; by those 
not aware of the fact, it might be mistaken for a patch of snow. 
This peak is the favoHrite resort off chamois. 

The N. E. extremity of the lake is bounded by the seven 
picturesque peaks of the Sieben Kfaurf&rsten {7 Electors ; 
some say Knnirsten). At their fi^t lies the village of 

i Wallenstadt.— (fnns: ROssli (Gheval); Hirs€h(Cerf; 
or Poste) ; not good. A new inn, called the Aigle d'Or, has 
been built at the side of the lake, close to the landing-place- 
ef the steamer. It is far better situated than the others, and 
is probably as good as they are in other respects.) 

WaOenstadt is a scattered township of 800 mhabitants; 
nearly half a mile f^om the lake, of which it commands no- 
Tiew. The flats of the valley amund and above it are mafshy , 
and theneighboorhood wasformerly very unhealthy, so long- 
as the irregularities of the Lintb obstructed the passage of 
Ihe.wiBters of the lake. The evil might be entirely cured 
were similar measures adopted to confine and regulate the- 
course of the Scez, vThich still overflows the valley at times. 
Wallenstadt is a doll place, and travellers had better avoicf 
stopping here. 

There is considerable beanty in the scenery of the valley 
of the Scez, between Wallenstadt and 

S 1/a Sargans— (frnis :Kreutz (Croix Btaincbe]; LOwe;)— a 
town of 723 inhabitants, on an eminence surmounted by a 
^atile,' near the function of the roads from St. GaH and Zurich' 
toCoire. It stands upon the water-shed, dividing the streams 
which feed the Rhine from tho^e which fall into the lake of 
Wallenstadt ; and this natural embankment is so slight (about 


(6 Route ih.-^Zurich to Ceire^ZariehU Shtg. 

SOO (Mtces across and less tba* 10 feel hi^) tlM, tt tM 4e^ 

Ksits brought down by tbe Hhine are coMlanily rtlslBg Us 
d, it is not impossible, Cbough scarcely iirobable, tbat the 
river may change its oonrse, relinauish its present fonle by 
the lake of Constance, and take a shorter cnt by ike lakes of 
Wallensudt and Zurich. It was ctlcQiated by Escber Tea 
der Llnth, from actual measurements, thai the waters of tke 
Rhine need rise hut 19 t/8 feet to pass into the lake ofWal* 
lenstadt ; and it is, indeed, reconnd that the river^ swotten 
by long rains in 1616, was only prevented taking tbfis direi>« 
tion by the construction or dams along its bankis. Geetogimn 
argue, from the identity of the deposits of gravel, in the valley 
of the Upper Rhine with those In the Vale of Sons, tlwl the 
river actually did pass out this way at one time. 

The remainder of this route of the vaHey vt the Rkjne by 

1 1/8 R agate to 

(4) 1 1/2 Cotra, together with the eieniiton to PfMfett, 
which no one who pasaes this way ahonU onll^ m toeriiied 



13 stunden^iS 3/4 Eng. miles. 

This is the most direct road to Zng and the Righi, but la 
is practicable for heavy carriages no farther than Horgen; they 
roust therefore be sent round by way of Knonan (Ronte I6> 
to meet their owners at Zng or Lucerne. As far as 

3 Horgen the road runs along the W. shore of the lake 
of Zurich, described at p. 40. The best mode of proceecUng 
thus far is in the steam-boat (p. 39). At Horgen-K'^Mis : 
Schwan, rather dear;^Owe)--a char-a-banc, wiUi one horsor 
may be hired for 18 or 14 francs to Zng, a drive of about 8 3/4 
hours. The ascent of the Albts tidgt behind Horgen Is very 
steep, but commands a fine view of the lake as far as Rap-- 
perschwyl and its long bridge. The steep descent which fol- 
lows leads down to the viltege of 

1 3/4 Sihlbrucke, so caUed fh)m a bridge over tibe Sihl, 
which coadttcts the traveller from €anton Zurich into Canton 
Zug. From the ridge which succeeds, the Rigbi and Pilataa 
are first seen, and soon after the borders of the lake of Zug 
are reached. 

1 1/8 Zug-^lnt^: Hirsch, Cerf, good;)— capital of Canton 
Zug, the smallest state of the Confederation, has 3860 Inhabit 
tants, and is prettMy situated at the N. E. comer of Ijie lake.* 
It has an antiquated look, surrounded by its old walls, and». 
being without trade, has a silent and deserted air. its hrha-. 
bkants, excluaively Roman CathoMcs, are chiefly aoanpiedl 

Route 15.— Zw^. VI 

with igricnltiinl pursaiu. The rich crops, vineyards, or- 
chards, and gardens, on the borders of the lake, proclaim a 
anil not ungrateftil to tiie cnltivator. 
- There is a Capuchin Convent and a Nunnery here. The 
pieture by Caracci in the former, mentioned by the guide- 
iwoks, is none of his» but is by an inferior artist, Fiamingu, 
and of no great merit. 

The Church of St. Michael, a little way outside of thc^ 
town, has a curious bime^houee attached to it, containing 
many hondred skullt, each inscribed with the name of iis 
owner. The cburoh-yard in which it stands is filled with 
quaint gilt crosses by way of monuments, and the graves are 
plB«t«dwith flowers. 

In the year 1485 it is recorded that a part of the founda- 
tfoMoflhe town, weakened probably by an attempt to draw ' 
off part of the water of the lake . gave way , whereby two streets, 
bUHt on the ground nearest the water, were broken olT and 
anbmerged ; M houses were destroyed, and 45 human beings 
perished ; among them the dbiief magistrate of the town. His 
child, an Infant, was found floating in his cradle on the sur- 
face of the lake; he was rescued, and aflerwards became lan-^ 
dnmmvnn of the canton. 

BiHgencee go daily from Zog to Lucerne and Zurich. 

The Lake ofZug, whose surface is 1940 feet above tbe sea, \ 
is 8 mites long, and about 3/i broad. Its banks are low, or 
gentlyHStoping hills ^ except on (he S. side, where tbe Righi , 
rising abruptly from the water's edge, presents ils preciptee» 
towards it, forming a feature of considerable grandeur, in 
conjunction with the Pilatua rising behind it. The Rufi, or 
Moesberg, rising in the S. W. comer, is also lofty and steep; 
the lake, at its base, is not less than tMO A. deep. A capital 
carriage-road has been formed along the water-side from Zug 
to Arth and Imraensee. Boats are to be found at all these 
places, and the fare across, with two rowers, is SO batz. It 
takes abottt ft hours to go by water to Arlh. The road to A r th 
winds round the base of the Rossberg, which has obtained a 
melancholy celebrity from the catastrophe caused by the fnll 
of a portion of it. (See Koute 17.) Near the chapel of St. 
Adrian a small monument has been erected on the spot where 
the arrow is supposed to have foUen wbich Henry Ton Hu- 
nenberg shot out of the Austrian lines into the Swiss camp, 
before the battle of Morcarten, bearing the warning words, 
^* Beware of Morgarten. '^ It was in consequence of this that 
the confederates occupied the position indicated) and it con- 
tributed mainly to tneir victory on that meniorable field. 
Morgarten (R. 74) lies within this canton^ about 14 miles W. 
of Zug, on (he Lake of Egeri. 

3 Arlh— (fnn /Schwarzcr Adler, Aigle Noir;— good) is the 

48 Route IG -^Zurich to Lucerne - The Aihif. 

b«st point from which to ascend the Bighi ; but Arth^tfac 
Bighi— and ibe rest of (he road to 
i LccEHNE, are niost convenienily descfiX^d in Route 17. 

ROUTE 16. 


10 stunden«s38 3/4 £ng. miles. 

A diligence daily in 7 hours. 

The high chain or the Albis intervenes between Zurich 
and Lucerne, running nearly parallel with the lake of Zurich. 
Two roads are carried across iU — 1. The roost northern, which, 
though somewhat longer, occupies less time than the sou- 
thern road, because itcl'osses the mountain where it is lower, 
as it were turning the flank of the chain, and going round 
its N. extremity. This is the road taken by the diligence, 
and the only one practicable for heavy carrtoflfM at present 
(1837). An impro\ed line is in progress>, but it does not re* 
dound to the credit of the canlon that it- is not further ad- 
vanced, and a year or two will probably elapse before it is 

The northern road commences the ascent of the Albis at 
the village of Albisrieden, about 3 miles from Zurich, passing 
under the highest summit of the cbain, called Hfltliberg, 
2792 ft. above the sea-level, and commanding from its top— 
which may be reached by a foot-path in 11/2 hour from 
Zurich— an eitensive view. On the opposite descent the road 

2 1/2 Rons te it en (/nn:L(>we). 

2 3/i Knona n. There is an inn at the castle: At this 
place the two roads unite. 

2 The second route crosses the High Albis, and in its pre- 
sent (1837) state IS dangerous for a heavy carriage, and not 
fit for any vehicle but a char of the country. It is exceed- 
ingly steep, and resembles the bed of a torrent rather than a 
road. This line of route, however, is remarkable for the 
very beautiful view of the chainj of the Alps, and a large part 
of Switzerland, which is seen from its summit. It skirls the 
shore of the lakes as far as Adliswyl, where it crosses the 
river Sihl, and ascends to the 

2 1/2 A I b i s W i r t h s h a u s, or. Inn of the albis, which 
affords only moderate fare or accommodation, but a magnifi- 
cent prospect. The best point, however, for seeing the view 
is the Signal (Hochwach, called also Schnabelj, a height off 
the road, about a mile above the inn : it takes in nearly the 
whole of llie Zurichsee; while, at the foot of the mountain, 

Ronif. 16.— Zurich io Luderni'^Cappti, V4 

iieiween it and the bke, the tile of the Ml intemnei. lU 
wooded slopes were the favourite retreat of the pastoral poet 
Cressner : they were occupied in 1799 hy two hostile armies— 
that or the French under Alassena, who encamped on the 
slope of the Albis ; and of the Russians, who occupied the 
right bank of the SiW. They watched each other from hence 
for more than three months; until Hassena, by a masterly 
movement, crossed the Limnat» cut off part of the Russian 
force, and compelled the rest to a hasty retreat. On the S. 
are seen the little lake of Turl (Turler see), at the foot of the 
mountain : not far off the church of Cappei,. where Zwingli 
died ; farther off the lake of Zug, and behind it tower the 
^Bighi and Pilatus mountains, between which appears a little 
bit of the lake of Lucerne. The grandest feature, however 
of the view is the snowy chain of the. Alps, firom the Sentis to 
the Juogfrau, which fils up the horizon. The panoramic 
view from the Albis has been engraved by Keller. 

The greatest height which the road attains Is SiOi ft., after 
which it descends, passing en the rt. the little lake of Turl, by 

2 1/i Knonau. Persons bound to the Righi, and travels- 
ling on foot, or in a light char, may proceed at once from* the 
•ummit of the Albis to Zug by Hansen, and Cappei (5 miles 
from the Albis inn), a village of 600 inhabitants, which has 
obtained a woeful celebrity In Swiss history as the spot 
where the Confederates, embittered against each other by 
religious discord, dyed their hands in the blood of one ano- 
ther, and where Zwingli the reformer feU in the midst of his 
flock on the lilh of October, 1531. Many of the best and 
bravest of the citizens of Zurich perished on that day of civil 
broil, overpowered by the numbers of their opponents, the 
men of the i inner cantons. Zwingli, who, m accordance 
with the custom of the time and country, attended his flock 
to the field of battle, to afford them spiritual aid and conso^ 
Ifltion, was struck down in the fight, and found by a soldier 
of Unterwalden, who did not know him, but who, finding 
that he refused to call on the Virgin and saints, despatched 
him with his sword as a dog and a heretic. His body, when 
recognised by his foes, was burnt by the common hangman, 
and even his ashes subjected to the vilest indignities^ that 
hialice could suggest. The spot where he fell is marked by 
a tree, about 5 minutes' widk from the church. The^ofAtc 
church of Cappei, anciently attached to a convent suppressed 
aoon after the commencement of the Reformation, was built 
io 1380. 

60 . RauU i^.^-^Lucerng^^BriJges. 

The ro«d trcm Kncfntu to Livceme peoeeeds by Kairiellilii>h 

1 1/a Si« Wolfgang-ivhere a good carriage-road tmrn 
«ff 011 llie laft to Zog attd (he Righi-^Thence il proceeds 
along the banka of the -Reoss to 

aGysliker-Brftcke, Dierikon, Ehikon, and fMssing, 
near the monnment of the Swiss Guards (p. 5t), enten 

S 1/4 Lqcbbiib. innt :Schwcfi— « new house, in the best 
situation, and good ; In 1837, complaints were made that it 
was dear;-^Bakinces (Waaffe)-<-an old established house, 
good, dean, and moderate charges. The four daughters of 
the late host take the raanageiment of the establishment, and 
ihe traveller will find in it extreme civility and most excellent ' 
attendance. ROssli (Cheval). There is a good penston, over* 
looking the lake close to the Kapel BrQcke. 
. Lucerne, chief town of the canton, and one of the three 
Yororter, or alternate seats of the Diet, lies at theN.Wi 
extremity of the Lake of Lucerne, and is divided into lw<o 
parts by the river Reuss, wJiich here issues oot ofit. Its 
population is about 7500, all Catholics, except about 180- Pro^ 
testants. Lttceriie is the residence of the Papal Nuncio. 

It is not a place of any considerable trade or manufactures; 
but their absence is more than compensated by the beautifUt 
scenery in whic^ it is situated on the borders of the finest 
and most interesting of the Swiss lakes, between the giant Pi- 
latus and Righi, and in sight of the snowy Alps of Schwytt 
and Engelberg. The town is still surrounded by a very pic^ 
turesque drcle of feudal watch-towers, and is walled in oo 
the land side ; but its chief peculiarity is the number and 
length of iu bridaes. The lowest, or MUt-^tridge, is bung 
with paintings of the Dance of Death ; the second, or Retiss^ 
brUckB, is the only one uncovered and passable for carriages ; 
^e upper, or Capel-briicke runs in a slanting direction across 
ihe mouth of ihe ReiMS, whose clear and perllucid sea-green 
waters may here be surveyed to^great advantage, as they rush 
beneath it with the swiftness of a mountain-torrent. Against 
the timbers supporting the roof of this bridge are suspended 
77 ptetures; those seen in crossing from the rt. to the 1. bank 
represent the life and acts of St. Leger and St. Maurice, Lu-^ 
cerne's patron saints. The subjects of those seen In the oppo- 
site direction are taken Arom Swiss history, and are not 
without some merits. Near the middle of the CapeKbrOcke, 
rising out of the water, stands a very picturesque watch- 
lower, called Wassef^ihurm, forming a link of the feudal 
fortifications of the town. It is said to have once served as 
ji light-bouse {Lwerna) to boats entering the Rcuss, and 
hence some have derived Uie present name of Lucerne. The 
Hofbriicke, the longest of all the bridges, was originaily f 38o 

IMtoBg, bm IMS loBl 800 feet *liicel»5. li «tt«iMte a€rot» 
the Me, iriUUn a few feel of tlie shore to ike ciitirch of 81; 
Leode§Mv «ik1 the GomieAt ami Cemt (HoT) %f its former 
•bbote^ ThepeintiiigsiM its roof' iHwtratetkeSeripUHe. 
'< Iiettons for every heart ; a BiMe for all eyes.^ 

n e o nimm tf itchtuning TlewoT the lake, the Alps, the RighU 
and Ihe Plletas. Near the middle or it is an iadex painted 
on a board, the diverging lines of which point to ibedtlfei^* 
eat moantains ahd peaks visible (Vom beaoe^eaeb of which 
is ftairied tor the convenience of strangers. A considerable 
portion <f ground has beea gained fhimi the lake by curUiHok 
this bridge, and throwing oot a sort of qaay ; the new ian or 
Ihe Swan stands^ oa this space. This is also the tandhig-place 
of the steawi~boa't« 

In chmthes and other pabiic buihtings Lacerne hat BO very 
IMPomtfieatobJeets, tboagheeveralwMeh are Mahly pieasing as 
OMniuttenli of the progress of the nation, andf of its maaaeiv 
aad ciMtoois, eiisfr. The dintreh of St. £^er, Hof», or Stiflo^ 
kirGbe,is amodem balMlag, eieepttiie two towers, whicjb 
dsfle from 1500. The adtoSiias ohurcb-Tard is filled with 
i|aaiatoldmonuraeats> and the view from die cloister wiadows 
is fine, bat similar to that froni Ihe bridge. 

The Aru^nai, near the gale leadina to Berne, is one of those 
inniertille repositories common to the chief towns of all the 
«anlons,in which are deposited the maskets, artillery, etc., 
f Of arming iheir eenting ent of troops; It contains some rusty 
enits of ancient ermour aad several historical relics and tro«- 
phi€» of Swiss vatoiir, such as Che yeMew Austrian banner, 
and many pennotts of knights end nobles taken at the battle 
orSempach; the coat of miil stripped from the body of Dnke 
Leopold of Aaslria, who fell therer; the iron cravat, lined with 
aharp spikes, deslioed for the neck of Ckiadoldingea, the 
Schttll^iss and general of the men of Loeenie, who died in 
the hour of victory. A sword of William Tell, and a batUe*- 
«ie, borne by Ulric Zwingti, at the battle of €appel (p. 4t), 
iM^e of very doubtful anthentieity : tbongh ^e malice of the 
enemies of Iwingli may hare led to the assertion that he took 
wtive part In the fight, it is believed Uial; he assisted his 
countrymen merely with eihorunions and eonsoiationft of 
feMgion. Several Turkish standards deposited here*were 
eapDared at theba«tte of Lepanto, by a kirigbt of Afatte, who 
wasa native of Lucerne. 

The Sia^hmuSy on the rt. bank of the Reuss, a little bdow 
the Gappel-brticke, is the place of meeting of tfie Diet, whose 
elltftags are open to the public. The Council of the canton 
also assembles in it. • 

G0mt^ Pfftptfi model (In relieO of a part of Switierland 

52 Route 16.— Lucerne —Th^rwatdsen^t hion. 

may interest those who desire to trace on it their past or fiitiiftt 
wanderings ; but it ts not so extensive nor so well made as 
that at Zurich; liesides which 1 fr. &0,c. is demanded f6r 
admission— decidedly more than, it is worth. The Gothic 
Fountaine which are to be observed in all parts of Switzer- 
land are here of singular beauty and originality. 
. At Meyer'B shop, near the Swan^books, prints, panoramas, 
end maps, relating to Switzerland, may be had in great pro- 

One of the most interesting of the eights of Lucerne is-, 
without doubt, the Monument to the nwmory of the Sfoiee 
Guards, who fell while deftinding the Royal Family of France 
jn the bloody massacre of the French Revolution, August 10, 
179S. It is situated in the garden of Gen. PCyffer, about 
half a mile outside the Weggisgate. The design is -by Thor- 
waldsent executed by Ahorn, a sculptor of Constance. It 
represents alien, of colossal size, wounded to death, with a 
spear sticking in his side, yet endeavouring in his last gasp 
to protect from injury a shield bearing the fleur-de-lis of the 
Bourbons, which he holds in his patrs. The figure, hewn out 
of the living sand-stone rock, is 28 feet long, and 18 high, 
and its execution merits very great praise. Beneath it are 
carved the names of the soldiers and officers who fell in de- 
fending the Tuileries Aug. 10, 1702. The loyalty and fidelity 
of this brave band, who thus sacrificed tbeir lives for their 
adopted sovereign, almost make us forget that they were 
mercenaries, especially standing forward, as they did, as the 
protectors of Louis and his family, at a moment when desert- 
ed, or attacked, by his own natural subjects. There is a quiet 
solitude and shade about the spot which is particularly pleas- 
ing and refreshing. The rocks around are mantled with fern 
and creepers, forming a natural frame- work to the monument; 
and a streamlet of clear water, trickling down from the top 
of the rockf is received into a basin-shaped hollow below it; 
forming a mirror in^which the sculpture is reflected. One of 
the very few survivors of the Swiss Guard, dressed in its red 
uniform, now rusty and patched, resides in a cottage hard 
by, as guardian of the monument and cicerone to the stran- 
ger. The doth for the altar of the little chapel adjoining was 
embroidered expressly for it by the Duchess d'Angoul6me. 

There are many pretty walks and points of view near 
Lucerne; one of the best is the villa called Allenwinden, 
perched on the top of a hill outside the Weggis gate, from 
which it mav be reached in a walk of 15 minutes, by a path 
winding up the hill outside the town wafls. 

Gitnrattar,-^ei height on the opposite side of the Reuss^ 
outside the Basle gate, als^comraands a fine prospect. 

ilfotoif Bighif so celebrated for its panoramic view, is 

iioute \6. Lficerne - Mount Pi/aius. S3 

about 10 miles Trom Lucerne (i.e. the base of the mouiitiiin). 
To reach the suiiiitii will occapy at least 6* hours, eidusivc 
of stoppages, from Lucerne; so that travellers will regulate 
iheir departure accordingly, rememheriog that it is of much 
con^pqueDee to arrive at the top before sunset. There are 
several ways to it, by iand, to KUssnacht and A rth ; or 6y 
weUer to Kussnacbt aud Weggis. (See Route 17.) 

No one should leave Lucerne without exploring the beauties 
of its lake—called in German Yierwaldstildter 8ee--the gran- 
dest in £urope, in point of scenery, particularly the farther 
end of it, called the bay of Uri ; and much additional pleasure 
will be derived if the traveller who understands German will 
take Schiller's '' Wilbelm Tell" as a pocket companion, in 
which admirable poem 30 many of the Kenes are localized. 
(Route 18.) 

Those who intend to explore the lake, and visit the Righi, 
and to return afterwards to Lucerne, should combine the two 
expeditions, which may be effected in two days, (Ai4t-*goby 
land to Arth, or |>y water to TVeggis, descending next day oii 
the opposite side^ and embarking on the lake, ^ either at 
Weggis or Brunnen. Sail up the bay of Uri, at leaat as far 
as Tell's Chapel, and return by water to Lucerne the Snd 

A Steamer was launched upon the lake of Lucerne in 1837. 
It plies regularly between Lucerne and FlueUen, calling at the 
intermediate places. Further particulars respecting it, and 
the hire of boats, which may be found in abundance on the 
shore opposite the Swan inn, are given in Route 18. 

Diligences go daily from Lucerne to Aarau; Bdle; Berne, 
by Summiswald; Berne, by £ntlibuch; Soleure; Zug and 
Zurich; 4 times a-vaeek to Schwytz, by Kilssnacht and 

Mount Pilate is sometimes ascended from Lucerne, but 
the journey is difficult, occupying 6 1/2 hours; the greater 
part must be performed on foot, . and the view from the top 
is decidedly inferior to that from the Righi The road np it 
from Lucerne proceeds In a S. W. direction, by the side of 
a yi\\A torrent, which, when swollen by rain, is very injurious 
to the habitations on its bank»; and, in the last century, dea- 
troyed many houses in the town. Skirting the base of tho 
mountain it passes through the hamlets of Krienz, Obernau, 
and Herrgottpswald; then, crossing a ridge covered with 
pasturages, descends into the Alpine vaUey of £igeothaL 
Beyond this the path becomes steeper, and is only practicable 

* N.B. The number of hours will lie lessened by taking ad* 
vantage of the new steamer to Weggis. 

5k Koute 16.— /-a«rnr — Mount Pitdtts. 

An Toot. It takes nearly 5 hours to reach the (chalets on ihe 
llrfilndtis Alp,>-the highest human habitation, occupied by 
shepherds only in the summer months. The traveller inay 
here obtain shelter for the night, but nothing deserving the 
name of aocommodatioil. There is a very remarkable echo 
near the BrAndlis Alp. Above this vegetation ceases and 
naked rock succeeds. A cave in the face of the precipice, 
oeair this> is called St. Dominick*s Hole, Trom a fancied ro^ 
semblance in a stone, standing near its mouth, to a monk. 
The cavern was reached in 1814 by a chamois hunter, Igna- 
cius Malt, at the risk of his life. 

The Tomlishorn, the highest peak of the moimtain, is 
5766 feet above the lake, and 7116 feet above the sea level; 
b«t the view from it is said to be inferior to that from another 
peak, the Esel (ass). There is another path from the summit 
down the opposite side of the mountain, by which Alpnacb 
may be reached in 3 hours. 

According to a wild tradition of considerable antiquity, this 
mountain derives its name from Pilate, the wicked gdvernor 
or Jadsa, who, having been banished to Gaul by Tiberius, 
wandered aboutamong the mountains, stricken by conscience, 
until he ended his miserable existence by throwing himself 
into a lake on the top of the Pilatus. The mountnin, in con- 
sequence, labours under a very bad reputation. From its 
position as an outlier, or advanced guard or the chain or the 
Alps, it coHects all the clouds which float over the plains 
from the W. and N.; and it is remarked, that almost all the 
storms which burst upon the ]ak<^ of Lucerne gather and brew 
.on its summit. This almost perpetual assembling of clouds 
was long attributed by the superstitious to the unquiet spirit 
still hovering round the sunken body, which, when disturbed 
by any intruder, especially by the casting of stones into the 
lake, revenged itself by sendmg storms, and darkness, and 
hail on the surrounding district. So prevalent was the belief 
in this superstition, evendown to times comparatively recent, 
that the government of Lucerne forbade the ascent of the 
mountain, and the naturalist Conrad Gessner, in 1555, w.-is 
obliged to provide himself with a special order removing the 
intenlict-in his case, to enable him to carry on his researches 
up6n the mountain. 

The lake, the source of all this terror, turns out. fk-oni 
recent investigation, to be beyond the limits of canton Lu- 
cerne, and on the opposite or the E. side of the Tomlis- 
horn; so that the Town Council had no Jurt^iction over that 
part of the mountain, which belongs to Alpnach. It is rather 
a pond than a lake, is dried up the greater part of the year, 
«nd reduoed to a heap of snow, Which, being melted tii the 
height of summer, furnishes water to the herds upon the 

BouteVJ. — Lucerne to Ui» Rigid, 65 

RNHHttain, which resort to it to slake their thirst. There is 
no other lake upon tiie mountain. 

According to some the name Pilatas is only a corruption of 
Pt7e<iliU'(eappe6), arising from the cap of clouds which rarely 
«ai(s Hs barren brow, and which is sometimes seen rising 
mmiit like steam from a cauldron. The mountain consists, 
from ' iti base to its summit, of nummulite limestone and 
•andatone; the strata incline to the S., and aboinbd in fossil 
remains^ especially near the summit, around the BrQndhs 
Alp «id tbeCastelen Alp. Nummulites, at large as a crown- 
piece, are Tound near the top. 

iXfcta^Kt TO acitwirrz aud brunfen, iifCLomiTG she fall 


To Sdrwytz 6 3/4 stnnden » f s Eng. miles. 

To Arth, at the N. base of the Bighi, 4 3/4 stnnden » 
IS 1)2 Eng. miles. 

There is a good carriage-road all the way to Schwylz, 
traversed by a diligence 4 times a-Week. 

The f Aortasf way Trom Lucerne to the top of the Righi it 
to go by water to wcggis, and there commeoce the ascent. 
In this wdy the summit may be reached in 4 1/2 or 5 hotiri 
from Lucerne, and even less by the aid ef the steamer. The 
best point of ascent, however, k Arth, which may be reached 
as follows,-^eturniog by Weggis. 

The road to Kiissnacht runs nearly all the way in siizhtof 
the lake ef Lucerne, and of the Alps ofEngelberg and Berne 
beyond. On a headland, at the angle of the green bay of 
Kassnacbt, stands the ruined castle of New Habsburg. 

2 1/2 Kiismacht — Inni ; Adicr (Aigle-Noir); — ROssli 
(Cbeval)— lies at the bottom of this bay, at the foot of the 
Kighi, whose top may be reached from hence by a steep path 
in 3 1/2 hours (see p. 63), Mules, guides, chars, and boats 
may be hired here. 

On the slope of the Righl, above the yitlage, a ruined wall 
may be.seen, which goes by the name of Gessler*s Castle, 
and is believed to be the one to which he was repairing when 
shot by Tell. This event occurred in the celebrated Hollow 
Way (Chemin creux — Hofale Gasse), through which the 
foad to Arth passes, about a mfle out of KOssnacht. It is a 
narrow green lane, overhung with trees growing from the 
high banks on each side. Here Tell, after escapnig from 
Gessler*s boat on the lake of Lucerne, lay in wait for hia 
enemy, and shot him as he pissed, from behind a tree, with 
bis amrriilg arrow. Il Is somewhat remarkable that recent 

56 Route Vl.^Goldaa - Fdll of Vie Rossbirg. 

reseanhes into the archive* or-Kflssnacht have clearly pro/vtd 
that I he ruin, called Gessler's Castle, never belonged to him. 
At ibeendorihe lane, by the road-aide, stands TelV* Chapel. 
By a singular anomaly, a place or worship originally dedicated 
to "The Fourteen Helpers in Need'* (Our Saviour, the Vir- 
gin, and Apostles), now commemorates a deed of blood, 
which tradition, and its supposed connexion with the origin 
of^wiss liberty, appear to have sanctified in the eyes of the 
people, so that mass is periodically said in jt, while it is kept 
inconstant repair* and adorned with rude Tresco, representing 
Gessler*s death and other historical events. 

A little way past the chapel the lake of Zug appears in 
sight, and the road continues by its margin round the hem 
of the Righi, through Immensee to 

1 3/4 Arth— fnnrScbwartzer Adler(BlackEagle),tolerabl7 
good; travellers usually halt here while the horses are getting 
ready to carry them up the mountain. Arih, a village of 
S129 inhabitants, occupies a charming position on the lake of 
Zug, between the base of tbe Righi and the Rossberg. There 
is a Capuchin convent here. The Rossberg, a dangerous 
neighbour, threatens no danger to Arth, because its strata 
slope away from the village. The Righi is a source of consi- 
derable gain to Arih, from the number of guides and mules 
furnished by the villagers to travellers to ascend the moun* 
tain. The ascent properly begins at Goldau, about 2 miles 
Dsrther on the rpad, since few persons arc willing to avail 
themselves of the shorter but very difficult and fatiguing foot- 
path direct from Arth. Travellers^ however^ usually leavQ 
their carriages here. 


'* Mountains have fallen, 
Leaving a gap in the clouds, and with the shock 
Rocking tlieir Alpine brethren ; filling up 
The ripe green valleys' with destruclion's splinterSs. 
Damming the rivers with a sudden dash, 
Which crushed the waters into mist, and made 
Their fountains find another channel— thus. 
Thus, in its old age, did Mount Rosenborg.^ 

On approaching Goldau the traveller soon perceives traces 
of the dreadful catastrophe which buried the original and 
much larger village of that name, and inundated the valley 
for a considerable distance with a deluge of stones and rubbish 1 
The mountain which caused this calamity still remains scarred 
from top to bottom : nothing grows upon its barren surface^ 

Route 17.— Goldau^Fali of tfu Rossberg. 57 

and ages, must elapse before the aspect of ruin can be re- 

The Rossberg, or Ruflberg^ is a mountain 4958 ft. high; 
the apper part of it consists of a conglomerate or pudding- 
stone , formed of rounded masses of other rocks cemented to- 
gether , and called by the Germans Naeelflue, or Nail-head, 
from tbe knobs and protuberances ^hicn its surface presents. 
From the nature of the structure of this kind of rock it is very 
fiable to become cracked, and if rain-water or springs pene- 
trate these fissures they will not fail to dissolve the beds of 
clay i^hich separate the nagelflue from the strata below it, and 
cause large portions of it to detach themtelves from the mass. 
The strata of the Rossberg are tilted up from tbe side of the 
lake of.Zug, and slope down towards (roldau like the roof of 
a house* The slanting direction of the seams which part tbe 
strata is well seen on the road from Arth. If, therefore, the 
clay iRrhich fills these seams be washed out by rains, or re- 
duced to the state of a viscous or slimy mud, it is eyident that 
such portions of the rock as have been detached from the rest 
by fissures above alluded to, must slip down, like the masses of 
SDOW which fall from the roof of a house as soon as the lower 
side is. thawed, or as a vessel when launched slides down the 
inclined plane purposely greased to hasten its descent. Within 
the period of human records destructive landslips had repea- 
tedly fallen from the Rossberg, and a great part of the piles 
of earth, rock, and stones, which deform the face of the valley, 
derive their origin from such catastrophes of ancient date; but 
tbe most destructive of all appears to have been the last. The 
'vacant space along the top of the mountain caused by the 
descent of a portion of it, calculated to have -been a league 
long, 1000 ft. broad, and 100 ft. thick, and a small fragment 
at its farther extremity, which remained when the rest broke 
off, are also very apparent, and assist in telling the story. The 
long and wide inclined plane forming the side of the moun- 
tain, now ploughed up and scarified as it were, was previously 
covered with fields, woods , and houses. Some of the buil- 
dings are still standing within a few yards of the precipice 
which marks the line of the fracture. 

The catastrophe is thus described in the narrative published 
at the time by Dr. Zay, of Arth, an eye-witness:— 

'* The summer of 1806 had been very rainy , and on th^ 
1st and Snd September it rained incessantly. New crevices 
wrere observed in the flank of the mountain , a sort of crack- 
ing noise was heard internally ,i stones started out of the 
ground, detached fragments of rocks rolled down the hioun- 
tain ;,at two o'clock in the afternoon on the 2nd of September, 
a large rock became loose , and in falling raised a cloud of 
Mack dust. Toward Ui« lower part of the mouotaio; the 

5g RoiAUV7.'-FaUofiheHMS8be9»f. 

grotiod seemed pressed down from above; ^nd when a sUcJk 
or a spade was driven id, it moved ofitseff. Ainaii,/v1iQ 
had been digging in his garden, ran away Orom fright at these 
eitraordinary appearances; soon a fissure , larger than ail thc^ 
others, was observed; insensibly it increased; springs of water; 
ceased all at once to flow; the pine-trees of the forest absolute- 
ly reeled; birds flew away screaming. A few minutes before, 
five o'clock, the symptoms of some mighty catastrophe beca^ie' 
still stronger; the whole surface of the mountain seemed to 
glide down, but so slowly, as to afford time to the inliabitants^ 
to go away. An old man, who had often predicted some such^ 
disaster, was quietly smoking his pipe, when toM by a young; 
man, running by, that the mountain was in the act of 6iMin^;< 
be rose and looked out , but came into bis house again ^ 
saying he had time to fill another pipe. The young maiv f. 
continuing to fly, was thrown down several times, and e$capei| 
witt^ difficulty; looking back, be saw t^e house carriiu^off itif 
at once. 

" Another inhabitant, being alarmed, took two of his (iiitr- 
dren and ran away with them» calling to his wife to fbKow 
with the third ; but sbe wcQt in for another, who stin remaldedt 
(Marianne, aged five): just then Francisca Ulrich, tbefa^ 
servant, was crossing the room, with this Marianne, whom 
she held by the hand, and saw ber mistress; at that fnstant^ 
as Francis^a afterwards said, 'The house appeared to b0 ^jMrp, 
from ite foundation (it was of wood), and spun round and! 
round like a telotum; I was sometimes on my bead , some^^ 
times on my feet, in total darkness , and Violently separated, 
froni the child.' When the motion stopped, sbe found herself, 
jammed in on all sides, wilii her head downwards, mucli, 
bruised, and in e!(treme fiain. She supposed she was buried, 
alive at a great depth ; with much dimculiy she disengaged 
her right hand, and wiped tbe Mood from ber eyes. Ire^' 
sently she heard the faint moans of Marianne, and called to 
ber by her name; the child answered tbat sbe was on her back 
among stones and'busbes, which held her fast, but that herj 
hands were free, and that sbe sAw the light, and even 5pnie- , 
thing green. She askedf whethw people would not soon come to ' 
take them out. Francisca answered that it was the day of 
judgment, and that no one was left to help tbem , but that 
they would be released by death , and be biei^py in Iteoiven. ' 
They prayed together. At lajst Franciscans ear was strij^^k by. 
the sound of a bell, whicbi sbe knew' to Ijie that of Stenenberg:. 
then seven o'clock struck in another village, and sl(ie began 
to hope there were still living beings , and endeavoured to 
comfort the child. The poor little girl was at first clamorous 
for her supper, but her cries soon pitscame fainter, and at last 
quite died away. Francisca, ^tiH If^Uh her head dowhwacds. 

Roui0 VI. -—Fait of ihe Rossberg. ^9 

and surroonded with damp earth, experienced a sen^e of cold 
in her f^et almost insupportable. Alter prodigious efforts , 
i;he succeeded in disengaging her Jegs. and thinks this 8a?ed 
lier life. Many hours had passed in this situation, when she 
again heard the voice of Marianne, who had been asleep, and 
now renewed her lamentations. In the mean time, the un- 
fortunate father, who, with much difficulty, had saved himself 
and two children, wandered about till daylight, when became 
among the ruins to look for the rest of his family. He soon 
discovered his wife, by a foot which appeared above ground : 
she was dead , with a child in her arms, bis cries , and the 
noise he made in digging/were heard by Marianne, who called 
out. She was extricated with a broken thigh , and , saying 
that Francisca was not far off, a farther search led to her 
release also , but in such a state (hat her life, waa despaired 
of: she was blind for some days, and remained subject to con- 
vulsive fits of terror. It appeared (hat the house, or themselves 
at least, had been carried down about one thousand five 
hundred feet from where it stood before. 

In another place, a child two years old was found unhurt, 
lying dn its straw mattress upon the mud, without anv 
vestige of the house from which he had been separated. Such 
a mass of earth snd stones rushed at once into the lake of 
Lowertz, although five miles distant, that one end of it waa. 
filled up, and a prodigious wave passing completely over the 
island of Schwanau, 70 feet above the usual level of the water^ 
overwhelmed the opposite shore, and, as it returned, swepi 
away into the lake many houses with their inhabitants. The 
village of SeeWen, situated at the farther end, was inundated, 
and some houses washed away, and the flood carried live fish 
into the village ofSteinen. The chapel of Olten, built of 
wood, was found half a league from the place it had previously 
occupied, and many laiige blocks of stone completely changed 
their position. 

*' The most considerable of the vinages overwhelmed in the, 
vale of Arth was tioldau, and its name is now affixed to the 
whole melancholy story and place. I shall relate only eae 
more incident : — A party of elevena travellerft from BerB^e,^ 
belonging to the most distinguished families. t|iere, arriyed at 
Arth on the 3nd of September, aiid set off on foo( for the 
liighi a few minutes before the catastrovl^e. Seven of t,hem 
had got about 200 yards aliead--the other four saw them, 
entering the viHage of Goldau, and one of the latter, ll|r« B., 
Jenner, pointing out to 'the rest the summit of the Bossberg 
(full four miles off in a striatight line), where some strange' 
commotion seemed taking place, whfch they themselves (the 
four behind) were observing^ witha teleseop^, and hadenterec^ 
into conversation on the subject with some stranger^ jptcpme 

60 Route n.-'Fall of the Rosfberg. 

up; 'when, all at once, a flight of stones, like eanhon^balls, 
traversed the air above their heads; a cloud or dust obscured 
the valley; a frightful noise was heard. They fledl As 
soon as the obscurity was so far dissipated as to make objects 
discernible, they sought their friends, but the village of Uol- 
dau had disappeared under a heap of stones and rubbish 100 
feet in height, and the whole valley presented nothing but a 
perfect chaos ! Of the unfortunate survivors, one lost a wife 
to whom he was just married, oneason, a third the twopupiE^ 
under his care ; all researches to discover their remains were* 
and have ever since been, fruitless. Nothing is left of Goi- 
dau but the bell which hung in its steeple, and which was 
found about a mile off. With (he rocks torrents of mud came 
down, acting as rollers; but they took a different directiou 
when in the valley, the mud following the slope of the 
ground towards the lake of Lowertz, while the rocks, pre- 
serving a straight course, glanced across the valley towards 
the Ri^hl. The rocks above, moving much faster than those 
near the ground, went farther, and ascended even a great 
way up'the Righi : its base is covered with large blocks aarried 
to an incredible height, and bv which trees were mowed 
down, as they might have been by cannon. 

*' A long track of ruins, like a scarf, hangs from the shoulder 
of the Rossberg, in hideous barrenness, over the rich dress of 
shaggy woods and green pastures, and grows wider and wider 
down to the lake of Lowertz and to the Righi, a distance of 
four or five miles. Its greatest breadth may be three miles, 
and the triangular area of ruins is fully equal to that of Paris, 
taken at the eiternal boulevards, or about double the real 
extent of the inhabited city. I notice, however, that the 
portion of the strata at the top of the RoSsberg, which slid 
down into the vallev, is certainly less than the chaotic accu- 
mulation below; and I have no doubt that a considerable part 
of it comes from the soil of the valley itself, ploughed gp and 
thrown into ridges like the waves of the sea, and hurled to 
prodigious distances by the impulse of the descending mass, 
plunging upon it with a torce not very inferior to that of a 
cannon-ball. ** * 

The effects of this terrible convulsion were the entire 
destruction of the villages Goldau, Russtngen, and Rothen^ 
and a part of Lowertz ; the rich pasturages in the valley and 
on the slope of the mountain, entirely overwhelmed by it and 
ruined, were estimated to be worth 150,0001. One hundred 
and eleven houses, and more thiin 200 stables and chalets,, 
were buried under the debris of rocks, which of themselves 

* Stmond's Switzerland, 

^oaUVl.'-Goidau — Lowtriz. 61 

form a wouiitaiii several hundred feet high ; m re ihan 450 
human beings perbbed b; this catastrophe, and wiToiti herds 
^»f caUie were swept away . Five minutes sufficed to complete 
the worlc of destruction. The inhabitants oftbe neighbouring 
loWQS and villages were first roused by loud and grating 
ioufld^ like thunder : they looked towards the spot Trom which 
lit came , and beheld the valley shrouded in a cloud of dust— 
when it had cleared away they found the faCC of nature 
changed. The houses of Goldau were literally crushed be- 
neath the. weight or superincumbent masses. Lowertz was 
overwh^roed by a toc;rent of mud. 

T|io«e who desire a near view o( the landslip should ascend 
ihe Crny penstock, wliciae summit may be reached in three 
horns- from Arth. 

Goldau to Brunne». 

At Goldau one of the most frequented bridle-paths up the 
Rijthi strikes olT to the rt See p. 6i. 

The new chapel and one of the inns at Goldau stand on the 
site of the villa^ie overwhelmed by Uie.Rossberg : iis inhabi- 
tants, thus destroyed in the midst of security, are said to have 
been remarkable for the purity of their manners and their 
personal beauty. The high-road traverses the talus or debris, 
which extends from the top of the Rossberg far up the Bighi 
on the n., ascending vast bUocks of rubbish, calculated to be 
30 ft. deep hereabouts, hut near the cenife of the valley pro- 
hably 200 ft. , and winds aoiAng enOrmous blocks of stone already 
beginning to be moss^rown, and with herbage springing 
up between them. Between these mounds and masses of rock, 
numerous pools are enclosed, arising from springs dammed up 
by the follen earth. 

1 1/2 Lowertz, standing on the margin of the lake round 
which our road is carried on a terraced embankment, lost its 
c^hurch and several of its houses in the same catastrophe. 
The lake was diminished by one. quarter in consequence of 
the avalanche of mod and ruNMsh which entered it, and its 
waters were thrown up hi a wave 70 rt. high to the opposite 
bank so as to cover the;pi<2ltiresque island, and sweep away a 
smalt chapel wbhIi stood upon it. The ruined Castle of 
Schwanau, still eflstln^upon U, has an historical intere&t 
from having been dfilstroyed at the first rising of the Swiss 
Confederates in 130#, lojivenge an outrage committed by the 
Seigneur, ill carrying off a damset against her will, and de- 
takiihg her i)i confiifsmenl. 

** There is a wild and sombre tradition attached to this if- 
land, that *once a-year cries are heard to come from it, and 
sauddcniy the ghost of th^ tyrant is seen to pass, chased by the 
vengeful 'spirit of a pale girl, bearing a torch, and shrieking 


62 Route ii,— Lucerne to SckwyU, 

\vildly. At firsthe eludes hcrs'vvinness, but at length she gaim 
upon him, and forces him into the lake, where he sinks with 
doleful struggles ; and,*as the waves close over the condemned, 
the shores ring with fearful and unearthly yellings.** * 

Near the village of Lowcrti another footpath strikes up tfai^ 
Righi, which is shorter than going rouind hy Ooldau for tra-» 
vellers approaching from Schwy tz or Bninnen. About 3 miles 
above Lowertz it rails into the path from Goldau, p. i7. 

S e w e n^ (Inn : Zum Kreutz)— a village at the E. eitre^ 
mity of the lake, is resorted to on account of its chalybeate 
yprings. A direct road to Brunnen here turns to the rt. : it w 
1 1/2 mile shorter than that by Schwytz, but is not good. 
1 Schwytz— inns : Hirsch, good ;— Rftssli. 
Schwytz, a mere village, though the chief p1ac<$ in the can- 
ton—" the heart's core of Helvetia**— from which comes the 
name Swiiierland, contains a population of 4878 inhabitants, 
including the adjoining scattered houses and villages, which 
all belong to one parish. It lies picturesquely at the foot of 
I he very conspicuous do<iblei)eaked mountain, called My then 
(Mitre) andHacke. (4598 ft.) 

Adjoining the Parish Church a modem building, finished 
in 1774, is a small Gothic chapel , called Serker, erected, ac* 
cording to tradition, at a time when admission to the church 
was denied the- people by a ban of eicommunicaiion from the 
Pope. It was bilill in groat haste, Mf of it within three days, 
and the mass was iScretly admiDlsterecJ within it. 

In the cemetery of the ParUfh'Chureh is the grave of Aloys 
Ileding, -the patriotic leader (Landeihauptman) of the Swiss 
against the French Republicaiis, in 1798. 

The Rathhaus, a building of no great antiquity or beauty, 
in which the Council of the canton holds Hs^sittings, is deco> 
rated with portraits of 43 Landammen, and a painting repre- 
senting the events of the early Swiss history. 

The Arsenal contains banners taken by the Schwytzers at 
Morgarten, and others borne by themin the battles of Laupen, 
Hempach, Cappel, Moral, etc. ; also a consecrated standard 
presented by Pope Julius II. to the Schwytzers. 

The Archiv (record ofGce) is a towerof rough masonry se- 
veral stories high, and was prolnfaiy once a castle : its walls 
are remarkably thick, and b\ineath it are dungeons. 

Schwytz possesses a Capofehin Convent and a Dominican 
Nunnery, founded in 1273. 
A diligence goes once a day to Lucerne and back. 
The Schwytzers Grst became known in Europe about the 
year 1200, in a dispute which the natives of this district had 

* Mrs. Boiltlington. 

• Route i7\^^Schwjtz — Asceni of Ute iH^tii, (S3 

wiih Iho tenants of the monks or Etnsiedeln. The liolyFn- 
Ihcrs concenling from the Emperor the very eiisteiice of surh 
a race as the men of Schwy tz, bad obtained fk'om him a grant 
of their possessions, as waste and unoccupied land. The 
Schwytsers. however, were able to maintain their own 
property by their own swords, until at length the £mperor 
Frederick II. confirmed to them their rights. 

The name Swiss (Schwytzer) was first given to the inhabit 
iants or the three Forest Cantons alter the battle of Molrgar- 
len, their earliest victory, in which the men ofSchwytzhad 
taken the lead, and prominently distinguished themselves 
above the others. 

At ItMicfa, a village on the Muotta (through whkbthe road 
to Brunnen passes), may be seen the place of asemMase wJiere 
the Cantons Landes-Gemeinde—^ consisting of all the male 
citizens of the canton— formerly met in the open air, tachoose 
their magistrates, from the JLandanimans down to the lowest 
officer. Here they used to deliberate and vote on the atbirs 
of the state, decide on peace or war, form alliances, or des- 
patch, embassies -^ a singular eiample of universal suffrage, 
and me- legislation of the masses. The business was opened 
by prayer, and by the whole assemtily kneeling, and taking 
an oath faithfully to discharge their legislative duties. Accor- 
ding to the Constitution of 193$, (he (General Assemblies of 
the Canton are now held at Rotfaenthuru, on the road to Ein- 
siedeln. A t present the meeting of the Circle only is held herc« 

Tbe road up the Ittuottabhal—twfaich. opens out here— isdcs; 
cribed in Route 75. 

1 Brunnen. (Route 18.) 


The summit of the Righi may be reached in about 11 hours 
from Zurich- and 7 from Lucerne, exclusive of stoppages- 
Heavy carriages can approach the foot of the mountain ot 
Arth(Goldau),and Kiissnacht; and iftbe traveller ascend from 
the one, he may send round his carriage to meet him on his 
descent at the other place, 

The Right, or Rigi {Regina Montium is only a faneifuk 
derivation of the name), a mount^in,^or rather group of moun- 
tains, rising between the lakes of Zug and iLucerne, owes its 
eelebrity less to its height, for it Is only 5700 feet above the 
sea, than to its isolated situation,^ separated from other moun- 
tains, in the midst of some of the most beautiful scenery of 
Switzerland, which allows an uninterrupted view from it on 
all side!«, and converts it into a natural observatory, comman- 
ding a panorama hardly to be equalled in extent and gran- 
deur among the Alps. It has also the advnntHge of being very 
accessible ; no less than 3 mulepaths lead up to the sunimitV 

^4. Ronfe'\7.^^Al scent of the Rifihi from Goldati, 
so that it is daily resortiMl to in snminer by hundreds of tra> 
Tellers of all countries and age^* Md of both sexes- The uppei* 
vartnf the mountain is composed, iiipe the Rossberg, of the 
brecciated rock called Nagelflue. Externally the entire summit 
is clothed with verdant pasture^, wfaieh mpport more than 
2000. head of cattle in summer, and the middle and lower re- 
gion are girt round with forests. 

Owing to the uncertainty of the atmosphere, at high eleva- 
tions, travellers should prepare themselves for diaappalM^ 
ment, since the trouble of an ascent is often repaid with deads 
and impenetrable mist, instead of a fine sunrise and extensive 
j)rospect. He is wise, therefore, who, in fine we^Hher, niaiia<* 
ges to reach the summit before the »nn goes fiotrn : he, at 
least, has two chances of a view. It not uofrequently happens, 
however, that the traveller who has commenced the ascent in 
sunshine and under a dear sky, is overtaken by clouds ami 
storms before he reaches the top. 

Horses and Guides. 

The 3 principal bridle-*paths to the Culm, or top of the Bi- 
filii, are those fromGoldau; Kussnacbt, and Weggis* At each 
of these places, as well as at Arlb, Lowertz, and Brunnen.^ 
horses, guides, and porters may be hired at prices regulated 
by tariff fixed by the Government ol the canton, which is 
always buna up in the inns. 

The usual charge Tor a horse is 9 Fr. francs to the top, and 
to return next day by the same rbad ; 9 by a different road 
on the opposite side of the mountain. A porter, to carry bag- 
gage, 6 fr. and 3 to return. A horse may be hired for 6 fr. up 
to the convent of Maria zumSchnee,4)elow'whieh is the steep- 
est part of the ascent. Chaises d porteur may be j>rocttred 
for ladies who do not like to ride or walk, and each bearer 
receives 9 fr. up and down. In the height of summer, when 
the concourse of visitors is immense, it is a good plan to send 
a lad up the mountain before you to secure beds at the Rigi- 
culm inn. The pedestrian, unless he desire to be relieved oC 
his baggage, has scarcely any need of a guide, as the paths 
are most distinctly marked, and are traversed by so many 
persons that he can scarcely miss his way. To those who ride 
on horseback, the man who leads the horse will serve as guide,, 
and np extra charge is made. 

Ascent from Goldau,—3 1/2 hours ; descent a 1/2. Tra- 
vellers usually make Arth(p. 56) their starting-place ((/i of an 
hour farther olT) because the inn is better there; but the as- 
cent or the mountain begins at Goldau. This is, indeed, the 
best point to ascend from, because the path runs along a deep 
guUey in the interior ^of the mountain, the sides of which 

Route il.—A^eni of the Rigid from KOssnachU 65 
shut out all view until ihe summit is reached, where it bursts 
at once upon the sight : the othqr paths wind round the exte- 
rior or the mountain. 

At Goidau a toll of 5 batz,»15 sous, Is paid for etch horse, 
and goes to keep the path in repair. The path strikes at once 
rrom the mn of the Gheval Blanc up the side of the mountain ; 
* V- I?*i?^''®u* ^^'^* strewn with hlocks from the Rossberg, 
WHICH, by the force acquired in their descent down one side 
or the yalley, were actually carried up the opposite slope. 

Near a sinall public-house, called Unter Dichli, where the 
guides usually stop to give breath to their animals and a glass 
or schnaps to themselves, the path is very steep indeed, car- 
ried up a rude staircase formed of trunks of trees fastened be- 
tween the rocks. 

.„I^K " ®i 8<>20o^nl ^or surveying the fall of the Rossberg 
and the Tale of Goidau below, mourning in ruin and desola- 
tion. Ihe long train of rubbish thrown down by that con- 
vulsion IS seen stretching across to the lake of Loweriz, which 
t partly filled up (see p. 61). A steep footpath from Anh falls 
into our road here. Here begin **the Stations," a series of 13 
mtie chapels, each with a painting repl-esenting an event in 
6UT Lord 8 Passion, which lead up to the pilgrimage church of 
.if """I:?^"**^:^"®^- T*»« "eepest part of the road is over at 
the 4th station. At the chapel of Malchus, containing the 
bearing of the cross, the path from Lowertz falls into our 

.i.'^^l*** ^"uT ^ ^^gesy or Jfcfarla zum Se'hnee, is a little 
church much frequented by pilgrims, especially on the 5th of 
August, on account of the indulgences granted by the Pope at 
the end of the 17lh century to all who make this pious jour- 
?S^*V '*^°J<'""DK "Hsj small hospice, or convent, inhabited 
all the year by 3 or * Capuchin brothers, who do the duty of 
ifte church, being deputed by the fraternity at Anh on this 
service. 1 he church is surrounded by a group of inns, the 
Dest of which (the Schwerdt and Sonne) are sometimes resor- 
ted to by Invalids, who repair hither to drink goat's whey, and 
!!1!!ki ^^«" ^ff****** a homely lodging to travellers benighted or 
}!!!« .i®^"?^®^"* '" ^*'« ^^0 »nn» on the top of the moun- 
ilill ^"5-Ojhers are public-houses, chiefly occupied by pil- 
Kjni» ,,"«" an hour's walking, up gently-sloping meadows, 
brings the traveller to the inn called Rigi-Staffel. 

Ascent from Kussnacht,'^^ 1/2 hours to mount: 2 1/2 to 
descend. A mule path, as long as that from GoWau, and ^ore 
steep Leaving Kussnacht it passes on the 1. th^ ruins of 

Sfrff.l^'''"^ ^»': ^^[^ '' ^«"»«^ '" 2'g^a«« »P tbe steepest 
part of the mountain, through forests, and across the pastures 


tS EoiiU 17. - Tht Ri^ld— Ascent from ff^fsgii^- 

dniled Secbodcn. The lake of Lucerne is in sight almost iKe* 
whole way. The path emerges on the brow o( the hill in. 
front or the StalTel inn. . ' 

Aicent from ffcj^flfi*.— Weggis— /nn ; Lttwe (Lion),— a. 
small village on a little ledge at the foot of the Rigi, on the 
Lake of the Four Cantons, is the «pot where those who ap- 

E roach the Rigi by water l)ind. it supports li horses, t.% 
oatmen» and guides in corresponding numbers. A bad path . 
winding round the foot of the Higi, connects it with KUss- 
nacht : but the chief communication is carried on by watei*. 

The mule-path up the RIgi from Wieggis is less steep aiKt 
a little shorter than the two preceding : 3 1/4 hours up; 2 1/^ 
down. It winds along the outsidie or the mountain, in coti- 
atant view of the Jake, passing, first, the little chapel of Hcili- 
genkreutz (Holy Gross), and then stretching up to a singuhir. 
natural arch (called Rochslein, or Felsenthor), formed by 
two vast detached blocks of nagelflue (piiddingslone), holding 
suspended a third, beneath which the path is carried. These 
broken fragments serve to illustrate the tendency which this 
rock has to cleave and split, and to this cause may be attribu- 
ted a singular torrent of mud, which^ in the year 1795, des- 
cended from the fli9ink of the Rigi upon the village of Weggis, 
destroying 30 houses and burying nearly BO acres of good 
land. It advanced slowly, like a lava current, taking a fort- 
night to reach the lake, so that the inhabitants had time to. 
• romove out of it» way. It is supposed to have been produced 
by springs, or rain water percolating the cracks of the nagel- 
flue, and converting the layer of clay, which separates It from 
the beds beneath it, into sod mud. Had there been any great 
(tacture in the nagelflue, it is probable that a large portion of. 
the mountain would have given way and slipped down into 
the lake, since the strata of the Rigi slope at a very steep an- 
gle. Had this been the case, a catastrophe, similar to that of 
the Rossberg, might have ensued. As it was, the softened^ 
clay was squeezed, out by the weight of the superincumbent 
mass of the mountafn, and formed this deluge of mud , traces 
of which arc still visible on the side of the mountain. 

About half an hour's walk above the arch lies the Cold BaiK 
(kaltes bad), where a source of very cold water, is uing out of 
the rock, supplies a small bathing establishment. 

A new inn, of wood, has lately been constructed, contain- 
ing 26 bedrooms and 6 baths, it was once the custom for 
patients to lie down in the bath with their clothes on, and af- 
terwards to walk about in the sun until they dried on the 
back ; but this method is no longer regarded as essential to 
effect a cure. Close to the cold-bath is a little chapel, dedi- 
cated to the Virgin, to which pilgrims repair, and in which, 
mass is daily said for the shepherds on the Rigi. 

nmie 17. -- The Rig/ii-The Culm. 9T 

The siiring is called the mleri* fountain^ from a tradiiion 
tliat 3 fair sisters sought reftige here from the pursuit of >a 
wicked and tyrannieal Austrian hailifT; and spent the re- 
mainder of their days amidst (he clefts of the rocks in the 
exercise of piety. 

Summit of the Uighi. 

All the principal paths converge and unite in front of the 
StaffelhauM , a humble inn to which travellers are sometimes 
driven for a nigbfs lodging^by the crowded slate of the inn 
OB the summit. It is half an hour's walk below the Culm, 
and it is a bad plan to stop short of it, since those who re$it 
Here must get up half an hour earlier neit morning if they wish 
to catch the sunrise from the top. 

The Culm, or culminating point of the Bigr, is an irregular 
space of ground of some extent, destitute of trees, but covered 
with turf. On the apei has been planted a kind of scaffold- 
ing, about 18 feet high, a puny additional elevation to that 
of the mountain, though some ascend it to see the view to 
advantage. A little lower down, built under the shoulder 
ofthe Culm, to^protect it from the most serious blasts of wind, 
stands the Culm Hatu, an inn, somewhat resembling a bar- 
nick, containing more than 40 beds, in rooms not unlilLC 
cabins,<and aflfordingvery tolerable accommodation, consider- 
ing the height, which exceeds that of the most elevated 
mountain in Britain. Travellers should bringati their cloaks 
with them, as the cold is ofteavery intense, and the barome- 
ter at times varies as much as 80<^ Reamur, within the 2i 
hours. The house is warmed with stoves even in summer. 
The following notice, relative to the counterpanes, is hung 
up in every room. :— ** On avertit MM. les strangers queceux 
qui prennent, les couvertures de lit pour sortir au somniet 
iraierontdixbatz; "a threat which seems more'likely tosuggest 
than prevent the commission of so comfortable an offence. 

During the height of summer, when travellers are most 
numerous, the.Culm inn is. crammed to overflowing every 
evening; numbers are turned away from the doors, and it is 
difficult to procure beds, food, or even attention. The house 
presents a scene of the utmost confusion, servant maids 
hurrying in one direction, couriers and guides in another, 
while gentlemen with poles and knapsacks block up the pas- 
sages. Most of the languages of Europe, muttered usually in 
terms of abuse or complaint, and the all-pervading fumes of 
tobacco enter largely as ingredients into this Babel of sounds 
and smells, and add to the discomfort of the fatigued traveller^ 
In the evening the guests are collected at a table d'hdte sup- 
per ; after which most persons are glad to repair to rest. It. 
Ukcs some time, however, before the hubbub of voices and thv^ 

LS Route il.'-f^ieivfrom tiu Rigid. 

trampling of feet subside; and, not unfkreqqentjyf a few 
roystering German students prolong their potations and D^isc 
far into me night. The heds, besides^ are not verjii iftvUtnt 
to repose ; but whether the inmate baye slept or not, he» 
together with the whole household, is roused abont an bout 
before sujnrise, by the strange sounds of a long wooden horn, 
which is played until every particle of sleep is dispelled from 
the household. Then commences a general stir and com- 
motion, and everybody hastens out with shivering limbs and 
half-open eyes to gaze at the glorious prospect of a sunrise 
from the Righi. Fortunate are they for whom the view is not 
marred by clouds and rain, a very common occurrence, a5 the 
leaves of the Album kept in the mo will testify. Indeed the 
following verses describe the fate of a large majority of those 
who make this expedition: 

Seven weary up-hill leagues we spcti, 

The si'tting sun to see; 
Strilen and grim he went to bed, 

Sullen and grim went we. 
Nine sleepless hours of night we psss'd 

Tiie rising sun to see ; ' 
Sullen and grim herose again, 

Sullen and grim rose we. 

View from the Righi. 

Long before dawn an assemblage of between 200 and 300 
persons is often collected on the Righi Culm, awaiting the 
sunrise to enjoy this magnificent prospect. A glare of light 
in the E., which gradually dims the flickering of the stars, is 
the first token of the morning ; it soon becomes a streak of 
gold along the horizon , and is reflected in a pale pink tint 
upon the snows of the Bernese Alps. Summit after summit 
slowly catches the same rosy hue; the dark space between the 
horizon and the Righi is neit illuminated ; forests, lakes, hills, 
rivers, towns, and villages, {^adually become revealed, but 
look cold and indistinct untirthe red orb surmounts the 
mountain top, and darts his beams across the landscape. The 
shadows are then rolled back, as it were, and, in a few mo- 
ments, the whole scene around is glowing in sunshine. The 
view is best seen during the quarter of anhourjprecedlngand 
following the first appearance of the sun ; after that the 
mists begin to curl up, and usually shroud parts of it from 
the eye. 

The most striking feature in this wonderful panorama, 
which is said to extend over a circumference of 300 miles, is 
undoubtedly the lakes of Lucerne and Zug ; the branching, 
arms of the former extend in so many different directions as 

Route Vt.--The Righi—Panor«ma. 09 

to bewilder itne at first, and both la?e the base of the meon- 
taJD so closely that the . spectutor might raiit7 hiimeirsus- 
peodedin the air above ihem^ as in a balloon, and think, by 
cme'Mcp from the brow of the precipice,, lo phmge into them. 
The peculiar freenish blue tint which sheets of water assume 
wfaeu seen from a height has also something exceedingly beau- 
tiful. It is said that 11 other lakes may be seen from the 
lllghi, but th^y are so small and distant as to ** look like 
pools; some almost like water spilt upon the earth." 

On the N, side the eye looks down into the Jake of Ziig, 
and the streets of Artb; at the end of the lake is seen the 
town of Zug, and behind it the spire of the church of CappeL 
where Zwingli, the Reformer, fell in battle. This is badiLed 
by the diain of the Albis, and through gaps in its ridge may 
be disconed a few of the houses of the town of Zurich, and 
two tittle iHis «r its lake. Over the 1 shoulder of the Rossberg 
a peep is obtained into the lake of Egen« on whose diores 
the Swiss gained the fietocy of Mof^rcen. The K. taKizon 
is bounded by the rangeof the Black Feraillinb. 

Tbe prospect on the W. is more open and imp-Bke, and 
tberefore less interesting. Close under the Righi lie Teirs 
chapel, on the spot where he shot Gessler, and the village 
and bay of Kiissnacht. Farther off, nearly the whole renton 
of Lucerne expands to view ; -^ the Reuss winding through 
the midst of it. Above the Reuss is the lake of Sempach, the 
scene of another triumph of Swiss valour. Lucerne, with its 
coronet of towers, is distinctly seen at the W. end of the lake* 
and on the 1. of it rises the gloomy Pilatus, cutting the sky 
Tvith its serrated ridge. The remainder of the W. horixon is 
occupied by the chain of the Jura. 

On the S, the mass of the Righi forms the foreground, and 
touching the opposite mouotainsWfUnterwaldeo, allows only 
faere and there a small portion of the lake of Lucerne to be seen^ 
On this side the objects visible in suOcession from rt. to 1. 
are^ the lakes of Alpnach and Sarnen, buried in woods; by 
tbe side of them runs the road to the Brunfg ; the mountains 
called Stanxer and Ruochserborn, and behind them tbe mag-* 
nificent white chain of the high Alps of Berne, Unterwaldeii^ 
and Uri, in one unbroken ridge of peaks and glaciers, inclu^ 
ding the Jungfrau, Eigher, Finster Aarhorn, the Tittlis (the 
highest peak in Unterwalden), the Engclberger Rothstock, 
and the Rristenstock, between which and the Seelisberg runs 
the road of the St. Golthard. 

On the E. the Alpine chain continues to stretch un inter- 
ruptedly along the horizon, and includes the preeminent peaks 
of the l>Odi, on the borders of theGrisons, oftheGISrnisch, 
in Canton Glarus, and of the Sentis, in Appenzel. In the 
middle distance, above the lake of Lauertz, lies the town of 

70 RoiH$ 18. — The Spectre ofUie ! ighi. 

Scbwytz, the cradle uf Swiss ft-eedom, backed by the twtv 
singular aharp peaks called, from tbeir sbape, the Mitns. 
(Mythen). Above them peers the snowy peak of the Giar- 
nisch ; and to the rt. of tbem is the opening of the Muottn 
Thai, famous for the bloody conflicts between Suwarrow and 
Massena, where armies manoeuvred and fought on spots which, 
before the shepherd and chamois hunter scarcely dared to tread. 
Farther lo the 1. rises the mass of the Rossberg,— the near- 
est mountain neighbour of the Righi. The whole scene of 
desolation*caused by its fall (see p. 56) ; the chasm on the top, 
whence the ruin came ; the course of the terrific avalanclic 
of stones, diverging and spreading in their descent; the 1r.k4^ 
of Lowertz, partly filled up by it, and the pools and puddles 
caused in the valley by the stoppage of the water-courses, 
are at once displayed in abird*s-eye view. 

The very distant snowy peak seen above the top of the 
Rossberg is the Sentis. 

The spectre of the Bighi is an atsmospheric phenomenon 
not unfrequently observed on the tops of high mountains. It 
occurs when the ctoudy vapours happen to rise perpendicu-. 
larly from the valley beneath the mountain on the side op- 
posite to the sun, without enveloping the summit of the 
Righi itself. Under these circumstances the shadows of the 
Rigbi Culm and of any persons standing on the top are cast 
upon the wall of mist, in greatly magnified proportions. The 
shadow is encircled by a halo, assuming the prismatic colours, 
of the rainbow, and this is sometimes doubled, when the 
mist is thicks 

Two melancholy accidents have occurred on the top of the 
Righi :— in 1820 a guide, who had attended* an English family, 
was struck dead by lightning as he stood watching the cloud's; 
in 1826, a Prussian officer, who had reached tbe summit, 
accompanied by his wife and children, fell h*om a very dan- 
gerous seat which he had selected on the brow of a precipice 
(the only spot where the summit is really a precipice), and 
was dashed to pieces at the bottom. According to anoth'*r 
account, the miserable man threw himself oflf, having pre- 
viously announced his intention of committing stiicide to hi& 
wife, who summoned the guide to arrest him, but^ aficr 
• severe struggle her husband got loose, and effected, b^ 

HouieiS.^-Lake of Lucerne -^Siemnur. 71 
ROUTE 18. 


"'ThAt sacratl lake, withdrawn among tlie bilU, 

lis depth of waters flank'il as with a wall 

Bitilt by the giant-race liefore the flood ; 

Where not a cross or chapel hut inspires. 

Holy delight, lifting our thoughts to God 

From godklike men. . . • 

That in the desert sow'd the seeds of life. 

Training a band of small republics there. 

Which still exist, the envy ol' the world t 

Who would not land in eachj^nd tread the ground — 

4jand where Teil I rap'd ashore — and cKmb to drink 

or iHe three hallow'd fountains? He that does 

Pontes hack \kw. heller. . * . 

Each cliif and heml-land, and green promoutoryy 

Graven with records of the fMst, 

Sxcites to hero worship.*' • • • 


The length of the lake between Lueerne and Fiuelen U 
about 7 2/3 «tui>den,»25 1/2 £ng. miles. 

The voyage, in a boat with three rowers, will take about 
six hours, 

Xsteameryf^s launched on the lake in 1837, to ply between 
Lucerne, Fiuelen, and the intermediate ports on the lake* 
The boatmen on its shores, regarding this as an infringement 
of their vested rights, exact of the proprietors a large sum to 
be paid on every voyage, to indemnify them for the loss. 

According to the announcement, printed in 1838, the 
steawrboat '* LaVilh deLwifime"'9iiM run from Lucerne 
to Fiuelen and back eight times a week during the summer 
(from June 1 to September 30), and five times a week in the. 
faring and autumn. It will touch at Altsiadt, Weggis, Y itz- 
iiau, Bechenried, Gersau, Brunnen, FIQelen, Stanzstadt, 
and Alpnacb. The fare to Fliielen is 3f. 20 raps Swiss, and 
loss in proportion to the intermediate stations. The voyage 
will take up about three hours. 

Boats may be hired at all the ports on the lake. The 
charges fixed by tariff are as follows, in French francs :— 

To FIQelen, a large boat, capable of holding a carriage, 6f., 
and each boatman, 3f. The total expense of transporting a 
carriage should not exceed 26fr. or 28fr.— five or s\\ men 
will be required ; l^ut it is better for those who have a carriage 
to go by land to Brunnen, and (here embark. A smaller boat, 
if. 5UC.; the smallest, 3f. 75c. 

72 R^uie iB.—LaU of Lu€etn$. 

To (lersatt^llriinnen, or Boochs, boaldf., man Sf. 

To KQMnacbt, Weggt»r or Stanzstadt, boat, If. 50c.— each 
man, If. 50c. 

In returmng, ihecharj^e h on)T balftiie atiQY(5;bul tbe 
boatmen need not wait more thait tlyree hottn unless paiif tbe 
full fare back. 

In biring a boat the employer should stipulate to be landed 
at Gersau, Grutll, and tbe TeUenplalte, at bis diseretiott, in 
order that he may visit these spots by the way. 

Much has been said of tbe dangers of tbe lake of Lucerne, 
arising from storms; that it is subject lo sudden and tempes- 
tuous winds admits of no doubt; but the boatmen can always 
foresee tbe approach of a storm, and are very careful not to 
subject themselves to any ridr. Tbe elumsy flat-bottotned 
beats, indeed, have an unsafe look, and, in windy weather, 
heave and roll about immoderately ; vet instances of aeoi- 
dents are hardly known : either the iMMitmen will not stir 
out in bad weather, or put into shore on tbe slightest appear- 
ance of danger. Those who trust themselves on the lake 
should implicitly follow the advice of the boatmen, and not 
urge them to venture when disinclined. 

The winds on the lake are singularly capricious and va- 
riable, blowing at the same time from opposite quarters of 
the compass in different parts of it, so that the boatmen say 
that there is a new wind behind every promontory. The 
most violent is the souih wind, or FObn, which often rushes 
so furiously down the bay of Cri as to prevent the progress 
of any row-boat, and renders it doubtful whether even a 
steamer will be able to face it: During fine weather, in 
summer, the north wind blows along the bay of Uri from ten 
to three or four, after which it dies away, and is succeeded by 
tbe FOhn blowing from the S. The boatmen, in cominjg Worn 
Lucerne, endeavour to reach FlQelen before the wind turns. 

The only resource, when a storm arises, is to run before 
the wind. 

The take of Lucerne, or of the Four Forest Cantons 
(Vier-Waldstadter-See), so called from the cantons of Uri, 
Unterwalden, $chwytz,and Lucerne, which cxchistvely form 
its shores. Is distinguished above every lake in Switzerhind, 
and perhaps in Europe, by tbe beauty and sublime grandeur 
of its scenery. It is hardly less interesting from* the histo- 
rical recollections connected with it. Its shores are a classic 
region— the reputed sanctuary of liberty ; on them took ptecc 
those memorable events which gave freedom to Switzerland 
—here the first Confederacy was formed ; and , above all, its 
borders were tbe scene of the heroic deeds and signal ven- 
geance of William Tell, on which account Ihcy are somci 
times called Tell's Country. 

R4:fute iS. — Lake of Luterne, .73 

The lake lies at a height of 1360 ft. above the sea level : it 
is of very jrregular shape, assuming, near its W. extremity, 
the fnrm of a cross, its varioqs bays, branching in different 
directions, are each named after the chief town or village 
siruatcd on therh : thus the W. branch is properly the lake 
of Lucerne; ihen come the bays of Alpnach on the S., Kikss- 
nncht on ^e N.-, Buochs. stretching £. andW.; and lastly 
the, bay of UrF, running N.ani} S., entirely euplosed within 
the mountains of that canton. 

Quitiing Lucerne, and passing the long Hof Bi iqkei the 
bodt ^iH arrive , in about half an hour, a-breast of a promon- 
tory on the L, called Meggenhorn, close off which lies a 
smal I « island, the only one in the lake. A Frenchman, the 
Abbe Raynal,* took upon himself to raise upon it a monument 
to the founder of Swiss liberty : it consisted of a wooden 
obelisk, pahated to look like granite, with Tell's apple aOd 
arrow on the top! This gingerbread memorial of vanity and 
bad taste was luckily destroyed by lightning. Thus fur the 
shores of the lake are undulating hills,, clothed with verdure, 
and (lotted with houses and villas— a smiling scene, to which 
the dark ridge and Pilatusadds a solitary feature of grandeur. 
After doubling the cape of the Meggenhorn, the bay of KQssr- 
nacht opens out o\\ the I., that of Alpnach on the rt., and 
the traveller finds himself In the centre of the cross or Iran.- 
sept (so tocallit) of the lake. From this point Mount 
Pilate is seen to great advantage— clouds and darkness almost 
invariably rest upon bis head, and his serrated ridge and 
gloomy sides have a sullen air in the midst of the sunny.and 
cheerful liandscape around. The superstitions connected 
with this mountain are mentioned at p.5i. It is the weather- 
glass of the boatmen and shepherds, and, according to the 
-common sayiAg, 

(Wenn Pilatu^ ir&gt sein Hut i 

Dann wird das Wetter gut) 

it is a bad :stgn when Pilate is free from cloud, or doffs his 
hat in theinofffiiog; but when the clouds rest steadily on h^s 
forehead till) Iftte in the afternoon, fair weather may be 

Looking up tile ba^i of KUssnacht the ruined castle of Ncn 
Habsburg,' a* fort belonging to the counts of that name, is 
seen on theL perched on a cliff; and at the further extremity 
the village ofKiissnaeht. The colossal mass of the Righi oc- 
cupies the other side of the bay. Its flanks are girt with fo- 
rests, below which runs a fringe of fields and gardens, dolled 
with coltaiges; while, above, it is clothed to ils very summit 
with vcrdmit postures, feeding a htmdred flocks;— an agree- 
able contrast to his neighbour Pilate. 

74 Route ii.^Lake of Luarne^ Gersau. 

After weathering the promontory of Tanzenburg a spur or 
buttress descending from tbe Righi, the village of Weggis 
appears in sight at the foot of the mountain : it is the usual 
port of disembarkation for those who ascend the Rigbi from 
the water (seep. G6), and inay be reached by rowing in two 
hours from Lucerne. The high precipices opposite Weggis 
belong to Canton Unterwalden, but tbe narrow ledge of 
meadow at their base is in Canton Lucerne. 

Two rocky headlands projecting from the Righi on one 
side, BuC' tbe Bargenburg on tbe other— significantly called 
the Noses (Nasen)— now appear to close up the take; but as 
the boat advances, a narrow strait, not more than 1 1/2 mile 
wide, is disclosed between them. Once through these nar- 
rows, the Noses seem to have overlapped each other, and the 
traveller enters, as it were, a new lake, shut out by higb 
mountains from that which be has traversed before. This 
oval basin is called tbe Gulf of Buochs, frorinthe little village 
at the bottom of the bay on its S. shore, behind which rise 
two grand mountains, the Bgochser and Stanzer-Born. 

On the opposite shore, at the foot of tbe Righi, nestles the 
little village Gersau— -(Inn : Sonne » small, but clean) — 
which, with the small strip of cultivated and meadow land 
behind it, formed, for four centuries, an independent slate, 
undoubtedly the smallest in civilised Europe. 

Its entire territory consists of a slope leaning against the 
side of the mountain, produced probably by the eai-th and 
rubbish washed down from above, by two mountain-torrenU 
breaking out of ravines behind it. The whole eitent of land 
cannot measure more than three miles by two, which would 
make a very small parish in England : scareelv an acre of 
iC is level ground, but it is covered with orchards, and sup- 
ports a population of 1348 souls, dwelling in 171 houses, 82 
of which form the village. 

It is recorded that tbe people of Gersau bought their free- 
dom from a state of villenage in 1390, with a sum of 690 lbs. 
of pfennings, scraped together after 10. years' of hard foil, to 
satisfy the Lords of Moos, citizens of Lucerne, whose serfs 
they had previously been. They maintained their indepen- 
dence apart from any other canton, and governed by a Ian- 
damman and council, cfaosen from among themselves, until 
the French occupied Switzerland in 1798, since which they 
have been united with the Canton Schwytz. Though Gersau 
possessed a criminal Jurisdiction of its own, together with a 
gallows still left standing, no instance of a capital execution 
occurred during the whole of its existence as a separate state. 
' There is something very pleasing in the aspect of Gersau 
on the margin of its quiet cove, shrouded in orchards and 
shut out from the rest of the world by the precipi(*ea of 4h« 

JRoute iS^^^-^-Lake of Lucerne— Gemau — Brunnen, 75 

Higfai, for although there is a path hence to Brunnen, and 
another to the top of the mountain, they are diflicult andlittle 
used. Its picturesque, broad-hrimmed cottages are scattered 
among the fields and chestnut voods nearly to the summit of 
the slopes; some perched on sloping lawns, so sleep that 
they seem likely to slip into the lake. 

Gevsen may be reached in 3 1/2 hours from Lucerne. As 
soon as,it is left behind, ihe singular bare peaks ofthe Mythen 
(M itrea) start up into view— at their foot the town of Schwytz 
is built, and in front of them stands the viJlage otBrunn&n— 
(Inn : GoMener Adier; best, not very good}— the port ofthe 
Canton Schwytz^ built at the mouth of the river Muota. Its 
position iu' reference to the surrounding scenery is one ofthe 
most fortunate on the lake, commanding a view along two of 
its finest retches. It is the depdt for goods going to and from 
Italy, over the Saint Gotthard. The warehouse, called Stut, 
bears on its outer waHs a rude painting of the three Confede- 
rates, to commemorate the first alliance which was formed 
on this spot between, the Forest Cantons in 1315, after the 
iMttle of Morgarten. Aloys Reding here raised the standard 
of revolt against the French in 1798. 

Those who intend to asc/cnd the Right from this, usually 
take a char to Goldau (charge, 60 batz); for pNedestrians there 
is a shorter footpath from Lowertz^ It Mtkes five hours to 
reach the top (see- p. 62). Saddle-horses may be hired here. 
' Boate swarm upon the shore : the charges are somewhat 
exorbitant. A large boat to convey a carriage to Fluellen, 
c6sts 100 batz (= 14 f. Fr.) —a smaller one, 9f. Fr.; time re- 
quired, 3 hours. Hence to Lucerne, by water, 4 hours. The 
steamer now touches here twice a^day. > 

Opposite Brunnen, the lake ofthe* Four Cantons changes 
at once its direction and its character. Along the bay of Uri, 
or of Flfielen, as it j» sometihies called, it stretches nearly 
K. and S. Its borders are perpendicular, and almost unin^ 
terropted precipices, the. basenaents and buttresses of colossal 
mountains; higher than any of those which oVei^look the other 
branches of the lake, and their snowy sun^mits peer down 
from above the clouds^ or through the gullies ifi iheir sides, 
upon the dark gnlfbeldw. At the poiut of the promontory, 
opposite Brunnen, stands a small inn, called Treib, wfih a 
Iktle haven-in front, in which boats often take shelter. When 
the violence ofthe F5hn wind renders the navigation ofthe 
lake to FItielen impracticable,'travellers sometimes follow a 
footbath from Treib over the mountains by Sdisb^rg. Baueo, 
Isenthal, and Seedorf. There is a similar and equally difficult 
path trom Schwytz by Morsebach, Sisikon, Tellenriith; to 
AltQrf» which was neyerUietess traversed by the French 
General Leceurhe^ with^ hi0 army, in pursuit of Suwarrow, 

'7fi Route i8. — Lake of , Lucerne -^Gruili. 

4n the night, by torch-ligbt, in 1799. The wi^nt of boats to 
transport his forces across the lake compelled him to this 
daring exploit. On turning tbe corner of the promontory of 
Treib, a singular rock, called Wytenstein, rising like an 
t>belisk out of the livater, is passed, and the bay of Uri,. ia 
all its stupendous grandeur, bursts into view. 

*' It is Upon this that its superiority to all other lakes, or, as 
Tar ds I know, scenes upop earth, depends. The vast moun- 
tains rising on every side and closing at the end, with iheir rich 
clothing of wood, Ihe sweet soft spots of verdant pastturc 
scattered at their feet, and sometimes on their breast, and the 
expanse of water, unbroken by islands, and almost undisturbed 
by any signs of living men, make an impression which it would 
be foolish to attempt to convey by words." 

"The only memorials which would not disgrace such a 
scene, are those of past ages, renowned for heroism and 
virtue, and no part of the world is more full of such venerable 
ones. " — Mackintosh. 

After passing the Wytenstein about a mile, the precipices 
recede a little, leaving a small ledge, formed by earth, fallen 
from above, and sloping down to the water's edge. A few 
walnut and chestnut trees have here taken root, and the small 
space of level ground is occupied by a meadow conspicuous 
among the surrounding woods from the brightness of its ver- 
dure. This is Griitli, or Riitli, the spot pointed out by 
tradition as the rendezvous of the 3 founders of Swiss freedom, 
— Werner Stauflacher, of Steinen, in Schwytz; Erni (Arnold) 
an der Halden, of Melchthal, in Cnterwalden; ancf Walter 
Filrst, of Attinghausen,in Uri. These ^* honest conspirators*' 
met in secret in the dead of night, on this secluded spot, at the 
end of the year 1307,. to form the plan for liberating their 
country from the oppression of their Austrian governors. 
They here " ^wore to be faithful to each other, but to do no 
wrong to the Count of Habsburg, and not to maltreat his 
governors. " 

''These poor mountaineers, in the 14lh century, furnish, 
perhaps, the only example of insurgents, who, at the moment 
of revolt, bind themselves as sacredly to be just and merciful 
to their oppressors as to be faithful tp £;ach other^ " The 
scheme thus concerted was carried into execution, on the 
following New-year's day; and such was the origin of the 
Swiss Confederation. 

According to popular belief, which everywhere in Switzer- 
land connects political events with religion, the oath of the 
Gratli was followed by a miracle, and 3 springs gushed forth 
from the spot upon which the 3 confederates had stood. In 
token, of this every stranger is conducted to a little hut built 
over the 3 sources otj^xae water, aodji; invited to drink out of 

Eouie iS. - Lake of Lucerne - Tcil's Chaptt, 77 

thorn lo the memory of ttie 3 founders of Swiss freedom. It 
is doubtful wbether'ihe 3 sources are uot tiicreiy 1 split ititoU;* 
bat few would search to detect '' the pious fraud. *' 

TbesYiew from Griitli is delightful. A small scar maybe 
observed from hence on the face of the opposite precipice oC 
the Frohnalpstock, formed by the .fall of a piece of ro6k. 
*'The fragment which' has left such a trifling blemish wa& 
about 1200 feet wide : when it fell it raised such a wave on 
the lake as overwhelmed 5 houses of the village of Sissigeii, 
disttmtl mile, and 11 of Hs inhabitants were drowned.- The- 
swell was felt at Lucerne, more than 20 miles oCr."—5tmorid. 

The shores of the bay of Uri are utterly pathless, since, for 
the most part, its sides are precipices, descending veriically 
into the water, without an inch of foreground between. Here- 
and there a small sloping ledge intervenes, as at Griilli, and 
on one or two other spots room has been found for a scanty 
group of houses* asat.Sisik'on, Bauen, Isleten^ etc. 

A little shelf, or platform, at the foot of the Achsenburg, on 
the E. shore of the lake, called the Tellen-Platte, is occu- 
pied by TeLL*s.CHAPEL,^and may be reached in 3/i of an hour 
from Grutli. Here^ according to the tradition,' Tell sprung 
on shore out of the boat in which Gessler was carrying him a 
prisoner to the dungeon of Kiissnacht (see p 55), when, as is 
well known, the sudden st^orm on the lake com |)elled him to 
remove TelPs fetters, in order to avail himself of his skill a& 
steersman; thus affording the captive an opportunity to escape. 
The chapel, ^n open arcade, lined with rdde and faded paint- 
ings, representing the events of the delivery of Switzerland, 
was erected by Canton Uri in 1388, only 31 years after Tell's 
death, and in the presence of 114 persons who had known 
him personally— a strong testimony to prove that the events 
of his life are not a mere romance. Once a year, on the first 
Friday after the Ascension, mass is said and a sermon 
preached in the chapel, which is attended by the inhabitants of 
the" shores of the lake, who repair hither in boats, and form 
an aquatic procession. • . ' 

The murder of Gessler by Tell notwithstanding the pravo-. 
cation, was a stain on the Swiss Revolution, marked as itwas 
c^qually by the just necessity which led to it and the wise 
moderation which followed it, in preventing the shedding oC 
blood, so that even the tyrannical bailifTsof the Emperor were 
conducted unharmed, beyond the linptsof the confederacy, 
and there set'free : an act of forbearance the more surprising 
considering that many of the Swiss leaders were smarting 
under personal wrongs . inilictcd by these Bailiffs or Zwing- 

Tell, acting by the impulse of his individual Wrongs, had 
well nigh marred the confederates by precipitating cvenisi 

78 Route id. — Lake of L acernc — P ass of (he Branig. 

before the plan was prApcrlv matured. Yet (here is some- 
tbiiiK the history of** the mountain Bru- 
tus/ that there is no doubt the mere narration of it cotitri- 
buted as much towards the success of the insurrectioB and 
the separation of Switzerland ft-oni Austria, by rousing the 
minds of a whole people, as the deep and welHxAicerted 
scheme of the 3 conspirators ofGrAtU. 

The view from Tell's cha[«l is exceedingly fine. The 
following are the remarks of Sir James Mackintosh on this 
«eene hr-". The eomfoination of what is grandest In nature, 
wH&wfaateverispure and sublime in human conduct, affected 
me in thi^'paMage (along the lake), more powerfully than any 
scene which I had ever seen. Perhaps neither Greece nor 
Rome would have had such power over me. They are dead. 
The present inhabitants are a new race, who regard, with 
little or no feeling, the memorials of former ages. This is, 
perhaps, the only place in our globe wberjb deeds of pnre 
virtue, ancient enough to. be venerable, are consecrated by the 
religion of the people, and continue to command interest 
and reverence. No local, superstition so beautiful and so 
moral anywhere exists. . The inhabitants of Thermopyle or 
Marathon know no more of these famous spots than that they 
are f^o many square feet of earth. England is too extensive a 
rountry to make Runnymede an object of national affection. 
Jn countries bf industry and wealth the stream of events 
sweeps away these old remembrances. The solitude of the 
Alps is a sanctuary destined fur the monuments of ancient 
virtue; Grtttli and Tell's chapel are as much reverenced by 
the Alpine peasants as Mecca by a devout Musselman ; and 
the deputies of Che 3 ancient cantons met, so late as the year 
I7t5, to renew their allegiance and their oaths of eternal 

The depth of the lake, opposite Tell's chapel, is 800 feet. 
After rounding the cape on which it stands, Flucllen appears 
in view. On the £. shore the valley of isenthal opens out : 
the vista up it is terminated by the grand snowy peaks of the 
PrisUMistockand Uri Rothstoek. 

Fitielen, tiie port of the Canton Uri, may be reached in 
half an hour from TelPs chapel. Here begins the new car-* 
riageroad oyer the St. Goltiiard (Route 34.) 

ROUTE 19. 


1 3/ i s t u n d e n=:=35 English miles. 
The eteam-'bodt runs daily i^) between Lucerne and Staoz- 

Aauietd.^^Passofike Brunig-^SluU of Alpnacli, 79 

From Alpnach (Stad) to Lungern the road is practicable 
for charg ; thence over the mountain to Meyringen is only a 
beidle path. The traveller may either take a boat at once 
from Lucerne to Alpnach, or go in a char to Winkel (about 
an hour's drive), and there embark; by which he will save 
«oine distance. A boat to Alpnach, with i rowers, coats, 
from Lucerne. 20 batt; Trom Winkel 8 batx. 
. From Winkel, where the char road ceases, the traveller 
proceeds by water through a narrow straight between the vil- 
lage of Stanzstadt (K. 31), on the I., and a spire oT the Pi* 
latus, called Lopper, on the rt., into the beautiful and retired 
gulph of the lake of the 4 Cantons, Chlled Lake of Alpnach. 
Xlie castle of Rotzberg, on its E. shore, is remarkable as the 
iirst stronghold of the Austrians of which the Swiss confe- 
derates gained possession on New-year's day, 1308. One of 
Cfae party^ the accepted lover of a damsel within Ike castle, 
being, according to the praciice of Swiss lovers even at the 
present time, admitted by a ladder of ropes to a midiiight in- 
terview with his mistress, succeeded in introducing, in the 
same way, 20 of his companions, who fouml no dillicully iu 
surprising and overpowering the garrison. The loves of JSgeli 
and «Anneli have, from that day forth, been celebrated in 
3wiss song. A series of simultaneous risings in 6thcr parts 
of the forest x'antons proved equally successful, and in 2i. 
hours the country was freed from Ihe Austrian rule. 

Gestad, at the S. end of the bay, 1 1/2 hour from Winkel 
Ctnn^ weisscs^ Ross) is Ihe port for all going to or from the 
Birufiig. Chars may be hired here. 

3t/i Behind it is seen the taper spire of Alpnach, or Alp- 
iiacht , abotJt 1 1/2 mile distant from the water-side. It la 
a village of liOO inhabitants, situated at the foot of the Pila- 
lus (p. 5i). The extensive forests which clothe the sides of 
that noountain belong, for the most part, to Alpnach, and 
vould be a source of wealth to its inhabitants if they could be 
got at more easily. It was with a view of turning to account 
IIm; ^ne timber growing on spots barely accessible by ordi- 
nary means, owing to their height and the ruggedness of the 
ground, that the celebrated Slide of Alpnach was constructed. 
This was a trongh of wood, formed of nearly 30,000 trees, 
fastened together lengthwise, 5 or 6 feet wide, at the top, ami 
3 or 4 feet deep, extending from a height of 2500 feet dowa 
to the water's edse. it was planned and executed by a skilful 
engineer from WQrtemberg, named Rupp. The course of 
this vast inclined plane was in some places circuitous : it was 
supported partly on uprights ; arkd thus was carried over a 
deep ravines, and in two instances, passed under ground. 
Its average declivity did not exceed .1 foot in 17, yet this suf- 
ficed to discharge a tree 103 feet long and four feet in dia- 

80 Route i9 - Slife of A ipnacfi ^ Sateen. 

fiioter, in the short space uf-6 iiiiiiulcs, from the upper cncf 
t»t' the trough, where it was lauitehed, iuto the lake: below, a 
flistance eiceeding 8 English miles. The trees were pre- 
> iously prepared by being stripped of their branches, barked, 
<tnd rudely dressed with the axe. The bottom of the trou^ 
was ^ kept constantly wet by allowing a rill of water to trickle 
down it, to diminish thereby the friction. Professor Playfair^ 
who ha? written a most interesting account oCthe slide^says, 
fhat the ti^ees shot downwards with a noise like the roar of 
ihunder and with the rapidity of lightning, seeming to shake 
the trough as they passed. Though the utmost care was 
i^uken to remove every obstacle, it sometimes happened that 
» tree stuck by the way, or, being arrested suddenly in its 
{trogress, leaped or bolted out of the trough with a force capa- 
ble of cutting oyer the trees growing at tlie side, and which 
often dashed the log itself to atorns. To prevent dccidents, 
watchmen were stationed at regular distances along the. sides 
(luring the operation of discharging the wood, and a line of 
telegraphs, similar to those in use on modern railways, were 
o.Htablished, showing, by a concerted signal, when anythiDg 
went wrong. The timber when discharged was collected on 
the lake and floated down the Reuss into the Rhine, where it 
was formed into rafts, such as arc commonly met with on thai 
river, and sold in Holland for ship-buildihg and other purposes. 
.Napoleon had contracted for ihe greater part of the timber, 
U) supply his dockyards; but the peace of 1815, by diminish- 
ing- the demand rendered the speculation unprofitable, and 
the slide, having been long abandoned, was taken down in 
1819. ■: Similar slides, nearly as long, arecoipmon throughout 
the great forests of the Tyrol and Styria. (See Hand-book 
for S. Germany.) Since 1833 some French speculators have 
constructed a. cart road up the Pilatus into the centre, of it& 
forests, and the timber squared or sawn in Ur planks is now. 
brought down on the axle, drawn by 20 or 30 horses and oxen, 
without sustaining any injury in its descent. 

The Church of Alpnach^ a handsome modern edifice, wa& 
built with the timber brought down by the slide. A . char 
may be hired at Alpnach to go to Luugern for 18 Fr.. fr* 

The Canton Unterwalden, which we are about traverse, is 
totally unprovided with milestones; for this reason, that, by 
an ancient and Tespecled law, every inhabitant is bouud to 
^uide the stranger who questions him, on his way, without fi« 
or charge. The road ascends the valley along the left bank 
of the Aa to 

'. 11/2 Sarnen.--(/nn: Schltissel (key); not very good or 
clean). This village, of 1030 inhabitants, is tbe.capilalof (he 
division of the canton called Obwalden, and the seat of the 
Government. It is pleasingly situated at the extremity of the. 

Route id.^Sarnen-^Meichihal. St 

lake of Sarpen, nt the foot ofan eminence called Landenberg^ 
a Spot memorable in Swiss history as the residence of ih* 
cruel Austrian bailiff or that name who put out the eyes of 
the aged Henry An de'r llalden. This act of atrocity made a 
deep impression on the pQpular mind, contributing, with othei 
events, to the out-break of the Swiss insurrection. On New* 
year's mdrning^ 1308, 20 peasants of Obwalden repaired to 
the castle with the customary presents of game, poultry, etc., 
for the seigneur, who had gone at that hour to mass. Ad* 
milted within the walls, they fixed to their stai'es the pike- 
beads which they had concealed beneath their dress, blew a 
blast as a signal to 30 confederates who lay in ambush, un-* 
der the alders, outside of the gate, and, in conjunction, cap- 
tured the stronghold almost without resistance. No vestige 
of the castle now remains, : the terrace which occupies its 
site, and commands a most beautiful view, has since 16i6 
served for the. annual convocations of the citizens of the can- 
ton, who meet there to eiercise the privilege of electing their 
magistrates. Adjoining it is the public shooting house, for 
the practice of rifle shooting; 

Tlxe Mathhaus, a plain edifice, not unlike the court-house 
of an English couqty town, contains, in its ** business-like 
council chambers/' portraits of the landammen for several 
ages; '*The artists have been particularly successful in dc- 
lineatiDg their beards/' There is one picture, however, better 
than the rest, of Nicolas von der Flue, one of the worthies 
of S^witzerland, more particolarly respected in this canton, 
where effigies of him abound, ue enjoys the rare reputa- 
tion of a patriot, and, at the same time, a peace-maker, having 
spent his life in allaying the bitterness and dissentions between 
his cduntrymen, which, atone time, threatened the destruc- 
tion of the Helvetian Republic. In the vigour of his years 
fae retired from the world into the remote valley of MelchthaT, 
where he passed his time as a hermit in a humble cell, in 
exercises of piety. His reputation, for wisdom as well as 
virtue, was so high that the counsellors of the confederacy 
flocked to him in his solitude to seek advice. His sudden 
appearance before the Diet at Stanz,aRdhis conciliating coun- 
sels prevented the dissolution of the confederacy. . After en- 
joying the respect of men during his lifetime, he was honoured 
after his death (1487) as a saint. . 

The Melchthal, mentioned above , opens out to the E. of 
garnen. At its mouth, close to the chapfel of 5t. Niklausen , 
stands an isolated tower, one of the most ancient buildings in 
the canton, dating from the earliest Christian times, when it 
was erected, probably as a belfry. Melchthal was the native 
place of Arnold An der Halden, one of the conspirators, of 
GrtktU (p. 76>. While ploughing his field near Schiid, he was 


82 BouU i9. ^--Laki of Lungern. 

itilerrupted by a messenger sent from tbe bailiiT ] 
to seize his yoke of oien. Enraged by the insolence vf the 
servant, and (he fnjastice of the dematid, Arnold beat the man 
so as to break his finger; and fearing the tyrant's vengeance, 
fled over the modntains into Uri, littte anticipating that hi& 
rash act ^ouid be Ytsited by the tyrant upon his fiither, by 
depriving him of sight. 

, Tbe valley or Sarnen , bounded by gentry sloping hills, ha» 
nothing Alpine in its scenery ; its (Character is quiet, and p^is- 
loral, and pleasing. The successfdl experiment of letting off 
the waters of the lake of Lungem has led iq a similar project 
of reducing that of Sarnen, which will, probab^, be carried 
into effect sooner or later. 

The road skirtqig the E, shore of the take traverses the 
pretty village of Sachslen. Within the Parish Church, !^i- 
cholas von det* Flue, the hermit and saiht, is InterM. His 
bones lie, but do not repose, in a richly ornamented Shrine, 
under the high altar; for at stated seasons they are raised in 
order to be eihibiCed to. the crowds of pilgrims who repair 
hither to pay their vows to the saint. He is known to the 
peasants by the name of Bruder Klaus. The Walls Hre lined, 
by| devotees, with votive tablets offered to the shrine of^St. 
Nicolas, recording miracles supposed to have been performed 
by him. The village Gyswyl, oh the rt. of the ro^d, was half 
swept away in 1629 by an inundation otthe torrent Lauibach, 
which brought so much rubbish into the valley as to dam up 
the waters of the Aa. A lake, thus created, lasted for t30 
years/ when it was finally let otf by an artificial canal into the 
lake of Sarnen. 

The steep ascent of the Kaiserstuhl requires t6i)e surmoun- 
ted before the road reaches a higher platform in the valley oc- 
cupied by the lake of Lungem, 

This lake was formerly a beautiful sheet ^{ water, embow- 
ered in woods sweeping down to its mak-gin, and partly in- 
closed by steep banks. The dwellers on its shores, less 
influenced by lidmiration of its picturesqueness, than by the 
prospect of enriching thepiselves in the acquisition of 500 
acres of good land, previously buried under water, have re- 
cently tapped it, lowering its surface by about SO feet^ and re- 
ducing its dimensions-^and thereby its beau ty-^^y nearly one 
half. The works designed to effect this object Were com- 
menced in 1788, but had been repeatedly interrupted by want 
of funds, and by political commotions: They owe their re- 
cent completion to a joinVstoek company, consisting of the 
inhabitants of the district, aided by a skilful engineer, named 
Sulzberger. The earlier attempts had been limited to the 
bortnjg of a tunnel thh>ugh the ridge of the Kaiserstuhl, which, 
crossing the valley between the lakes of Sarnen and Luogera^ 

. U*. f^^^W^^^] 

Route 19. — Lake of Lungern. S3 

tivrfiis a nataral dam ta Ihe waters of the latter. The tunnel 
i)egins near Bargleo, and is carried in a sloping direction gra- 
dually :Upward8 towards tlu; lake. Before Sulzberger took the 
matter in haodit had made considerable progress; butstill the 
most difficult part of the task remained, viz., to complete it; 
and break a passage into the lake without injury to the lower 
valley, or loss of life to those employed. Having with much 
labour driven the tupnel as near to the bed of the lake as the 
excavations could .with safety becatried, it became necessary 
to guard against any sudden irruption. With this obje<;t in 
view, he at first proposed to bore a number of small holes 
with an auger. through the intervening rock, and to close 
them with cocks to open and shUt at pleasure. A boring-rod, 
f 2 feet in length , driven through the rock, was followed by 
a discharge of mud and water,^ and.a blow struck with a ham- 
mer by the miner from within was reverberated on the sur- 
face of the lake so as to be perceived by persons stationed in a 
boat above the spot-^proving that the basin of the lake had 
been perforated. 

The engineer now, however, discovered that the friable 
nature of the rock traversed by the rod, and the clay and sand 
above it, rendered the plan of draining the lake by a number 
of spfiaJl perforations impracticable. He was thus compelled 
to have recourse to a mine» and for this purpose be enlarged 
the end of the tunnel by driving a shaft or chamber, about 6 
ft. square, upwards, so as iq reach within ft. of the water. 
A cask , containing 950 lbs. of powder, was then conveyed to 
the end of the shaft, and finally hoisted into this veriical 
chamber, by propping ^t upon logs of wbt)d; then, a match 
being attached to it, the end of the tunnel was rammed tight 
with sand many feet thick,' to prevent the mine exploding 
backwards. Upwards of 500 men, relieving each other' day 
and night, were empfoyed to execute this part of the task, the 
difficulty of which consisted not merely in the weight to be 
transported along a passage not more than a foot wider than 
the cask on any side, but in the foulness xtf the air inhaled by 
60 many labourers, which soon became so bad as to extinguish 
all the lights; while the constant influx of water, pouring in 
through the cminnies of the gflillery; threw further impedi- 
ments iatheHray of. the miner. As it was impossible to renew 
the air by artificial ventilation, it became necessary to with- 
draw the men for several bours At a time. In addition to all 
this a great pwt .of the operations were necessarily performed 
io the dark. 

The length of the tunnel was 1305 ft. Strong flood-gates 
had been erected at its lower extremity, to modify and re- 
strain the issue of the flood. All things being thus prepared, 
on the morning of January 9, 1836, a cannon-shot, fired from 

S'f. lioule If). — Lake, of Lunger n. 

the Kaiserstuhl , an&wcred'by another on ihe Laudenherg, 
give notice to the whole valley of what was about to ha|>* 
pen, and a bold miner, named Spire, was despatched with 
two companions to fire the train. The length of the match 
was so regulated as to give them ample time to escape through 
the tunnel : and their return to daylight was announced by 
the firing of a pistol. A nqultitude of spectators had collet*^ 
ted ou the surrounding hills to witness the tesult of the ex- 
periment which had cost so much time and money to exe^ 
cute, and in which many were so deeply interested— while 
vansidcrable anxiety prevailed as to its happy result. Expec^ 
tation was now at the utmost stretch ; ten minutes had elap- 
sed beyond the time allotted to the match, and nothing was 
heard. Some began to fear;— in a minute two dull expio* 
sions were heard; but they neither shook the ground above, 
nor even broke the ice which at that season covered the 
lake. No one doubted that the mine had failed, when, on a 
sudden, a joyful shout from below announced its success, as 
a black torrent of mud and water intermixed was seen by 
those stationed near the lower end of the tunnel to issue from 
its mouth. The winter season had been expressly chosen for 
the consummation of the undertaking because the. waters 
arc then lowest, and many of the tributary torrents are fro- 
zen or dried up. 

The drainage of the Lake of Lungern was effected gradually^ 
and safely. In six days the water fell 14 feet, and in ten days 
more the lake had sunk to a level with the mouth of the ton* 
nel. The lake of Gyswyl, indeed, was filled again, and ]aste<i 
for a few days; during which it laid several houses under wa- 
ter, but it was.soon drained off. On the shores of the lake of 
Lungern appearances were at first alarming. The steep banks, 
deprived on a Sudden of the support of the water, began to 
crack; large masses broke off, and a very considerable fissure 
appeared near the village of Lungern, which threatened inju- 
ry to it ; so that the church and many of the houses were dis- 
mantled and abandoned, and the bells removed from the 
tower. A.piece of ground, several acres in extent, did, in fact, 
separate, and slide into the water, just after a house and 
shed, which stood on it, had been pulled down, and removed. 
Fortunately this was the extent of the mischief, and church 
and village are still safe. The uncovered land presented, for 
some months, only a blank surPace of mud and sand to which- 
the crows resorted in great numbers to feed on the worms 
and shell fish left dry by the receding waters. By the latter 
end of the year a scanty cr^p of potatoes was raised on part 
of it, but some time must elapse before it can become valua- 
ble for agricultural purposes. The aqueous deposits brought * 
down into the lake by tributary brooks, and lajd bare by this 

Rouit 21 — Lucfrne io Derne^ by jPnlltOucfu 85 

di-aiiitfge, ^ ill be remarked with interest by the geologist, us 
iliuslrdtin;; ihc progress of the rorinatioii of strata, and ibo 
variation of their dip. Much float wood was found in the bed 
of the lake; it had assumed the appearance of brown coa). 

The cost of this enterprise was 51,826f. (5000i.)i and 19;<>00 
days' labour performed by the peasants. 

3 Lunger n {inns : Sonne, better than that at Sarnen ; 
f.5we), the last village in the valley, situated at the foot of the 
Vrunig, ond at the S. end of the lake, now renr.oved by the 
drainage some distance from it. Here the char road ceases, 
and the rest of the way must be trav elled on foot, or on 
horses, which are kept here for hire. (^ 8 and 10.) 

From Lungern to Meyringen is a journey of between 3 and 
i hours. A steep path leads up to the summit of the Brunig; 
3580 feet above the sea-level, where a 

I Toll-house (furnishing beds in case of need) marks the 
fiontier of Canton Berne, and the culminating point of the 
INiss. From a little chapel near this a cliarming and first-rate 
view is obtained along the entire valley of Nidwalden, backed 
by the Pilatus, with the Lungern See for a foregroundt for- 
ining altogether** one of the most delicious scenes in' Swit- 
zerland,** to use the words /)f Latrobe, though destitute of 
the grandeur presented by snowy peaks. To survey these, 
however, the traveller has only to, proceed a few yards far-* 
ther, to the brow of the descent, where the valley of Hasli , 
with the Aar winding through the midst, opens out to view, 
backed by the gigantic and snow-white crests of the Wetter- 
horn, Eigher, anil others of the Bernese Alps. Here the 
road separates, one branch leads to the lake of Brienz, on the 
rt.; the other to Meyringen, seated in the midst of the rich 
flat which forms the bottom of the valley. From the opposite 
precipices, two or three streaks of white may be discerned— 
these are the falls of the Beichenhach. 

I I /2 Meyringen, (Route 27.) ' 

ROUTE 22. 


17 1/6 stqnden, » 56 Eng. miles. 

A diligence goes daily in summer. 

This is the best and shortest of the two carriage^oads to 

3 At the village of Scbachen the ascent of the Bramegg 
commences, and continues gradually upwards for about 5' 
miles. An excellent road, passing the baths of FambQhl (a 
solitary inn), has been constructed within a few years over 
this mountaiq : its top commands a good view of the Pilatus 
and Ri^hl. The slope of the Bratticgg on the opposite side is 

88 Bottle 24- -^Soleure to Berne. 

1. A seminary f for young gentlemen, about 80 in number, 
from all parts or £urop.e: there arc some English. They 
receive here an education on very moderate terms; " but it 
is more than doubtful . whether it be such as to fit them for 
English society, or for utility in their own country when they 
return. "— /*. Every summer, during the vacation, they make 
a pedestrian tour through Switzerland, under the guidance of 
their tutors. There is a separate school of instruction for 

2. A school for the poor, who are taught according to the 
system of M. Fellenberg, on an extensive scale, having the 
double object of instructing farmers and introducing agricul- 
tural improvements,. not wholly free from a. character of 

3. An agricultural establishment, consisting of a model 
farm ; an experimental farm; an extensive collection of agricul- 
tural implements, and a manufactory for making them. 

The surrounding district was little better than a bog when 
M. Fellenberg settled here in 1799 : he has since gradually 
brought it into cultivation. There is a direct road from Berne 
to Hofwyl by the Enghe, Reichenbach, and Buchsee, about 9 
miles. * 

A little beyond the further eitremity of the avenue of (he 
Enghe, lies the old castle of Reichenbach, which belonged to 
Rudolph of frlach, the hero of the battle of Laupen, who was 
murdered here, in his old age, by his sori-in-law, Jost von 
Rudenz, with the very sword which he had wielded at that 
glorious victory. The assassin was pursued, as he fled from 
the scene of his crime, by the two blood hounds of the aged 
warrior, who broke loose at their master's cries. They tracked 
the murderer's footsteps of their own accord, and after some 
hours returned with gore-stained lips, and nothing more was 
heard or known of Jost von Rudenz. 

3. Bern— (/ntw, Falke, Faucon), one of the best inns in 
Switzerland. Charges— table d'hdte, at one, 3 fr.; at four, 4fri; 
breakfast, 1 fr. 10 suns; tea, ^itto;.beds, 2 fr. 10 sous. 

Families and persons desiring to be quiet, may beiiccom- 
modated in a separate house, called Petit Faucon, in a back 
street, from the roof of which there is a fine view;— Couronne, 
also good ;— Cigogne (Storch). The Abbayes, or houses' of the 
guilds, also, accommodate travellers : the best is the Distelz- 
wang, or Abbaye aux Genlilshommes. Table d'hdte 2 fr. &r 

Berne, capital of the largest of the Swiss cantons, seat of 
the Swiss Diet (Vorort) alternately with Zurich and Lucerne,, 
and residence of mpst of the foreign ministers, contained, in 
1936, 22,751 inhabitants. It is built on a lofty sandstone pro~y 
montory, formed by the winding course of the Aar, which- 

Jiottte 24 —Berne — Fountains — Clock Tower. 89 

nearly snrround^ it, flowing at the bottom of a deep gnlly, 
^'iih stcop and in places precipitous sides (stalden). It is 
proposed to remedy the inconvenient aseent and descent by 
y^hidk the town can alone be reached from the E., by throvini; 
a lofty bridge of stone or i^ire over this gully. The distant 
aspect of the town, planted on this elevated platform, 1600 
feet above the sea, is imposing, and there is something 
striking in its interior, from the houses all being built of mas- 
sive stone. It has this peculiarity, that almost all the houses 
rest upon arcades (Lauben), wbich furnish covered walks on 
r ach side of the streets, and ace lined with shops and stalls. 
The lowness of the arches, however, and the solidity of th« 
buttresses supporting them, render these colonnades gloomy 
and close.- Along the brow of the precipice, overhanging the 
Aar, and removed from the main streets, are (he more aristo^ 
cratic residences of the exclusive patricians. 

Rills of water are carried through the streets to purify them, 
and (hey are abundantly furnished with FouniainSy each 
surmounted by some quaipt efligy: One of these, ihe Kinder^ 
fresser^Brunnen {Ogre" s-tounimn)f on the Corn-house-square, 
receives its name from a figure (probably Saturn) devouring 
a child, with others stuck in his girdle and pockets ready for 
consumption. Some bear the figures of armed warrJOrs. such 
as Sampson and David; another fs surmounted by a female 
figure, probably Hebe ; but the favourite device is the Bear^ 
the armorial bearings of the canton, which is what the French 
heialds call an ** armoirie parlante; " the wor|l *' 1/em** 
si^^nifyin^ a bear, in old German, or rather in the Suabian 
dialect. Indeed the apimal is as great a favourite here as in 
the House of Bradwardine. Thus, the npper fountain in tho 
principal street is surmounted by a bear in armour, with 
breast-plale, (high-pieces, and helmet ; a sword at his side 
and a banner in his paw. The Schiitzen Brunnen is (he 
figure of a Swiss crossbowman of former days, attended by a 
young bear as squire. 

Along the line of the principal street are three antique 
watch-towers. The Clock tower (Zeitglockcnthurm) stands 
nearly in the centre of the town , though , when originally 
built, in 1191, by Berchtold V., of Zahringen, it guarded the 
outer wall. Its droll clock- work puppets are objects of won- 
der to an admiring crowd of gaping idlers. A minute before 
the hour strikes, a wooden cock appears, 'cr.ows twice, and 
flaps his wings ; then, while a puppet strikes the hour on a 
bell, a procession of bears issues out, passes in front of a 
iigure on a throne, who marks the hour by gaping and by 
lowering his sceptre. Further on in the street stands the 
EUficht r/iurm (cage tower), now used as a prison; and 
beyond it Christopher's tower, also called Goliath's, fron^ 

90 Route 24. - View ofi/is Alps^ Miinter. . 

the figure of a giant upon it. The great charm of Rerne is 
the view of the Bernese Alps, which the town and every emi- 
nence in its neighbourhood comniaitds in clear weather. Thi$ 
is excellently seen from the Platform, a lofty terrace, plan- 
ted with shady rows of trees, overlooking the Aar, behind the 
Minster. More than a dozen.snowy peaks of the great chain 
are visible from hence ; they appear in the following order, 
beginning from the E. :— 1, Wetlerhorn; 3, Schreckhorn ; 3. 
Fin8ter-Aarhorn;4,£igher;5, M6nch;6, Jungfrau; 8,Gletschcr 
horn; 0. Mittaghorn ; )o, Blui&lisAlp; It, In the middle dis- 
tance,. Niesen; t9, Stockhorn. 

There cannot be a more sublime sight than this view at 
sunset; especially at times when, from a peculiar state of the 
atmosphere,, the slanting rays are reflected from the Alpine 
snows in hues of glowing pink. It is hardly possible to gaze 
on these Alps and glaciers without desiring to explore their 
recesses which enclose some of the most magnificent scenery 
in Switzerland. The Platform itself, supported by a massive 
wall of masonry, rises 108 feet ahpve the Aar ; yet an in- 
scription on the parapet records that a young student, mounted 
on a spirited horse, which had been frightened by some chil- 
dren, and leaped the precipice, reached the bottom with no 
other hiA-t than a few broken ribs. The horse was killed on 
the spot. The rider became minister of Kerzer^ and lived 
to a good old age ! 

The ilf tfufar, a very beautiful gothic building, was begun 
1421, and Qnished 1457. One of its architects was the son of 
Erwiu of Steinbach, who built Strasburg; and many of the 
ornaments,— such as the open parapet running round the 
roof, and varying in pattern between each buttress, are not 
inferior in design or execution to those of Strasburg. The 
chief ornament is the great W. portal, bearing sculptured 
reliefs of the Last Judgment, flanked by figures of the Vise 
and foolish Virgins, ttc The interior is not remarkable. In 
the windows are the coats of arms of the aristocratic burghers 
of Berne, in all the pomp of heraldry; along the walls arc 
tablets, bearing the names of 18 officers and C83 soldiers, citi- 
zens of Berne, who fell fighting against the French 1798^ 
There is also a monument erected by the town, in 1600, to 
Berchtold, of Zdhringen, founder of Bernew 

The Museam contains one of the best collections of the 
natural productions of Switzerland to be found in the country. 
It is open to the publics tim«sa«week: strangers may obtain 
admittance at all times by a small fee. 

In ihe zoological department there are stufl'ed specimens 
of the bear at all ages. Two young cubs, about the size of 
kittens, respectively 8 and SI days old— hideous and uncoutb 
monsters-^-enahle one easily to discover the origin of the 

Route 2k, -^ Berve^ Museum — AntiqnWus. 91 

Tulgar error that the bear was licked into shape by its mother. 
The lyni of the Alps, and the 'Steinbeck, bQlh from the 
Bernese chain, are interesting from their rarity; these animals 
having nearly disappeai-ed From Europe. 

Here is .deservedly preserved the skin ot Barry ^ one ofthe 
dogs of St. Bernard, who Is recorded to have saveil the lives 
6r 15 human beings by^bis sagacity. 

A chamois with three horns, one growing out of the nose; 
a sj^ecimen of a cross breed between the steinbock and do- 
mestic goat, which lived 7 years; a wild boar, of gigantic size 
and briistling niien, are also worth notice. 

In Xhe Ornithological department are the ISmmergpycr 
(vulture of lambs), the. feathered monarch of the Alps, and 
inferior in size to the condor alone among birds. It breeds 
only on the. highest mountains. 

In addition to the native hhrds of Switzerland, a perfect 
collection of which, with very few exceptions, is to be seen 
here, together with their nests and eggs, there are 8pecinien& 
of several foreign and tropical birds which have found. their 
way into Switzerland by accident; viz., a flamingo kiili'd near 
the lake'of Moral, and a pelican from Con&tance. *' Possibly tho 
flamingo came from the waters ofthe district around Nismes 
and AVrgnon, where these birds are ngt uncommon." P. 

The departments of geology and mineralogy are very rioh. 
The. geology of Switzerland may he well studied in the very 
complete series of fossils collected by JIf . Stttder, an eminent 
living geologist, and others. 

There are a number of beautif^J specimens of all the rarest 
and finest minerals from St. Gotthard. 

Sevieral pl^s in relief of various paris of Switzerland will 
l^rove equally instructive to the student of geography and 

In a small collection of Antiquities the following objects 
seem to desferve mentioning: —some Roman antiquities duff 
up in Switzerl^nd; the Prie Dieu of Charles the Bold, and 
]iart of his tent-hangings, captured by the Bernese at Grande 
son; the pointed shoes-woi*n by the Bernese nobles in the 
XVIth century; some dresses, etc. (Vom the South Sea islands, 
and the dagget with which Captain Cook was slain (*?), 
brought over by Weber, the artist, who accompanied the 
expedition, who was of Swiss origin. 

The Town Library is a good collection of 40,000 volumes, 
and is is well stored with Swiss history. Hallcr, who wa& 
born at Berne, was librarian. The butter-market is held 
beneath this building. 

The Arsenal has scarcely any curiosities to show since it 
was robbed by the French in 1798; the arms (or the contin- 
gent of the canton are kept In It. 

92 Foite Ik. — Dn'ne — jintlquiiieSy Bears^ etc. 

The Diet assembler in thcAuuereStandcs-H^iiis (rormerly 
tfac Marksitians GuJUl); it met here last in 1855 and 36. 

Berne is celebrated Tor the number and excellence of its 
Charitable Institutions: they are perhaps more carefully 
attended to than any in Europe, There is a public granary 
in case ofscarcity^ tWo orphan-houses, an infirmary, and an 
extensive Hoipital, bearing the inscription, " Ghristo in 
pauperibus.'* It wa^fora long time the finest, indeed theonly 
grand building in the toiivn, a just subject of pride; but it has of 
lale been eclipsed by the colossal dimensions of the new prison 
and penltenliary; a circumstance characteristic of the present 
period, perhaps, in other countries besides the Canton Berne. 

Since 1834, an University or high school has been esta- 
blished at Berne. 

The prevaHing reverence for the Bear at Berne does not 
confine itself to the multiplying of his efiigy on the coins, 
sign-posts, fountains, and public buildings of the canton. 
For many hundred years living specimens of the favourite 
have l)een maintained at the public expense; and the ditch 
outside of the Aarberg Gate, called the Burengrabenf is al- 
lolted to them for a habitation. No traveller will quit Berne 
without paying them a visit, unless he wishes to have the 
omission of so important a sight thrown in his teeth every 
time the name Berne is mentioned; and indeed a vacant half 
hour may be worse employed than in watching the gambols 
of Bruin, and supplying liim with cakes and apples. Tho 
connexion between the town and the animal is accounted for 
by the ancient tradition, thai on the day on which Berchtold 
Iflid the foundations of Berne, an enormous bear was slain 
by him upon its destined site. 

The bears were formerly handsomely provided for. At tho 
beginning of the last century an old lady^ dying without 
near relatives, bequeathed her fortune of 60,000 Ifvres to 
them. The will was disputed by some distant connexion of 
the deceased; but the cause of the brutes was so ably pleaded 
by one of the most distinguished members of the barof Berne 
that the plaintifTwas nonsuited.' The hear;:, declared the right 
ful heirs, were taken under the guardianship of the supreme 
council, who, treating them as wards in chancery, or minors, 
administered their property'. In order to maintain the sue-* 
cession to the estate, a pair of young bjears was. always reared, 
in case of the demise of the elders; and to prevent too large 
on increase of the race, all that were born beyond this were 
fattened to furnish a dainty for the civic feasts of the Berne 

The betfrs, however, did not long enjoy their fortune. 
The French Revolution broke out, and its sweeping conse-> 
qucnces, not confined to crowns and kingdoms, descended 

Route ^.^B^rne-^The Bears-^ Passports. 43 

cTeB to bears. The French army having defeated the Swiss 
in several engagements , entered the town (1798), and im-^ 
niediately took possession of the treasury. Eleven mules were 
dest»atehed to Paris laden with specie found in it ; two of 
them bore away the birthright of the bears, amounting at the 
time to 70 millions of francs. The bears themselves were led 
away captives, and deposited in the Jardin des Plantes, where 
one of them, the celebrated Martin , soon became the favourite 
of the French metropolis. When, after a series of years, the 
ancient order of things was restored at Berne, one of the 
first cares of the citizens was to replace and provide for their 
ancient pensioners. A subscription was raised in consequence, 
and a small estate purchased, the rents of which, though 
diminished from various causes, are appropriated to their 
support. The cost of keeping them amounts to between 600 
and 700 francs par annum; and well grounded fears are en- 
tertained that modern legislators, forgetful of the service 
rendered by Bruin Tor so many centuries, in figuring upon 
the shield of the canton , may soon strike him off the pension 

The fortifications of the town, no longer of use as defences, 
are converted into PromenadtfS , and make very agreeable 
walks. The banks of the Aar, which they overlook , are most 
picturesque ; and the Alps , when visible, form aback-ground 
of the utmost sublimity. 

They, however, as well as the city of Berne itself, are best 
seen from a terrace walk called the Enghe , a little more 
than a mile outside the Aarber^ Gate, the favourite resort of 
the citizens. On the way to it, immediately beyond the gate; 
the bears' ditch and den are passed on the 1., and the Skootinff- 
House, where rifle matches take place, on the rt. hand. 

Two other more distant and elevated points, which are 
most advantageous for commanding the panorama of the Alps, 
are the hill of Altenberg, 1/2 an hour's walk on the N. of 
the town , reached by a foot-bridge across the Aar ; and 
the Gurtm, a height an hour's walk to the S. of the town. 

There are Baths on the island in the Aar, charge, 1. fr., 
linen included ; a flight of steps leads from tbe Platform down 
to the river. 

The Cmsino, a handsome building in the Ober-Graben, 
contains a reading-room , supplied with newspapers ; a ball- 
room , etc. There is also a Theatre in the town. 

Burgdorfer and Fischer keep a good supply of maps, views, 
costumes, etc. of Switzerland. 

Pflwporf*.— Travellers going from Switzerland into Aus- 
tria, Italy, France, or Bavaria, must bear in mind that it is 
necessary to have their passports countersigned by the mi- 
nisters of those powers residing here. The SJecretarics of Lc^ 

9f&i RquU'2ik*-'fierh$^^Utory and Gocernm^nt. 

leatioo remain oq the^pot eveo wbea the jBiinisUrs uttonA ib«^ 
Diet at Lucerne or Zurich. 

The English and Austrian ministers sign passports oQly 
early in the morning from 10 to 11 or la. In cases of urgency 
they would probably not refuse their signature at other hoiirs, 
but this is liable to uncertainty. The traveller pressed j^r 
time, and wishing to avoid delay, may leave his passport wifh 
the master of the inn, to be forwarded to him by post. The 
Austrian signature, if not obtained here, can only be got at 
Turin or Stuttgard, the nearest capitals where Austrian mi- 
nisters reside. 

Hindelbank , which is sometimes visited from Berne, on 
account of the tomb of Madame Langhans , is described in 
Route 13; and Hofwyl, Mr. Fellenberg'g establishment, in 
Route 24, p. 87. 

The excursion from hence through the JBernese Oherlan4, 
Route 27, may be made in 3 days, though it deserves longer 
time to be devoted to it. 

Diligences go from. Berne daily to Basle by Qlten; Basle 
by Delsberg,lo Aarau, Freiburg, Lausanne, Geneva, Lucerne* 
I^eqchatel, SoNure, Zurich i and twice o^ay , to Th(|in. 

. History and Government of Berne, 

Berne owes its foundation, in the Xllth century, to Berch^ 
told v., Duke of Zfthvingen, who held, as his ancestors had 
done, the office of Warden, or Proprietor, of W. Switzerland:, 
from the En^peror. At that period the Faustrecbt, or law Of 
the strong hand, was at its height; a great part of the land 
wa^ siill unreclaimed forest, and the only hunpian habitatioiis 
were the bQvel of< the defenceless serf or peasant,, and the 
frowning aqd well -defended castle of the laiH^l^ss baron, 
who lived by rapine and pillage. The elTorts of the Dukes of 
Zahringen. had long been dii^cted towards the curbing and 
humbling of this provincial nobility, who, from their number 
and power, were no less formidable to their liege lord than to 
the peasant or merchant over whom they tyrannised. To raise 
up a counterpoise to the overbearing noblesse, and their 
strongholds or robber-nests, he collected the scattered pea- 
santry into communities, the chief of which he formed in 1191, 
on a peninsula , protected by the Aar on alt sides but one 
which he fortlGed with strong walls. Behind these the crafli^ 
man, the merchant, and all others who needed protection for 
their person and property, found it. Berchtold fostered the 
infant city by immunitiesand privileges ; and, what was by far 
more important, he succeeded in having it acknowledged as a 
free town of the empire, independent of his own house and of 
all sovereigns but the emperor. Invited by these advantages, 

/{otde 24. — Berne- History and Gatemment. 96 

not only persons of the poorer sort, but many of the inferior 
nobles, settled here to enjoy the proffered freedom. Thesey 
II nd the more flourishing class* of citizens, in a short time 
engrossed in their own hands the entire administration of 
government, and their .numbers being limited, and the right 
of citizenship hereditary, they soon formed an aristocracy as 
powerful in proportion to the extent of the state as that of 
Venice 9nd Nuremberg, and as proud as any feudal. noblesse 
in Europe. The great council of the canton, which at one 
time contained some d^inocratip elements, by the admission 
of members from the lower trades arid craftsmen, in process 
of time was filled solely by the'higher burghers, and all elec- 
tions were renewed from their pwn body. Thus all public 
oflices were monopolised for ages by certain families. The 
Eriachs, for instance, held possession of the post-office, tha 
eldest sons succeeded to their fathers as matter of course, and 
the higher icommands in the Swiss regiments in foreign service 
furnished employment for those who could not find place al 
home. The most ancient families of burghers, t. e. those 
who bad been admitted- to the privilege of citizens before 
1035, were called regiments*f&hig (eligible to the magistracy), 
but of these only a small number were actually the rulers 
(regierende): in 1785 the number of the latter was only 69 
families. Such a state of things naturally gave rise to great 
discontent among the lower order of citizens^ not so much 
from any abuses of their rulers, who seem to have governed 
with prudence and honesty, without oppressing or heavily 
taxing, but from their overbearing haughtiness, exclusrveness, 
and the secrecy with which all their proceedings were conduc- 
ted. By the French Revolution this ancient aristocracy lost 
much of its power; and the events which followed that of July 
1830 have stripped them of the remainder. A new constitu- 
tion, passed and approved by an assemblage of most of the 
inhabitants of the canton, now gives to every citizen equal 
political rights. The hereditary rule and monopoly of the 
supreme authority by the aristocratic families was thus de- 
stroyed, and the people admitted to a share of the govern- 
ment. A newly-appointed supreme council entered upon 
its duties in Oct. 1831 ; and considering its wantof experience, 
from the previous exclusioh in toto of the popular party A'oni 
all share in the government, their administration appears to 
have been respectable. The chief reproach cast upon them 
is their persecution of the oligarchlsts, many of whom have 
since been imprisoned. Tbe new rulers were relieved of 
much embarrassment in the department of finance, by the 
discovery, in the. exchequer, of the revenue of seven years 
boarded up, ac(;ording to an ancient practice, by their pre* 
decessors. Instead of allowing this to lie idle they Very wisely 

96 Route. 27. -r The Bernese^ Oberlaml. 

turned it to account, in in^proving tbe roads of the canton^ 
and in other public WQj^s. 

ROUTE 27. 

The Bernese Oberl AND. 

Berne to Thun; — Interlachen; — Lauterbrunnen : 


This agreeable excursion may be made in 3 days, 1 st to 
Grindelwaldy 2nd toMeyringen, and returning to Bii^ne on 
the evening of tbe 3rd day. Most persons, however, -will 
feel disposed to devote longer time to it. Bui it is by no 
means necessary to reiurn to Berne: the passes of the Gemmi 
(R. 38), of theBrunig (R. 19), and oftheGrimsel (R. ^8), 
connect the Oberiand with the general tour of Switzerland. 

It was in this magnificent district that Byron ** repeophed 
his mind from nature,*' and gathered many of the ideas aiid 
images which he has so eiquisitely interwoven in his tragedy 
of Manfred, the sceneof which lies among the Bernese Alps'. 
He preferred many of the scenes among these mountains and 
lakes to Chamouni, and calls them *' some of the noblest 
views in the world. '* " 

Berne to Thun, 

5 1/6 stunden=]6 3/i English miles. 

An easy 3 hours* drive. 

A diligence goes ^wice a-day. 

The road is excellent, and in fine weather the snowy Alps 
are in sight nearly the whole way. The scenery of the valley 
of the Aar is most pleasing; laid out in pasture lands, with 
abundance of villages, and substantial farm-houses, with 
broad roofs, surrounded by neat gardens. The river itself 
runs at some distance on the rl., and is rarely visible. The 
principal village passed on. the way is 

2 1/2 MUn sin gen, memorable in recent Swiss annals as the 
spot where the great public meeting of the men of the canton 
was held in 1831,' which adopted the new constitution, and 
overthrew the rule of the oligarchy. 

The Slockhorn, with its conical peak, and the Niesen two 
limestone mountains, forming, as itwCre, the advanced guard 
of the high Alps, posted on the opposite side of the lake, be- 
come conspicuous objects before reaching* 

2 2/3 Thun^inns : H. de Believue. Outside the town, 
and beyond it, a new and first-rdto hotel, well situated in a 

Bonie 27 —Than -Lake of Than. 97 

garden eommafldiBg a Tieiv of the Aar. It is however rather 

Binner, table d*hdle, at a, 3 fr.; at 5, 4 fr.— tea, 1 fr. 10 
sous'-waxlights, I fr. each, beds, 2 fr. 

The Bateau a Yapeur, another inn, a few yards farther, 
belovgs to the same landlord, who is also proprietor of the 
steam-boat plying on the lake, and is a clever, active, and 
enterprising person. Hq is civil withal, and well acquainted 
with Switzerland, so as to be able to advise travellers on their 
proposed routes.— Freyenhof, within the town, formerly the 
thief inn, but now second rale ;— Faucon, said to be good. 

The Pension Baumgarten is well spoken of, and is usually 
so full that it isdiOicuU to obtain rooms without long pre- 
vious appliqation. *' The* landlady is extremely respectable 
and civil; the apartments cheerful and pleasant; living good. 
Charges 5 fr. a-day for each master, and" 1/2 for a servant, 
everything included.*'— L. 

There is not a more picturesque town in Switzerland than 
Thun, situated about a mile from the lake, upon the river 
Aar, which here rushes out of it clear as crystal. Pre-eminent 
above the other buildings^ rise a venerable church, and a 
picturesque feudal castie 700 years old. Xhun contains 
4876 inhabitants; but within its walls there is nothing worth 
notice. It is however, from its position, and its beautiful 
environs, one of the most agreeable places of residence in 
Switzerland, and being the starting place for those who visit 
the Bernese highlands, it is thronged with a constant succes- 
sion of travellers through the whole summer. 

The view from the Churchyard terrace ** along the lake, 
with its girdle of Alps, fine glaciers, and rocks wooded to 
the top," is mentioned by Pyron. A more extensive pros- 
pect is gained from the little Pavilion of St. Jacques; but 
better than either is the view from the grounds of a pretty 
countfy-h<>««e called the Chartreuse, about 1/4 mile below 
the Hotel Bellevue. The Jungfrau, MOnch, and Ergher arc 
visible from hence. The Military School of the Swiss con- 
federation is at Thun. 

Vehicles of various kinds, and guides may be hired at 

A new carriage-road has been constructed up the Slmmen^ 
thai, from the lake of Thun to Yevey.^ (Boutejil.) 

Lake of Thun-^Thun to Interlachen. 

Since 1835 a. small iron steam-boat pMes on the lake of 
Thun between Thun (the Hotel du Bateau a Vapeur) and 
Ncuhaus. The voyage takes up about 65 minutes. It starts 
fremThun at 9 a.m and 3 p.m.; from ^euhaus at 12 and f 

6 . 

98 1ont4 27. - Lake of Thun-^lnUrlojchen, 

N.B. These were the hours in 1837; but, as they ar& 
liable to be altered from ^ear to year, travellers should 
Inquire before hand. A row-boat with 3 oars costs 75 baiz= 
11 fr. 5 sous. The tarif filed by the authorities being 3 fr. 
for eadi rower, and 2 Ir. 5 sous for the boat. The voyage 
lakes up about 3 hours. 

, The steamer does not take carriages; but a good carriage^ 
road has been mt^de to Interlachen, along the S. shore of the 
lake. The distance is about 4 stunden3=i3 £nglish miles. 
The lake is about 10 miles long. 

The banks, of the lak« nearThun are occupied with neat 
villas and cheerful gardens : further on, its N. shore is preci- 
pitous, and not very interesfing. Among its scanty villages 
and hamlets, the most important is Oberhof, distinguished by 
the square tower of its castle. 

The S. shore is 'mOre Striking. Here the two remarkable 
mountains, the Stockhorn, with a sharp peak, projecting like 
a horn, or thorn, and the pyramidal mass of the^iesen, with 
its conical top, stand sentinels at the entrance of the Kander 
and SimmenthaK The river Kander conducted into the lake 
by an artificial channel formed for it in 17U, has deposited 
around' its mouth, within less than a century and a half, a 
delta or sand-bank of several hundred acres. The progress 
and extent of this recent formation, so interesting to geolo- 
igists, has been ably investigated by Mr. |.yell. 

S. At the foot of the Niesen, on a projecting tongue of land 
stands^'the pictliresque castle of SpietZy founded, according to 
tradition, by Attila (?), and belonging to the family of Eriachv 
At Spielzwyler there is a neat inn. 

N. When about two-thirds over the lake, a projecting 
promontory ot precipitous rock, called the Nose, is passed^ 
and a fine view is obtained of the Eigher and lliVnch, which 
fill up the extremity of the lake with the white mass of their 
snow. To the rt. of them appear the Jungfrau and Finster 
In front of the Nose the lake is 720 feet deep. 
N. Farther on, in the face of the mountain, is the Cave of 
St. Beatusj above a small cascade, which may be seen leap- 
ing into the lake. St. Beatus, according to tradition, a native 
of Britain, converted the inhabitants of this part of Helvetia 
to Christianity. Being minded to take up his residence on 
the shores of the lake, he fixed his eye^ upon a grot well suit- 
ed to a hermit's abode, which happened at the time to be 
occupied by a dragon. The monster, however, was easily 
ejected, without force, and simply by hearing a notice to quit 
addressed to him by St. Beatus. Among the miracles perfroiii- 
ed by the anchorite, in addition to the above, must be men- 
tioned that of his crossing the lake on his cloak, which, when 

Eouie ^.-^Lake nf Thun^InUrlachrn. 9& 

spread oojt on ihe water, served Iiiin instead of a boat. A 
rivulet issuer out of the cave, aiui is subject io sudden rises, 
i^hich fit! the cavern to tbe roor^ aud ar,e accouipaiiied by a 
loud report, like that of a canooiu It may be reached in a 
quarter of an hour from the shore^ 

At Neuhaus, a solitary cat>aret at the end of the lake, about 
to miles from Thun, and about 2 miles from Unlersecn, tbe 
jiassengers are landed. A long array of carriages, porters, 
guides, and horses, urill'be found awaiting their disembar- 
Ration ; also a diligence, which runs to Intcrlachen; fare, 1 fr. 

N.B. Travellers bound on the tour of the Oberland ge- 
nerally engage an equipage here for the whole journey, and 
if they find a good stout pair of horses, there is economy in 
doing so ; since, where th^e carriage-road^ cease, the horses 
ore taken out and used (or riding. The owjier will provide 
saddles and act as ^uide. . Thus, if th&same horses are con- 
tinued during the whole journey, and brought back ta Unter- 
seen, one or even 2 days of back .fare are sav^d. 

a/3 Unterseen,^a thoroughly Swiss village, composed (ex- 
cept the Castle on the market-place, and Ralhhaus) of wood- 
en houses.. many of them brown from age, being 2 centuries 
old, contains about IjOOO inhabiianls. 

It'is situated about half-way between thCr lakes of Thun 
and Brienz, whence its name, and that of Interlachen, both 
signifying ** between the lakes." " There are several pen- 
sions here, where the charge is 3 fr. a-day ; but they are not 
so good as those jof Inteiiathrn ; in fact, th^y are altogelhcr 
i^ifcrior estabjishmenifl^, chiefly resorted to by Germans and 
Swiss, and the hours are moi'e primitive, dinner b^ing served 
at!.*'— L. 

N. B. - Those who wish to make the most of their .time,, 
and intend to return to Thun, -will turn oOTat once from Un- 
terseen to Lauterbrunnenj as they must passthrough Inlerla-* 
Chen (Where there is nothing particular to be seen) on theic 
way from Brienz. 

3/4 Interlachen. Besides the ipn, called Hotel de; Inter- 
lachen, or Landhaus, and said to be good, there are at least a 
iU)zen pensions, or hoarding-houses here, where travellers, 
are now received for one day. Formerly* no oiie was taken 
in for less than a week. The charges for board and lodging 
vary between 5 and 6 fr. a-day, exclusive of wine. The prin^ 
ripal pensions areMiiller's^ Sellers; the Gassino (6 fr.);and 
Ilofsteltcrs ; the latter is kept by a very obliging landlord,, 
and affords aa good accommodation as any in the place. At 
most of these houses there is a- daily table d*hdtc, and during 
the season ball^ are constantly given at one or other. . 

Interlachen has few sights or lions for the tourist or passing 
traveller, who qeed not stop here, unless' be require to rest 

100 Route a. — Inter lachcn^^Vnapunntn. 

himself. Its beantirul position, however, on a little plain 
between the lakes, in Full view of the Juugfrau, whose snowy 
summit is seen through a^gap in the minor chain of Alps, its 
vicinity, to nunxerous interesting sites, and some of the most 
pleasing excursions in Switzerland, together with its exceed- 
ing cheapness as a place of residence, nave, spread its reputa- 
tion through Europe, and have. literally converted it into an 
English colony, two-thirds of the summer visitors, on a mo- 
derate computation, being of our natioil, who have converted 
the place into a sort of Swiss Margate. The village itself, a 
oollection of staring, white-washed lodging-hoases, has no- 
thing Swiss In its character. Still, however, though no longer 
a place of retirement, Interlachen must not be disparaged ; 
its almost endless walks and rides, its boating parties on the 
two lakes, its picnics, and balls, would, in the society of 
friends, aiTord amusement for a season. In front of the lodg- 
hig-iiouses runs a magnificent avenue of walnut-trees, most 
inviting from its cool 'shade. • The-wooded slopes of the Har- 
der, a hill on the opposite bank of the Aar, rendered acces- 
sible by easy paths, commanding a delightful view, and the 
old castle of Unspunnen are within the distance of a V^alk 
oven for ladies ; while the Giesbach Falls, Lauterbrunheti 
with the StauLbich, and Grindelwald with its glaciers, are 
within a short morning's row or ride. They are described in 
ihe following tour of the Oberland. There is a Subscription 
Heading-room and Library here, at which *• The Times **and 
**Galignani" are taken in. 

The English Church Service, is performed every Sunday 
in the church by an English clergyman, for whom a small sti- 
pend is formed by voluntary contributions among his coun- 
trymen. • 

Very good' saddle-horses may be hired at Interlachen- As 
far as Lautcrbrunnen and Grindelwald there is a good char- 
road, and the saddle-horses may be used to draw the chai^. 

From Unterseen, or Jriterlticheny to Lauterbrunnen, is 
about 3 1/4 stunden,BlO Eng.miles — a drive of nearly 9. 
hours. Tne road is practicable for the carriages of the coun- 
try. After passing a tract of verdant meadowland, on which 
great wrestling-matches (one of which has been described by 
Madame de Stael) are periodically held, the road passes on 
the rt. the Castle of Vnspunnen : it is in a very dilapidated 
state, but a square tower, with a flanking round turret rise 
picturesquely above the bru'shwodd surrounding ihem. It is 
the reputed residence of Manfred, and its position in front of 
the high Alps renders it not unlikely that Byron may have 
had it in his eye. The real owners of the castle were the 
barons of Unspuni)en, a noble and ancient race, who were 
lords of the whole Oberland, from the GrimscI to the 

Route 27. — Uufpunneti, ' 101 

Gtfinnii. Burkard, the last male desc^endant of this family , 
had a beautiful and ODiy daughter, Ida, who was beloved by 
a jrowig knight attached to the Court of Berchtold^ of Z&hring- 
en, between whom and Burkarda deadly fend had long sub- 
KiMed. Under such circumstances the youthful Rudolph of 
Wadenschwyl despairing of obtaining the fiilhefs consent 
to their union, scaled the castle-walls by night, carried Ida 
oir, and made her his bride. 'Many years of bloody strife bet* 
ween the two parties followed this event. At length Rudolpn, 
taking his infant son by Ida alone with him, presented 
himself, unarmed and without attendants, to Burkard, in the 
midst of his stronghold. Such an appeal to the old man's 
affections and generosity was irresistible; he melted into tears, 
forgot his' wrongs^and, receiving his children into his bosom, 
made Rudolph's son the heir of his vast possessions. At the time 
of the reconciliation, the old baron had said, "Let this day 
be for ever celebrated among us ;" and rural games were in 
conscqtkenoe, for many years, held on the spot. These were 
revived iti 1805 and 1808, and consisted of gymnastic exerci- 
ses, wrestling, pitching the stone,. ete., in Which the natives 
of the different caiitons contended with one another, while 
spectators from tat and near collected on a natural amphi- 
theatre. A buge fragment of rock, weighing 18ilbs., which 
was burled 10 ft. by an athlete from Appenzell, may sttU be 

Leaving behind the villages of Wylderschwyl and Muhli- 
nen, whose inhabitants are sadly afflicted with^ goitre (S 19), 
the road plunges into the narrow and savage gorge of the tor- 
rent Lutschine, and we enter upon a ranse of scenes beyond 
all description or previous conception. iVot far up, the road 
passes a spot of evil repute as the scene of a fratricide— V' jusU 
the place for such a deed.'* It was marked by an inscription 
in the face of a projecting rock, called, from the murder, the 
Evil Stone (BOsestein), or Brother's Stone. The recent en- 
eroachments of the river upon the road have rendered it neces- 
sary to blast a portion* of the rock in order to widen the car- 
riage-way, in doing which the inscription has been displaced. 
The murderer, according to the story, was lord of the castle 
of Rothenflue, which stood on the opposite sideof the valiey. 
Stung with remorse, he fled away from the sight of man, 
wandered an outcast among the wilds like Gain, and perished 

2 At the hamlet of Zwellutschinen, about two miles from 
the entrance of the valley, it divides into two branches; that 
on the 1., from which flows the Black Lutschine, is the valley 
of Grindelwald, terminated by the gigantic mass and everlas- 
ting shows of the Wetterhorn (see p. 106); that of the rt. , tra- 


t02 Pouie^^.-^'The Slmihhacli^Laulcrhmmcn 

versed by. the White Lutschinc, is the valley oftlie Lauter^ 
brunnen, and it ought to be visited first. 

The valley, or Lautepbrunnen is renriarkable Tor its deplli, 
its contracted width » and Tor the precipices of limestone, 
nearly vertical, which enclose it like walls. Its name, lite— 
Mlly translated, means ^''nothing but fountains;" and is 
derived, doubtlessly, from the number of streamlets which 
cast themselves headlong from the brows of the clifiTs into the- 
valley below, looking at a distance like so many pendulous 
white threads. 

The road crosses the Lutschine under the base of a colossal 
precipice, called Hunnenflue, whose face displays singular 
contortions in the limestone strata. If the clouds permit, the 
summit of the Jungfrau now bursts into sight; and soon after 
surmounting a steep slope, we reach. 

1 3/4 Lauterbrunn^n ( Inn : Capricorn, tolerably good). 

This village contains about 1350 inhabitants, in rustic 
houses, scattered widely apart, along both banks of the tor- 
rent. It lies 2450 feet above the sea, so sunk between pre- 
cipices that in summer the sun does not appear till 7 o'clock, 
and in winter not before 12. Only the hardier species or 
grain grow here, and the climate is almost too rough for pears 
and apples. About 30 shoots of water dangle from the edge 
of the rampart which forms the side of the valley; and, when 
its top is enveloped in clouds, appear to burst at once from 
the sky : many of them are dried up in summer. These mi- 
nor falls, however, are all eclipsed by that of the Staubbach,. 
distant about three quarters of a mile from the inn. It is 
one of the loftiest in Europe, measuring between 800 and 900- 
feet in height ; and from tliis cause, and from the compara- 
tively small body of water forming it, it is shivered by the 
wind into spray like dust long before \i reaches the bottom 
^whence its name, literally, Dust'faU).% 

Strangers, who expect in the Staubbach the rushing and 
roaring rapidity of a cataract, will here be disappointed; but 
in the opinion of many, this want is atoned for by other 
beauties peculiar to this fall. The friction of the rock, aud the 
resistance of the air, retard the descent of the water, giving 
it, when seen in front, the appearance of a beautiful lace veil 
suspended from the precipice, and imitating, in its centre, 
the folds of the drapery. When very full it shoots out from 
the rock, and is bent by the wind into flickering undulations. 
Byron has described it admirably, both in prose and verse: — 

** The torrent is in shape, curving over the rock, like the 
tail of a while horse streaming in the wind— such as It might 
be conceived would be that of the 'pale horse (*') on which 
Death is mounted in the Apocalypse. It is neither mist uoc 
water, but a something between both : its inimeusc height 

f^otite 27. — The Staiibbach — Lanlrrhvunnen 10.') 

If^ivesit a wnvc or curve. — a sproaillni; h<'ro or roniieitsalion. 
* iliero— wonderfal aiid indescrib.ibie. "—Joarnal. 

.*' It is not noon — the sunhow's rays stiil arch 
The torrent with the many hut's of heaven. 
And roll the sheeted silver's waving column 
OVr the crag's headlong perpendicular, 
And fling its lines of foapiing light along, 
And to and fro, like the pale courser's tail, 
The giant steed to he bestrode by Death, 
As told in the Apocalypse." 

The Staubbach is seen to perfection before noon, when the> 
kisformed by the sifn falling full upon it, 'Milie a rainbow 
come down to pay a visit-— moving as you move," and the 
shadow of the water on the face of the rock, give an addi- 
tional interest. At other times it is as well seen from the 
inn as from the nearest point which can be reached without 
becoming drenched with spray. Wordsworth has called it 
**a heaven-born water-fall; "and when the clouds are low and 
rest on the sides of the valley, it literally appears to leap 
from the sky. In winter, when the torrent is nearly arrested 
by the frost, a vast pyramid of ice is formed by the dripping 
of the water from above, increasing gradually upwards in the 
manner of a stalagmite, until the colossal icicle reaches near- 
ly half way up the. precipice. There is a smaller upper-fall 
above the one seen from Lautcrbrunucn. A foot-path leads 
up to it in three quarters of an hour, but few think it worth 
the trouble of tb^ ascent. 

Above Lauterbrunnen vegetdtion languishes, and in a few 
miles is limited to scanty grass. There are more water-falls 
in (his direction, if the traveller be not already weary of 
them. The Schmadribaehf about 10 miles beyond the church 
of Lauterbrunnen, is by some esteemed finer than the Staub- 
bach; but it is only to be reached by a difficult foot-path, lead- 
ing past the liUle cascade of the Trimbelbach, twisting and 
rciaring in a cleft on the 1., and over the debris of an avalan- 
che which falls annually from the Jungfrau, and spreads its 
ruins of broken rocks, mixed with fragments of ice, over a 
surface H)f many hundred acres. It is called the Trachsel- 
Lauine. Near it is a group of miserable chalets— farther on 
a single chalet,called Steinberg, from which the fall Is reached. 
It is a desolate and wild spot, pent in by abrupt rocks and. 
glaciers, and might truly be termed Tfie World's End. 

Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald.^ 

1 . By the char road. 

2. By the Wengern Alp . 

1 V Bouie 27. — Tli$ JV^ngern A ip—A talanches . 

By the high-road the time occupied in going to Grindel'wald 
is about 2 1/2 hours —the <ii8tance about 12 miles; but this 
route should be taken only by those ivho can neither ride nor 
walli, or who prefer the ease of a char-a-ban6 to avalanches, 
Alps, and fatigue— or in case of bad or cloudy weather. It 
is necessary to return down the valley as far as the Zwei- 
Lutschinen, then , crossing the White, to ascend, by the side 
of the Black Lutschinc— a loilsome> steep, through a gloomy 
valley, closed up by the precipices of the Wetterhorn, and 
the peaks of the Kighefr. Nearer to Grindelwald the two 
glaciers appear in sight. 

The traveller in the Oberland is sadly subjected to the 
persecution of beggars--$ome under the preteit of offering 
him strawberries, or flowers/ or crystals,— otfiers with no 
other excuse but their poverty, not unfrequently united to 
goitre and cretinism, as an additional recommendation to tue 
compassion of strangers. Every cottage sends (brtu its ragged 
crowds of dishevelled and unshod children; behind every 
rock is an ambuscade of native minstrels, who, drawn up iit 
line, assail the passers-by with the discordant strains of their 
shrill voices. *' lliey beset the devious footway leading up 
the hill-side in a long scattered line, to a considerable height, 
just like a train ^f gunpowder, which only awaited my ap- 
proach to explode.*'— Latro60. 

2 In fine weather there is not a more interesting or exci- 
ting journey among the Alps than that over the Wengern 
Alp, or Leuer ScKeideck, Independent of the view of the 
Jungfrau, and other giants of the Bernese chain (unrivalled^ 
owing to its proximity to these sublime objects), it is from 
the summit of the Wengern Alp ihnt the avalanches are seen 
and heard in greatest perfection, and no one should abandon 
the expedition without an effort. The path is praticable for 
mules, and is about 18 miles long; but, from its steepness, its 
great elevation, and the time spent in enjoying the view from 
the top, ijl occupies at least 7 hours^ Though fatiguing, it is 
not dangerous, and is constantly traversed by ladies on horse- 
back, or even in a chaise a porteur (S 9). 

A steep zigzag path leads out of the valley of Lauterbrun- 
nen. in order to surmount the ridge separating it from that 
of Grrindelwald. After nearly an hour of toilsome ascent, rms- 
sing the houses of a scattered hamlet, it reaches a more gra- 
dual slope of meadow land. The valley of Lauterbrun, be- 
neath whose precipices the traveller has previoiisly crept with 
some little awe, presents from this height the aspect of a 
mere trench; the Staubbach is reduced to a thin thread; and 
its upper fall, and previous winding, before it makes its final . 
leap, are exposed to view. 

The path crosses the meadows advancing towards the Jung- 

loule'^l.'^The PVenge-'n Aip^Ataianclus, 105 

fraa, ivhich now rises in front of the spectator, witti its vast 
o\|)anse of snow and glacier, in all its magnificence. Not only 
its summit, but all tlie mass of the mountain above ihe level 
of the spectator, is white with perpetual snow of yirgin puri- 
ty, which breaks off abruptly at the edge of a back precipice, 
forming one side of a raVine separating the Junsfrau from the 
Wengern Alp. It appears to be within gun-shotof the spectator 
—so colossal are its proportions,that the efTect of distance is lots. 

From a chalet (Sennhntte) planted on the brow of the ravjne, 
5350 ft. above the sea level, directly facing the iangfrau , the 
mountain is best seen, as well as the avalanches descending 
from it. The precipice before alluded to, which forms the 
base of the mountain, is channelled with fkirrows or groove, 
down which the avalanches descend. They are most numerous 
a little after nooii, when the siin exercises the greatest influ* 
cnce on the glacier in loosening masses of it, and causing 
them toiireak off. 

The attention is first arrested by a distant roar, not unlike 
thunder, and in half a minutea gush of white powder, resem- 
bling a small eataract, is perceived issuing out of one of the 
upper grooves or gullies; it then sinks into a lower fissure, 
and is lost only to reappear at a lower stage some hundred 
fleet below ; soon after another roar, and a fresh gush from a 
lower gully, till the mass of ice, -reaching the lowest step, is 
precipitated into the gulf below. By, watching attentively the 
sloping Whiteside of the Jungfrau, ihe mass of glacier which 
produces this may be seen at the moment when disengaged 
and before the sound reaches the ear. Sometimes it merely 
slides down over the surface, at others it turns over in a cake; 
but in an instant' after it disappears, is shattered to atoms, 
and, in passing through the different gullies, is ground to 
powder So fine, that, as it issues from the lowest, it looks like 
a handful of meal; and particles, reduced by friction to the 
•consistence of dust, rise iu a cloud of vapour. Independent 
of the sound, whidi is'^n awful interruption of the silence 
usually prevailing on the high Alps, there is nolliin^ grand 
or striking in these falling masses; and, indeed, it is dilTicult, 
at first, to believe that these echoing thunders aris^ from so 
slight a cause in appearance. The spectator must bear in hiind 
that at each discharge whole tons of ice are hurled down the 
mountain, and apparently, that insignificant white dust is 
made up 'of blocks- capable of sweeping away whole forests, 
did any occur in its course, and of oveiwhelming houses 
ond villages. During the eatlv patt of summer three or four 
such discharges may be seen in an hour; in cold weather they 
are less numerous; in the autumn scarcely any occur. The 
avalanches finallv descHid into the valley ofTrumlaten^ the 
deep and uninhabited ravine dividing the Jungfrau from the 

106 'R6ut$¥l.—The IVengf.m Alp^GrMvtwald. 

Wcn'gerp Alp; and, on melting, send totih a stream whiclb 
falls into the LiKschinc, n little above Lanterbrunncn. A 
part, of Lord Byron's ** Manfred" wa* either written or 
mentally composed on the Wengern Alp, in full view of the 
Jangfrau, and (he says in his Journal) within hearing of itS: 

'* Ascended the Wengern mountain; left the horses, took 
off my coat, and went to the summit. On one side, our view 
comprised the Jungfrau,. with all her glaciers; then the Dent 
d'Argent, shining like truth; then the Little Giant, and the 
Great Giant; and last, not least, the Wetterhorn. The height 
of the Jungfrau is 13,000 feet above thesea, and 11,000 abov& 
the valley. Heard the avalanches falling every five minutes 

'* The clouds rose from the opposite valley, curling up. 
perpendicular precipices, like the foam of the ocean of hell 
during a spring tide— it was white and sulphury, and ira^^ 
measurably deep in appearance. The side we ascended was 
not of so precipitous a nature; but, on arriving at the summit, 
we looked down upon the other side upon a boiling sea or 
cloud, dashing against the crags on which we stood— these 
crags on one side quite perpendicular. In passing the masses, 
of snow, I made a snowball and pelted Hobhousc with it*'- 
— Swiss Journal. 

" Ye loppling crags of ice— 

Ye avalanches t wjioin a brealb draws down 

In mountainous o'erwhelniing, come and crush mc! 

/ hear ye momentljf above ^ beneath , 

Crush wilh a frequent conflict i bur ye pass, 

And only fail on tilings thai still would Iivh; 

On the young flourishing forest, or the hut 

And hamlet of the harmless villager. 

The mists boil up around the glaciers; clouds 

Rise curling fust beneath mc, white and sulphury. 

Like foam from the rQused ocean of deep helU* 

About Smiles beyond thisn>halet the summit of the pass is. 
attained, 62S0 feet above the sea-level. Near it there is ano- 
tcr chalet, which, as well as the former, furnishes beds lo 
strangers, who sometimes pass the night here to await the 
sunrise. The view from the top is very fine, including, be- 
sides the Jungfrau, the MOoch, the two Kighers, and thii 
Wetterhorn. The Jungfrau, or Virgin, received its name 
either from the unsullied purity of the snow, or because (till 
lately) its crest had nevet* been reached or trodden by human 
f6ot.. She has now* lost her claim to the title on the latter 
^Core, the highest peak having been, attained in 1812, by tWQ^ 

Route 27.— TA« Wmgem ^ ip^GrinUelwald. AOl 

4)rottier8, named Meyer, from Aarau; and. in 1828, by six 
peasants, from Grifidelwald. It is ihc fourth in height of all 
European mountains, rising to an elevation of 13,748 fee^ 
above the sca-levcl. The Silber-hOrner are, properly speak>* 
jn», inferior peaks of the Jungfrau. Farther on appears the 
Jll5nch or Klein Etgher, 13,62 i feet, and the Great Eigher 
(Giant), 13. 050 feet. On approaching Grindelwald, the Shreck- 
horn (Peak of Terror), 13,470 feet, comes into sight. The 
sharp, ncedle>formed point of the Finster-Aarhorn, the 
highest of the group, U,070 feet above the sea-level, is only 
visible ak intervals peering above his brethren. The glaciers, 
which cling aronnd these peaks, and fill upr the depressions 
-between them, extend without interruption from the Jung- 
frau to the Grimsel, and from Grindelwald in Canton Berne, 
nearly to Brieg in the Yallais. The extent of this glacier has 
been calculated at 115 square miles, or about one-rsixth of all 
the glaciers among the Alps. 

Within a few years, a chalet has been erected on the very 
commit of the Wengern Alp, to afford refreshment by day to 
passing travellers, and shelter by night to those who wish to 
enjoy the sunrise from hence. Both the fare and the beds 
«re of a very humble description. The descent from this 
chalet to Grindelwald takes up about three hours The path 
is steep and difficult, strewn with Jallen rocks. It passes 
within sight of a forest mown down by the fall of avalanches. 
The trunks, broken short off close to the ground, still stand, 
like stubble left by the scythe. Byron describes '^wholc 
woods of withered pines-^all withered ; trunks stripped and 
l)arkless, branches lifeless ; done by a single winter, — their 
appearance reminded me of me and my family.'* 

In descending into the valley^ the Wettcrhorn is seen in 
front, and on the 1. the Faulhori), surmounted by an inn, like 
that on the fiighi, which furnishes night-quarters to those 
who ascend for the sake of the sunrise, and the celebrated 
panoramic view ( p. 109). On the rt., low down, appears the 
white glacier of Grindelwald, issuing oat of a gorge, on a 
level with the habitations of the valley. Travellers, instead 
of proceeding at once to Grindelwald, usually skirt along 
the base of the mountain, in order to visit this glacier on 
their way. 

Grindelwald {Inns: Adler—Eagle; Bar-*- Bear; 'both to- 
lerable). They are more than a mile distant from the lower 
glacier : in summer they are often very full, so that it is ad- 
visable to send on beforehand to secure beds. 

The village of Grindelwald, consisting of picturesque wood- 
^B' cottages, widely .scattered over the valley, lies at a height 
of 3250 feet above the sea, fronfi which cause, and from its 
vicioity to the glacierS; the climate of the valley) is cold, and 


108 Route TI.^-Grindelo^ld-^T he Glaciers. 

unstible even in summer. lis inhabitants are'cliiefly em^ 
ployed in rearing cattle, of which 6000 head are fed on the 
neighbouring pastures. Some of the peasants act as guides ; 
the younger fenyiles pick up a few batz by singing Banx de 
Taches at the inns, and most of the children are beggars— 
occupations arising from the influx of strangers into the vaU- 
Jey, which has exercised an injurious influence upon its morals 
and ancient simplicity ofmanners. 

Grindelwald owes its celebrity^ as a place of resort for tra- 
vellers, to the grandeur of the mountains which surround it, 
and to its two Gladere (i 17), which,>as they descend into 
the very bdltora of the valley below the level of the village, 
and almost within a stone' s-throw of human habitations, are 
more easily accessible here than in other parts of Swiizertand. 
Three gigantic mountains form the S. side of the valkey^the 
Eigher, or Giant ; the Mettenberg (Middle MounUUn), which is, 
in fact, the base or pedestal of the magnificent pcak» called 
Schreckhorn ; iind the Wetterhorn (Peak of Tempests), at the 
upper end. Between these three mountains theawo glaciers 
of Grindelwald issue oqt. They are branches .af that vast 
field or ocean of ice mentioned above as occupying the table^ 
land, and high valteys amidst the Bernese Alps, and being 
pushed downwards by the constantly-increasing masses above, 
decend far below the line of perpetual snow ($ 17). 

Their chief beauty arises from their being bordered by. fo- 
rests of fir, which form, as it were, a graceful fringe to the 
white ice,- while the green pastures, with which they are al- 
most in contact near their base, contrast agreeably'^ with their 
frozen peaks. Though inferior in extent to those of Cha^ 
mouni, they yield to them alone; and the traveller who has 
not seen them will do well to explore the Glaciers of Grindel- 
wald. The Lower Glacier, 'also called the smaller, although 
four times as large as the upper one, forces its way out be- 
tween the £igher and Mettenberg, and its solid icebergs des- 
cend to a point only 3200 ft. above the level of the sea. A 
path, practicable for mules, ascends for nearly 2 hours along 
its left margih, beneath the precipices of the Mettenberg, 
commanding a most interesting view of the bristling mina«- 
rets of ice, rising in the most varioust and fantastic shapes. 
The glacier, which is narrow at the bottom, gradually wi- 
dens, and spreads out into what is called the'S^of Ice (£is- 
meer), where its surface, though traversed by crevices, is letfs 
ahattered than below: The best view of it is from the grotto 
called Nellenbalm. Strangers should not venture upon the 
ice without a guide. In 1821, M. Mouron, a clergymati of 
Yevay . was lost in one of the crevices. Suspicions were en«- 
tertained that the guide who accompanied him had murdered 
him, and search was immediately commenced for ihe body. 

Moaie 27.— -T/i* Faulhorn, 109 

After It days of , fruitless attempls, it was at length drawn 
out of an abys^ in the ice, said to have been 700 feet deep (?), 
by a guide named Burguenen, who was let down from tbove, 
«t the peril of bis lire, by a rope with a lantern tied to hts 
neck. He was twice drawn up without having been able to 
find it, nearly eifaausted fbr want of air ; the third time he 
returned with it in his arms. It was much bruised, and se- 
veral limbs were broken; so as to lead to the belief that life, 
or iat least sensation, had departed before it reached the bot- 
tom ; but both the watch and the purse of the unfortunatt; 
man were found upon him, so that the suspicions regarding 
the guide were proved to be groundless. He was buried iii 
the church of Grindelwald. 

On^the way up toihe Eismeer a singular depression in the 
rocks, called Martinsbriickf is pointed out to the traveller ; 
and opposite to it, in the crest of Che Eigher, a small hole, cal- 
led Martimloch^ through which the sun*s rays shine twice n- 
year. Once on a time, according to the tradition, the basin 
now occupied by the Eismeer was filled with a lake, but thi; 
space between the Mettenberg and the Eigher being much 
narrower thafn at present, the outlet from it was constantly 
blocked up, and inundations produced, which ruined the fields 
of the peasants in the valley below. At length St. Martin, a 
holy giant, came to their rescue; he seated himself on 'the 
Mettenberg, resting his staflTon the Eigher, and then with 
one lusty heave of his brawny back not only burst open the 
present wide passage between the two mountains, but left 
the marks of his seat on the one, and drove his walking-stick 
right through the other. 
Tbe Vppir Glacier may be visited in going over the Scheideck . 

Ascent of the Faulhom, 

The Faulhorn is a mountain 8UQ feet above the sea-level ; 
situated between the valley of Grindelwald and the lake of 
Brienz, and commanding from its summit an excellent view, 
especially over the neighbouring chain of Beniese Alps. On 
this account it is ascended in the summer-time, like the Righi, 
by numerous parties of travellers. 

'^ For an excursion up the Faulhorn, the horses that have 
brought travellers to Grindelwald may be used. For ladies 
who do not ride, and are vet willing to undergo the fatigue ot 
the ascent, chairs may be hired at the inns, with capital bear- 
ers, four to each chair, at • francs each; or if the party slec|> 
on the Faulhorn, 9 frs. The inn on the summit, which is only 
tenanted for A months of tlie year, and is totally abandoned 
to the wind and rain in October, affords 3 very tolerable apart- 
ments, and one or two li&lis; still it is but sorry sleeping ac- 


110 RotU$ 21. -'The Faulhom-^ Great Schcideck. 

commodatioii, tbe d4$agrimenM of which are hardly eompei^^ 
sated to ladies by thauncertain beauty of the early viewof tbc 
glaciers : Tor gentlemen the quarters are good enough. The 
ascent Trom Grindelwald istotaily free from danger, and not very 
difficult. It may be made in less than 5 hours»and thedesceni 
in 3 1/3. The larder of mine host is said to be better than here- 
tofore; but every thing is of course very dear "— £. A faggot of 
fire-wood costs from 10 tol5batz. The path leads over tbc 
Bachalp, by the side of a small lake, 1000 feet below the sum- 
mit. The view of the Bernese Alps from the top forms the 
chief feature of the panorama, which in this respect, and from 
tbe proximity of the Faulhorn to those snowy giants, far^ur- 
passes the prospect from the Righi. On the other hand, 
though the lakes of Thun and Brienz are both visible, only 
a small strip of each appears, which is but a poor equivaleiu 
for the wide expanse of blue water which bathes the foot of 
the Righi. 

There is a footpath from the tup of the Faulhorn, passing 
the waterfall of the Giesbaeh to Brienz * the distance is about 
14 miles. A bridle-path leads down to Rosenlaui, on the way 
to Meyringen, so that travellers about to cross tbe Scheideck 
need not return to Grindelwald. 

Grindelwald to Meyringen, by the Great Scheideck. 

61/2 stonden=- 20 3/4 English miles. 

Beyond Grindelwald the char road ceases, and those who 
cannot travel on horseback or on foot can reach Meyringcn 
only by crossing the lake of Brienz, returning first to Inter-* 

An hour's walk up the valley from Grindelwald, and a 
slight detour to the rt. of the direct path to Meyringen, leads 
to the Upper Glacier, It does not materially differ from the 
one below, nor is it finer; but it sometimes has a larger vault 
of ice at its lower extremitv. These two glaciers are the chief 
feeders of tbe Black Lutscbine. 

It takes 3 hours to reach the summit of the Scheideck from 
Grindelwald. The ascent is easy, and during the whole of it 
the Wetterliorn (Peak of Tempests) overhangs the path, an 
object of sUipendous sublimity. It rises in one vast precipice 
of alpine limestone, apparently close above the traveller's 
head, though its base is more than a mile off. Four different 
avalanches descend from it in the spring ; some of them reach 
to the path ; and patches of their snow often last through the 
summer. Upon the slope in front of the Wetterhorn is 
usually stationed one who blows the alpine horn, a rude lube 
of wood, 6 or 8 feet long. The traveller should on no ac- 
count omit to stop and listen. A few seconds after the horn 
has ceased, the few and simple notes of the instrument are 

Roaii 27 . - Great Scheidech-^RoseniauL \ \ \ 

caiiglit op and repeat€#l by the echoes of the van eKfT of the 
Wetterhorn, and return to the ear refined and softened, yet 
perfectly distinct, as it were an atrial concert warbling among 
the crags. 

The view down the valley of Grindelwald, from the top of 
the Sch^ideck, is Tery striking; its green pastures contrast 
agreeably with the bare wall of the Wetterhorn. lleyond it 
on the 1. rises the sharp crest of the Eigher, resembling the 
up-turned edge of a hatchet; and the pointed cone of the 
Schreckhom .appears above the Mettenberg. On the top of 
theScheidcek (6711 feet above the sea^-level), stands a chalet, 
weather-tight, affordins' one or two beds for such travellers 
as are driven to sleep here ; and a cup of coffee or hot milk 
for those who desire to warm themselves after their <fM 
morning's ride over the monntains. 

The prospect in the opposite directioii, into the vale of the 
Reichenbach or of Rosenlaui, is not remarkable. High upon 
the rt. appears the glacier of Schwarzwald, between the Wet- 
terhorn and Wellhom ; further on, between Wellhorn and 
Engel-^IOmer (angels'peaks), the Glacier of Bosenlaui lies 
embedded. An hour and a halfs walking from the chalet, 
partly through a wood of firs, brings the traveller abreast of 
this glacier, which lies about a mile to the rt. of the path in 
th« midst of a forest of firs. It is smaller than those of Griu- 
delwald, but is celebrated above all others in Switzerland for 
the untarnished purity of its white surface, and the clear 
transparent azure of its kebergs. This peculiarity arises 
doubtless from the character of the rocks around it; these in 
decomposing, do not turn into black gravel or mud, which 
stains and disfigures the Grtndelwald glaciers. A steep path 
on the 1. of the glacier leads in about 1/3 an hour to the 
summit of a cliff, which projects midway into the icy sea, 
and bends its course considerably. It forms a good point of 

The guides usoalfy haR for an hour to ref^sh themselves 
and their beasts at 

4 The Baths of Rosenlaui, a homely inn, called the Stein- 
bock, eirectcrf over a sourceof mineral water, which supplies 
5 ore rude tub9 of wood, serving as baths. The number of 
guests who resort hither for the use of them Is very limited. 
This house is distant abotitl 1/2 mile from the glacier. A few 
yards behind it, the Belehenbach torrent issues out 4>f a cleft 
in the rock. The path to Meyringen runs by the side of this 
stream, first crossing a ehUrming little green plain, carpeted 
with soft turf, like that of an English lawn, and dotted with 
chalets. The view up the valley from this point deserves 
partictofar notice i it is a favourite Subject for the pencil of 
the artist. The "W^tterikoni, the Wellhomv and the rraggy 

1 12 Route 27. — Reichenbach Falls — Meyringen, 

peaks called Engel-HOroer, form a mountain group unrivalled 
■for picturesqueness. 

Below this the valley contracts, numerous waterfalls are 
'Seen dangling from its sides : one of them, from its hcigbt 
and tenuity, is called the Rope-fall (Seilbach); and now a 
bird's-eye view opens out into the vale of Hasli^or Meyringen, 
which in comparison with the narrow glens of Grindelwald 
and Laulerbrunnen deserves the name of a plain, though 
bounded by mountains high and steep. 

Thelatterpart of the descent leading into it, i§ both difficult 
and dangerous, unless the horses are very sure-footed, owing 
to the steepness and ruggedness of the paih and its being 
paved with smooth and slippery blocks of stone. On ibis 
account travellers are usually invited to dismount and des- 
cend on foot. The stream of the Reichenbach performs this 
descent of nearly 2000 feet in a succession of leaps, the 
longest of which are the celebrated Falls of the Reiehenbaeh. 
The upper fall is situated about 100 yards to ihe 1. of the 
road near the village called Zwirghi. A small fee is exacted 
for the liberty to cross the meadow between it and the road, 
and a hut called Belvedere is built beside it. But it is best 
seen from a rocky headland shooting out in front of the bare 
amphitheatre of cliffs over which the cataract dashes, and 
just above the struggling torrent, hurrying downwards^ after 
its fall. A little lower is another, but inferior, fall, and by 
a third, still lower, the stream gains the level of the valley, 
and hastens to join its waters to the Aar. The lowest fall is 
not more than 50 yards from the 

Baths of Beichenbachf a new inn, on a very extensive 
scale, situated directly under the road leading to the Schei- 
deck, beneath a hanging wood and in grounds that remind 
one of an English park. Though provided with hot and cold 
baths it is less resorted to by invalids than by passing travel- 
lers. It is a good house; not dear; table d'hdte at 1 and 7. 
It is distant about a mile from the village of 

a 1/i Meyringen— (/nnsrSau vage, good; Bfir, Ours).— 
Of late these houses have been, to a certain extent, deserted 
for the above-named Baths of Reichenbach, situated on the 
opposite side of the valley. There is another good inn, the 
Gouronne , on this side. 

Meyringen, the chief place in the vale of Hasli, lies on the 
rt. bank of the Aar, and contains about 700 inhabitants. The: 
picturesqueness of its situation is much praised. Brockedon 
says, ** The vale of Meyringen concentrates as much of 
what is Alpine in its beauties as any valley in Switzerland." 
Its precipitous and wooded sides, streaked with white cas- 
cades almost without number, and here and there over^ 
topped by some snow-white peak, are indeed beautifttl 

Boute 27 —Miyringen^The Jlphach, 115 

features. Yet the flat plain, 3 miles broad, half marsh and. 
hair dry gravel, from inundalions of the river, are unpleasing 
from many points, and as a dwelling-place it has serious 
drawbacks from the danger to which it is exposed of being, 
swept away or inundaded, if not buried by the neighbouring 
torrents. It was to guard against such accidents that the 
sione dyke, 1000 feet long and 8 wide, was constructed ; but 
. lis prelection has not been altogether effectual. The chief; 
cause and instrument of all the mischief is the Alpbach^ a 
Hioontain torrent, pouring down from the height behind the- 
village, out of a narro^ gorge. The district in which it 
rises, and through whicn it takes its course, is composed of 
the rock known to geologists as the lias marie. Being very 
soft it is easily disintegrated and washed away, so that the 
torrent, when swollen by rain or snow, collects, and bears, 
along with it heaps of black sand and rubbish, intermixed 
with uprooted fir-trees, and is converted almost into a stream 
of mud, on which masses of rock float like lorks. A torrent 
of such consistence is easily interrupted- in its course through 
the narrow crevices, which it seems to have sawn for itself 
by the force of its current ; it then gathers into a lake behind 
the obstacles which impede it, until it is increased to such an 
extent as to bear everything before it, and to spread deso- 
lation over the valley through which its course lies. A catas- 
trophe of this sort, in 1762, buried a large part of the viilagc 
of Meyringen, in one hour, 20 feet deep in rubbish, from 
whi(h it has hardly yet emerged. The churcb was filled 
with mud and gravel lo the height of 18 feet, as is denoted 
by the black line painted along its walls, and by the debris 
which still covei'S many of the fields and gardens around. 
}n 1733 an inundation of the same stream carried away many 

The intelligent traveller Hugi, from whom the above par- 
ticulars are derived, rei*onmiends travellers to visit the Fall 
of the Alpbach about 9 in the morning, on account of the 
triple &oti7, or iris, formed in its spray, when the sun shines 
on it. The inner iris forms nearly a complete circle ; and 
the outer ones are more or less circular as the water in the 
fulls is abundant or not. The spot whence it is visible is. 
within the spray, from the cataract, so that those who would 
enjoy it must prepai'e for a wetting. 

On a rock above the village rise the ruins of the Castle of 
Resti: it belonged to an ancient and noble family, to whom 
the praise is given of never tyrannizing over their humble 
dependants. The men of Hasli are celebrated for their 
athletic forms and strength. They hold Zwingfeste, or 
wrestling matches every year, on the lOlh of Aufiust, with 
their neighbours of Unterwalden ; and on the first Sunday iik 

1 1 4. liouie 27 . ^-^Meyrirt^en — Brienz, 

September "w it b those ofGrinilelwald. The women, again, 
enjoy ibc reputation of being prettier, or rather, less plain 
than those of most other Swiss valleys. Their holiday cos- 
tume is peculiar and not ungraceful, consisting of a boddice 
of black velvet, reaching up to the throat, starched sleeves, a 
yellow petticoat, and a round black hat, not unlik6 a soup- 
plate, and about the same size, stuck on one side of Uie head, 
and allowing the hair to fall in long tresses down the back. 

Five roads concentrate at Meyringen : 1, to Brienz (a char 
road); 2, to Lucerne, by the Urtinig; 3, over the Sustcii to 
Wascn on the St. tiotthard road (13 stundcn); 4, to the 
Grimsel; 5, to Grindelwald, by the Schcidck. The magni- 
ficent fall of the Aar at Haodeck on the way to the Grimsel 
(Route 28), is about 14 miles distant. Travellers, not intend- 
ing to cross the whole pass, may make an interesting ex- 
cursion thither from Meyringen; as Ihcy may also to the 
summit of the Brunig, about 6 miles distant, whence there is 
a beautiful view* of the vale of Hash on one side, aad of 
Lungern on the other. (Route 19). 

Meyrinnen to Interlacfien by Brienx atid the Giesbach 

31/2 stunden to Brienz, and 3 3/i thence to Interlachen by 
water:s23 3/4 English miles. 

There is an excellent char road down the valley, passing 
numerous cascades leaping down the wall of rock. After 
proceeding for about 4 miles along the 1. bank of the Aar, it 
t^rosses the river by a woodeji bridge, just at the point where 
the branch of the Brunig road, leading to Brienz, descends 
into the valley. The Aar pursues its course through mono- 
tonous marsh and flat meadow land, but near its influx into 
the lake of Brienz, the forms of the mountains on its 1. bank, 
above which lowers the Faulhorn, is grand. In skirting the 
margin of the lake the road crosses vast heaps of debris 
covering acres of land once fertile. A torrent of mud, in 
1797, destroyed a considerable part of two villages near 
Kienholz, and a landslip from the Bricnzcrgrat, the moun- 
tain immediately behind Brienz, overwhelmed in November 
182 i, 40 acres of land, and swept G persons into the lake. 
It is 1 1/2 hours' drive from Meyringen to 

3 1/2 Briejiz*— (Inn: weissesKreUtz. Croix Blanche, clean) 
—a small village at the £. end of the lake, on a narrow ledge 
at the foot of the mountains, rei|iarkable only for its beau- 
tiful situation and its vicinity to the Giesbach Fall. 

naute 28. — Pa.^8 of the GrimscL 1 1 5 

Lake of Brienz.^Gieshach Falls. 

A iMMtt, vilh 8 rowert, from Brienz to Interlachen, stop- 
ping at the Criesbach, costs 63 batz«about9 Fr. Tr. 

There is a very rough road along the N. shore of the lake ; 
the guides with the horses may he sent round by it, and de- 
sired to meet the travellers close to the bridge at Interlachen. 
It takes S5 minutes to row from Brienz to the landJng-i>lace 
close to the outlet of the Giesbach, where travellers begin to 
ascend the steep height leading to the Falls. They are a suc- 
cession of cascades, leaping step by step from the top of the 
mountain; and though inferior in height to the Reichenbacb, 
surpass it in beauty, and in the adjuncts of a rich forest of fir, 
ihroagh the midst of which they break their way. The Gies- 
bach is one of the prettiest of waterfalls; there is nothing wild 
about it, and. the immediate contact of green turfy knolls and 
4Jark woods, has the effect of a park scene. It is possible to 
pass behind the middle fall by means of a gallery constructed 
beneath the shelving rock, from which it casts itself down ; 
and the effect of the liy^dscape seen athwart this curtain of 
water is singular. The cottage opposite the Falls is inhabi- 
ted by the schoolmaster of Brienz, whose family and himself 
ore celebrated as the best choristers of native airs in Switzer- 
land. He is now a patriarch of 6i, and most of his chil> 
dren are married; but be is training his grand-children to 
the same profession of songsters. The concert, accompanied 
by the Alpine horn, with which travellers are saluted on their 
departure, is very sweet. Good specimens of the Swiss ma- . 
nufacture of carved wood may be purchased at the Giesbach. 
There is a path from the Giesbach to the top of the FauW 
horh, a walk of nearly 5 hours. The lake of Brienz is about 
8 miles long, near the mouth of the Giesbach, 5Q0 feet deep; 
but in the deepest part SI 00 feet. Its Mirface fs 10, or ac- 
cording to some statements, 30 feet higher than tbe lake of 
Thun. • 

ROUTE 28. 

Ain> BRIB6. 

To the Hospice 6 1/i stunden ^ SO English miles. 

Thence to Ober-Gestelen 1/4 stunden » 30 1/4 English* 

Ober-Gestelen to Brieg 10 8/4 stunden « 35 English 

A much frequented, but rather diflicult, bridle-path. It 
iisa.good day's. Journey of 8 hours to reach the Hospice front 

1 1 3 Route 28.— F«i ts of the Jar. 

>ieyrmffen, though a stout pedestrian might push on in one 
(Iny either to Ober-Geslelen, or across tne Furca to Hos- 

Ic is one of the grandest and most interesting .passes a'er«»8 
the Alps, 

Above Meyringen (p. 112) the vate of Hasli contracts, and 
in aboat t miles is crossed by a mound or hill of considerable 
height, called the Kirchet, which appears at one time to have 
dammed up the waters or the Aar. At present they force 
their way through a singularly narrow rent, which cleaves 
the eminence from top to bottom. The path, quitting for a 
shoti time the side of the river, mounts this steep in zigzag^^ 
and then descends through a forest, into the retired green 
valley of (Jpper Hasli, which is in the form of a basin, sur— 
rounded by hills, and was once probably a lake. Two val- 
leys open out into it; on the W. that of Urbach, on the E. 
that of Gadmen, up which runs the path leading by the pass 
of the Susten (Route 3S) to Wasen. On the rt. lies the vil- 
lage Im-Grund, and, crossing the Aar, another village, called 
Im-Hof, situated between it and the Gadmen river, is pas^ 
sed. Another ravine is succeeded b|^ a' second enlargement 
of the valley called Im-Boden. Higher up is 'Hhe small and 
lonely village** of 

3 G u 1 1 a n e n, where there is an inn ; but the best place for a 
mid-day halt to rest the mules is the chalet of 

1 1/i The Handek, about 11/9 hour's walk beyond Gutta- 
nen. It can furnish a bed upon an emergency, and refresh- 
ments only of a very humble kind— such as milk, cheese, 
kirschwasser, and spirit of gentian. It stands at the distance 
of a few yards from the Falls of the Aar^ perhaps the finest 
cataract In Switzerland, from its height (more than 100 feet), 
the guantity and rush of water, the gloom of the gorge into 
which it precipitates itself, and the wild character of the 
rocky solitude around it. It is also remarkably easy of ac- 
cess, so that the traveller may form a full estimate of its 
grandeur; surveying it, first from below, through the vista of 
black rocks into which it plunges, and afterwards from above, 
stretching his nedc over the brow of the precipice from 
which the river takes its leap, and watching it (if his 
nerves be steady) till it is lost in the spray of the dark abyss 

The view from this point, not more than 5 or 6 feet atove 
the fall, which few will hesitate to call the best, is exceed- 
ingly impressive and stimulating. So plentiful is the rush of 
water that it reaches more than half way down in one un- 
broken glassy sheet before it is tossed into white foam ; and, 
what adds to its beauty, is, that another stream (the Erlen- 
bach), pouring in from the right at this very spot, takes pre- 

Moaie 28. — Hospice of the Grimset. ifT 

cisely the same leap, mingling its tributary waters midway 
with the more powerral column of the Aar. 

The daric forest of fir through which the route has woundr 
for a considerable distance, now dwindles away into a few 
dwarf bushes, and disappears entirely a little above Handek. 
To them succeed the scanty vegetation of rank grass, rhodo- 
dendron, an4 lichen; and even this partial covering disap-r 
pcars prematurely, in some places being abraided and peeled 
off by the avalanches. There is a spot about 9 miles above 
Handek^ where they descend in winter, directly across the 
path, and in their course over the sloping and convex mass of - 
granite, have ground smooth, and polished its surface for a 
space of nearly a quarter of a mile. It is prudent to dif^ 
mount here, and cross this bad bit of road (BOseplatte) on 
foot, since the path runs by the edge of the precipice, and the 
surface of the rock, though chiselled into grooves, to secure o 
footing for the horses, is very slippery. A single false step 
might be fatal to man and beast, precipitating both into the 
gulph below : the slight wooden rail, which is swept away 
almost every winter, would afford but little protection. The 
valley of the Aar, up which the narrow path is carried, looks> 
stern and forbidding from its sterility, and the threatening 
eliffs of granite which overhang it. The Aar is crossed se- 
Teral times by dizzy bridges of a single arch, formed of gra- 
nite slabs, without a parapet. There is but one human ha- 
bitation .between Handek and the Hospice, the miserable 
chalet of the R&trisboden, or ROderichsboden , where the- 
ravine expands once more into a basin-shaped hollow proba- 
bly once a lake-bed, with a marshy bottom,, affording scanty 
herbage for a few goats. A little above this the path c[uits. 
the Aar, which rises in4he Aar-glacier, about a mile higher 
up on the rt., and ascending a glen, strewed with shattered 
rocks, reaches 

2 The Hospice of the Grimself an inn of the rudest kind,, 
originally designed to shelter travellers from necessity, and 
afford a gratuitous aid to the poor ; but now daily occupied 
during the summer months by travellers for pleasure, some- 
times to the number of 40 or 50 at once, who pay for their 
accommodation, as in any other inn, and sit down at a table 
d'hdte usually about 7 o'clock in the evening : the fare is 
plain, not delicate, but the charges are not high. It is a 
massy building of rough masonry, designed to resist a weight 
of snow, and with few windows to admit the cold. It con- 
tains about ao beds; and affords ^ch homely fare as may rea- 
sonably be expected In q spot 6000 feet above the sea, and 
removed by many miles from any other human dwelling. It 
is occupied by the innkeeper, who rents it from March to 
Kovemhef . One servant passes the winter in the house, with 


118 Route 28. -^'Ho^ici of the GritnseL ' 

a provision of cheese, to last out the in^hole time, sufficient to 
support himself and any chance wanderer who might acci— 
dentally pass that way. Its situation is as dreary as can be 
conceived. It lies in a rocky hoUow, about 1000 feet below 
the summit of the pass, surrounded by soaring peaks and 
steep precipices. The rocks around are bare and broken,, 
scarcely varied by patches of snow, which never fn^ltx even in 
summer, and by strips of grass and green moss, which shoot 
up between the crevices, and are eagerly browsed by a flock 
of goats. A considerable supply of peat is dug from a bog 
within a few yards of the door. In the bottom of this naked 
basin, dose to the house, is a black tarn, or Lake, in which bo 
fish live. Beyond it lies a small pasturage, capable of sup* 
porting, for a month or two, the cows belonging to the hos- 
pice, and the servants cross the lake twice snday, in a boat, 
to miik them. It is a landscape worthy of Spitzbergen or 
Nuova Zembla. This wilderness is the haunt of the marmot,, 
whose shrill whistle frequently breaks the solitude; and the 
chamois, become rare of late, still frequents the neighbouring 
glaciers; both animals contribute )at times to replenish the lar- 
der of the Hospice. 

On the 2ind March, 1S38, the Hospice was overwhelmed 
and crushed by an avalanche, whicli broke through the roof 
and floor, and filled all the rooms but that occupied by the 
servant, who succeeded with difficulty in working his way 
out through the snow, along with his dog, and reached Mey- 
ringen in safety. The evening before, the man had heard a 
mysterious sound, known to the peasants of the Alps, and 
believed by them to be the warning of i^orae disaster; it ao^ 
peared so like a human voice that the man supposed ii might 
be some one in distress, and went out with his dog to search, 
but was stopped by the snow. The next morning the sound 
was again heard, and then came the crash of the falling ava* 
Unche. The Hospice will probably be repaired in the course 
of the summer (1838), but the traveller should ascertain be-- 
forehand in what state it is. 

During the campaign of 1799 the Austrians actually encam- 
ped for sometime upon the top of the Grimsel, and during 
their stay gutted the Hospice, using every morsel of wood- 
work for fuel. Every attempt of the French Creneral Le- 
eourbe to didodge them had failed> when a peasant of Gulta- 
nen, named Nageli, offered to conduct a detachment by a 
circuitous path, known only to himself, to the rear of the 
Austrian position, on condition that the mountain he was 
about to cross should- be given to him as his reward. This 
being agreed to, a party, commanded by General Guclin, led 
by Pjageli over the DoHihorn and the glaciers of Ghelmer , 
fell upon the AusWrians uaawa#«s^ froiB a point akQy^ that 

Route 2JJ.— T/i« Cr'msel^jiar Glacier. 1 1 ^ 
wliicb they occupied. They were seized with a panic and fled 
at once; many in the direction of the glacier or Aar, where 
escape wa» hopeless, and those who were not shot by the- 
French, perished in the rents and chasn»s> where human 
bones, rusty arms, and taitered clothes are even now met 
with, and attest their miserable fate. The guide of the 
French did not profit by his barren mountain, remaining as 
poor as before hp became possessed of it, but ii has since l^en 
called after him, Nageli's Gr&tli. 

The source of th« Aar lies in two enormous glaciers, the 
Ober and Unter-Aar-Gletscher, to the W. of the Hospice. 
The tJnter-Aar glacier is the best worth visiting, and may bo 
reached in 2 hours. It is remarkable for the evenness of the 
surface of ice and the rareness of cavities on its surface. In 
places it is covered with accumulated rubbish which has fal- 
len from the granite rocks around. It is about 18 miles long, 
and from 2 to 4 broad. Out of the midst of it rises the Fins- 
ter-Aarhorn ; the Schreckhorn is also conspicuous* There is 
no danger and little difficulty in exploring it for 2 or 3 hours, 
accompanied by a guide ; and a path has recently been made 
by which it is accessible even on horseback. Bugi traversed 
the whole glacier in this manner on a horse hired from (he 

The best panorama of the Grimsel and the neighbouring 
peaks and glaciers may be seen from the top of the Seidell 
horn, a mountain on the rt. of the path leading to Brieg and 
the Furca; its summit may be reached in 3 hours from the 
Hospice : it is 8634 feet above the sea- level. 

The summit of the pass of the Grimsel (7016 feet above 
the sea) is 2 miles from the Hospice— a steep path, marked 
only by tall poles stuck into the rock to guide the wayfarer, 
leads up to it. On the crest lies another small lake, called 
Todteu See, or Lake of the Dead, because the bodies of those 
who perished on the pass were thrown into it b; way of bu- 
rial. Along the crest of the mpuniain runs the boundary^ine 
between Berne and the Yallais, and here the path divides — - 
that on the 1. side of the lake leads by the Meyenwand to the 
glacier of the Bhone (distant about 5 miles),, and to the pass 
of the Furca (Route 30); that on the rt. of it goes to Ober- 
Gestelen, but it would be worth the while of the traveller 
bound thither to make a detour of about 6 miles to visit the 
glacier and source of the Rhone. By the direct read it is a 
walk of 6 miles fromth^ summit to 

3 Ober-Ges telen (Fr., HautCh&tillon)..The.inn^ kept. by 
^rlha, used to be a decent bouse. This is (be highest vil- 
lage but one (Oberwald being (he highest) in the Upper Yal- 
lais,. and 18 4360 feet above the sea-level. It is situated on the 
r^.,bapkof the Hhon^, about ^ imlcs belo^.it;; source in the 

120 Route ^.-^TheGries. 

glacier. It is tlie 46pbi for the cheese transported oat of 
Canton Berne into Italy, and is a place of some iraffie, as it 
lies at the junction of the three bridle-roads over the Grim— 
sel» the Furca, and the Gries (Route 29). 

In 1720, 84 men were killed here by an avalanche. 

The descent of the Upper Yallais to Brieg, a tlistance of 
35 miles, is very uninteresting. The road runs along the rt. 
bank of the Rhone. For a part of the way it is pratlcable for 
chars, and will be finished, it is caid, all the way, in two or 
il«ree years. (?) Opposite the Tillage of Ulrichen, the valley of 
Eginen opens out— -up it runs the path leading over the Griea. 
and the NeQfnen (Route 35). 

The Upper Yallais (Ober-Wallis) is very populous, and nu- 
merous unimportant villages are passed in rapid succession. 
One of the largest is Manster, containing about 400 inhabit 
unts. The natives of the Upper Yallais are a distinct and 
apparently superior race to those of the Lower. The language 
is German. The Romans never penetrated into the higher 
part of the Rhone valley. 

4 Yi e s c h lies at the entrance of a side-valley, blocked up at 
its upper eitremity by a glacier, above which rise the peaks 
called Yiescher-Hdrner. There exists a tradition, that a path 
once led up this valley to Grindelwald : it is now entirely 
slopped by the glacier, and this circumstance is supposed to 
prove a great increase of the mass of ice. From Laax to Brieg 
the char-road is completed. 

The stream of the Massa, descending from the W., is sup- 
plied by the great glacier of Aletsch, a branch of that vast 
oxpahse of ice which extends to Grindelwald in Canton Berne 

(S t7). 

3 1/4 Naters, a village of 600 inhabitants, lies in a mild- 
er climate, where the chestnut begins to floori^. Above H 
rises the ruined castle of Fluh, or Saxa (Supersax). 
A wooden bridge leads across the Rhone to 
f /2 Brieg, at the foot of the Simplon (Route 59). 

ROUTE 29. 


About 14 stunden>B46 Eng. miles. 

A mule-path, not dangerous, though it crosses a glacier, 
but difficult and very fatiguing. A guide should betaken 
over the Col. 

The inns on the Italian side of the pa«s are wretched, but 
the traveller will be regarded by its scenes of wildness and 

Boute 29. -^The Gri$r—Faiis of the Tofa. 121 

grandeur, which, according to Brockedon, ** are nowhere 
exceeded among the Alps." 

Below Ober--Gestelen (page 119) a bridge leads across the 
Rhone, and the path follows the 1. hank as far as the village 
Ini Loch, where it turns to the 1, and begins to ascend the 
Egiiienthal, crossing the stream of the Eginen above a pretty 
cascade 80 feet high, which it forms. A hard climb of about 
a hours, flrst through larihwood, then across a steril, stony 
tract, and finally over a little plain of green meadow, dotted 
with the chalets of Egina, brings the traveller to the foot of 
the final and most difficult ascent. Near this point a path, 
striking off on the I., leads over the pass of the Niifenen 
(Route 35) to Airolo. Here vegetation ceases, snow appears 
first in patches, and at last the glacier blocks up the termina- 
tion of the valley. It takes about 20 minutes to cross it. 
The direction of the path over the ice is marked by poles stuck 
upright in the ice. Along the crest of the mountain runs the 
frontier-line separating Switzerland from Sardinia. The sum- 
mit of the pass is 7900 feet above the sea. 

*' Bare and scathed rocks rose on either side in terrible 
grandeur out of the glaciers to an immense height. The 
silence of the place added greatly to its sublimity; and I saw, 
in this most appropriate spot, one of the large eagles of the 
Alps, the Lammergeyer, which was whirling its flight round 
a mouDlain-peak, and increased the deep emotion excited by 
the solitude of the scene."— Broekedoh. 

In clear weather a magnificent view presents itself from this 
point of the chain of Bernese A Ips. The descent on the Sardi- 
nian side of the pass (as osoalamon^^tte Alps) is steeper than 
that on. the N.; it is also more difficult. The upper part of 
the Piedmontese valley of Formazza, orFrutval, presents four 
distinct stages or platforms, separated by steep steps or dips 
from each other. The first is called Bettelmatt ; the second, 
Morast (morass), on which the nriserable group of chalets, 
called Kehrbdchi (the highest winter habitations), are situa- 
ted ; the third, is Auf der Fr^tt, with another hamlet of cha- 
lets, and a small chapel. Before reaching it, the traveller falls 
in with the river Toccia, or Tosa, vWhich rises in the upper 
' extremity of the ralley, and terminates in the Lago Maggiore. 
Beyond the hamlet the path crosses to the I. bank of the 
stream, and, descending the fourth steep declivity, arrives at 
the Falls of the Tosa, the approach to which has for sometime 
previously been' proclaimed by the increasing roar of the 
water. It is one of the most remarkable cataracts among the 
Alps, less on account of its form than for its vast volume of 
water, in which it is surpassed only by that of the Schaff- 
hausen. It does not descend in one leap, but in a succession 
of steps, forming an uoinlerrupled mass of white foam for a 

12a Houie ^.--Fai Fornnnza. 

leogth of perhaps 104^0 feet, wkile the entire perpendicular 
descent is not much less than 500 Seen from below, it has a. 
triangular appearance ; at>ove, not more than 80 feet wide, and. 
expanding gradually towards the bottom. 

S miles below the Falls is the village of Frutval, situated on 
the 4tb plateau/whose inn affords accommodation of the most 
wretched kind. Two miles farther is the village of Formazza, 
also called in the Italian Ai Ponte, and in German Zumsteg, 
and Pommat. The inhabitants of the upper part of the valley ,. 
as far as Foppiano, are ofGerman descent, speaking that lan- 
guage; and, according to tradition (?), descendants of- a co- 
lony from the Entlebuch. Owing to this intermixture of lan- 
guages almost all the villages have a German as well as Italian 
name. Formazza is about 23 miles from Ober-Gestelcn.. 
The inn here is called the Gross (Kreutz). 

The lower part'of the vale of the Tosa abounds in exquisite 
scenery. The Gorge of Foppiano (Germ. Unter-Stalden)^ 
5 miles below Formazza, is particularly grand. Lower down 
it expands, and displays all the softer beauties of high cultiva* 
tion, luxuriant vegetation, and thick population. Below the 
village called Premia, a stream descending from the W. 
joins the Tosa» and the valley changes its name into Yal 

'* The savage grandeur of the Yal Formazza, down which 
the river takes its passage, and the delicious region through 
which it rolls in the Yal Antigorio, cannot be painted in too 
glowing colours. In these high valleys, fully exposed to the 
power of the summer sun, there is truly a ' blending of all 
beauties/ The vine, the fig, and the broad-leafed chestnut^ 
and other proofs of the luxuriance of the soU of Italy, present 
themselves everywhere to the eye, intermixed with the grey 
blocks resting on the flanks and at the feet of the high 
granite ridge, out of whose recesses you have not as yet es-- 
caped. Instead of the weather-stained and simple habitation 
of the hardy Yallaisan, shelter^, by the bleak belt of forest, 
upon which alone I had glanced yesterday, I now saw, on the 
southern declivity of the same range, the substantial Italian 
structure, with its regular outline and simple yet beautiful 
proportion, and the villa, the handsome church, or the stone 
cottage, surrounded by its girdle of vines— the vine, not in 
its stiff and unpiciuresque Swiss or Rhenish dress, but the 
true vine of lialy and> of poetry, flinging its pliant and luxur- 
iant branches over the rustic veranda or twining its long gar- 
land from tree to tree."— £afro6c. 

This (Charming valley is (be chosen retreat of numerous 
retbed citizens, such as bankers, jewellers, etc., who have 
built themselves villas! in it. The mica-slate rocks occurring 

Route 30.— Pass of the Farea. 12* 

Aear Premia and. Son MichelCi are stuck as fell of red garnets 
as a padding is with plums. 

At Gredo there is a Sardinian Custom-house. The road 
then crosses the river twice, before it reaches San Marco; 
and: about two miles farther enters the Simplon road^ at the 
lofty and beautiful bridge of Grevola, near the iunetion of the 
Vedro with the Tosa (Route 59). 

3 miles farther on lies Domo d'Ossola. 

ROUTE 30. 


About 7 stundenakasEng. miles. 

A bridle-path, by no means danserous, and not ?ery diffi> 
ca\t, excepting the part between the summit of the Grimsel 
and the glacier of the Rhone, which it is better to cross on 
foot than on horseback. The distance from the Hospice 
of the Grimsd to the glacier of the Rhone is about 5 miles. 
On reaching the summit of the pass (p. 119), the pathleaves on 
the rt. band the gloomy little Lake of the Dead, and, skirting 
along the brink of a precipitous slope, called theMeyenwand, 
descends Tery rapidly. This portion of the road is the worst 
of the whole,being very steep, slippery, and muddy, in conse- 
quence of the melting snow, which generally lies near the 
summit. However, it soon brings the traveller in sight of 
the glacier, though at a considerable depth below him. On 
attaining the bottom of the valley he will find a very rustic 
cabaret, affording refreshment of some kind, and a bed upon 
an emergency. N.B. Its character as a house of entertainment 
is said to have improved of late. About half a mile above it 
thie Rhone Issues out today at the foot of the Rhone Glacier, 
one of the grandest in Switzerland, fit cradle for so mighty a 
stredih. It fills the head of the valley f^om side to side, and 
appears piled up against the shoulder of the Gallenstock; 
"Whose tall peak overhangs it. The source of the Rhone, iil 
a clivern of iCe, is about SiOO ft. above the sea. The path 
leading to the Furca ascends along the E. side of the valley^ 
jbaving the glacier on the 1. for a considerable distance. From 
this point the best view is obtained of this magnificent sea dt 
Ice, and a correct idea may be formed of its extent and'thiekiles» 
as the traveller passes within stoneVthrow of its yawning 
crevices. The path then turns off to the rt., mounting 
upwards through a valley of green pastures to the summit of 
the pass, orFofA;, between two mountain pejdu^fk*om which it 
receives its name. From thts pioint, S96a feet abote the sea*, 
fteart^Cross'whiehfnavki^ the boandiry of ihecantonaef 

124. Route 31 — Pa$$ of the Sunnen, 

the Vallais and of Uri, there is a beautiful view of the Bernese 
Chain, the Finster-Aar-Horn being pre-eminent among it« 
peaks. The top of the Furca is never altogether free from 
snow : there is no plain or level surface on it. The d^cenl 
commences, as soon as the crest is crossed, into the valley of 
the Sidli Alp, which is covered with pastures^ but monoto- 
nous and uninteresting in its scenery and destitute of trees. 
The traveller must pick his way as he best may among a 
multitude of deep ruts, cut by the feet of mules and cattle. 
Eicept a few scattered chalets, no human habitation occurs 
between the Chalet of the Rhone Glacier and the small hamlel 
of Realp, where refreshments may be obtained from the 
,Capuchin monks, who have a small chapel and convent of 
ease here» In which they receive strangers. It is about 
4 miles from hence to Hospenthal, on the St. Gottbard 
(Route 34). 

RODJE 31. 


13 3/i stunden = 45 Eng. miles. 

There is a good char-road as far as Engelberg ; thence to 
Altdort across the pass, a very difficult foot-path. 

Stanzstadtf the landing-place for those coming from Lu-- 
cerne, is a small village on the margin of the lake immedi- 
ately, opposite Winkel (p. 79), under the Rotzberg, whose 
ruined casUe is an historical monument (seep. 79). Stanz- distinguished by its tall watch-towers, 5 centuries old. 
In 1315 a little before the battle of Morgarten, a vessel laden 
with Austrian partisans was crushed and swamped by a mill- 
stone hurled from the top of this tower. An avenue of wain u- 
treess leads, in 9 miles, to Stanz. 

Travellers coming from Brunnen, or from the E. end of 
the lake of Lucerne » land at Buochs, a village at the foot of 
the Buochser-Hom. It has no good inn, but can furnish 
chars or horses. Like Stanzstadt, it was destroyed by the 
French in 1798. It is 3 miles from 

Stanz. Jnns: Krone (Crown); Engel (Angel). Capital of 
the lower division (Nidwalden) of Canton tJnterwalden, 
contains 1^0 iRhabitants. It was in the Bathhaus of Stanz 
that the venerable Swiss worthy Nicolas Von der Flue ap- 

S eased the burning dissensionsjof the confederates in 1481, by 
is wise and soothing councils. In the existing buikling' 
there is a picture ( ? daub ) representing him taking leave of 
bis family. In the market-place is a, statue of Arnold of 
Winkebried, a native of Stanz (see page IS), wit^ the 

Route 31. — Pass of the Surenen, 125 

** sheaf of spears " in his arms. His house is also shown here, 
but ii seems modern, or at least is modernized. The field 
on which it stands is called in old records '* the meadow or 
Winkelried's children." Onthe ouler walls of the bone-house, 
attached to tha handsome Parish-Churchy is a tablet to the 
memory of the unrortunate people of Nidwalden (386 id 
ifuniber, including 102 women and 25 children) who were 
tiiassacred in derending their homes by the French in Sep- 
tember, 1798. In that year this division of the canton was 
the only part of Switzerland which refused the new constitu- 
tion, tyrannically imposed on it by the French republic. 
The ancientspirit of Swiss independence, fanned and excited 
by the exhortations of the priests (which in this instance must 
be termed fanatic, — as all resistance was hopeless a^d 
useless), stirred up this ill-fated community to engage an 
army ten times greater than any force they could oppose to it, 
and consisting of veteran troops. At a time when the larger 
and more powerful cantons had yielded, almost without a 
struggle, the brave but misguided men of Unterwalden and 
Schwytz afforded the solitary proof that Swiss bravery and 
love of freedom was not extinct in the land of Tell. Their 
desperate resistance, however, served only to inilame the fury 
of their foes. 

After a vain attempt made by the French to starve the 
Unterwaldeners into submission, ** on the 3rd of September, 
1798, Genera] Schauenberg, the French commander, directed 
a general attack to be made, by means^ of boats, from Lu- 
cerne, as v/xML as by the Oberland. Repulsed with great spirit 
by the inhabitants, only 2000 strong, the attack was renewed 
every day from the 3rd to the 9lh of September. On ihi^ last 
day, towards two in the arterxioon, new reinfoccemeqts having 
penetrated by the land-side, wlih field-pie< es, the invaders 
forced their way into the very heart of the country. In their 
despair the people rushed on them with very inferior arms.. 
AVhoIe families perished together ; no quarter was given oa 
cither side. £ighteen young women were found among the 
dead, side by side, with their fathers and brothers, near the 
chapel of Winkelried. Sixty-three persons, who had taken 
shelter in the church of Stanz, were slaughtered there, with 
(he priest at the altar. Every house in the open Country, in 
all 60Q, was burnt down; Stanz itself excepted, which was 
saved by the humanity of a chef de brigade. The inhabitants 
who survived this day, wandering in the mountains without 
the means of subsistence, would have died during the ensuing 
winter, if they had not received timely assistance from the 
other cantons, from Germany and England, and fronL the 
French army itself, after its first fury was abatedr' — 

126 BfHite 3i. --Jbbey ofEngciberg, 

The attack upon Stanztad was conducted by the celebrnteit 
General Foy, afterwards so prominent a leader of the liberal 
party in France. That unfortauate village was totally con- 

The distance from Stanz to Engelberg is about 13 miles. 
The road follows the course of the Aa upwards, gradually 
ascending, and passing Wolfenschiess with its ruined castle, 
and Grafenort, where there is a small inn. Beyond this the 
valley contracts. The road is carried up a steep ascent nearly 
miles long, traversing thick woods amidst scenery of the 
highest sublimity. In the midst of it, in the depth of the 
valley lies the village and Abbey of Engelberg — Inns: 
Engel; ROssli. — 3220 feet above the sea. jft is hemmed in 
oiiall sides by lofty mountains topped with snow, and based 
by precipices, from which, in winter time, and in spring , 
numerous avalanches are precipitated. At their base» upon a 
verdant slope, contrasting agreeably with rock and snow, the 
Benedictine Abbey rises conspicuous among the ordinary 
habitations of the village. It was founded in 1120, and re- 
ceived from Pope r.aliitusll.;the nikme o( Mons Angelorum^ 
from a tradition that the site of the building was fixed by 

<* Whose autheatic Uj, 
Sung from that heavenly ground, in middle air, 
Made known the spot where Piety slioald raise 
A holy structure to th' Almighty's praise." 

Having been three times destroyed by fire, the existing edi- 
fice is not older than the middle of the last century. 'The 
architecture is unimpressive, but the situation is worthy of 
the honours which the imagination of the mountaineers has 
conferred upon it." The convent is independent of any bi^ 
shop or sovereign but the Pope himself, or his legate : its re- 
venues, once more considerable, were seriously diminished 
by the French, but it still possesses valuable alpine pastures, 
and the cheeses produced on them are stored in an adjacent 
warehouse. It contains, at present, only t9 brothers : it has. 
a large Church and a Library of some value; the roof of the 
apartment in which it is placed has been cracked by an earth- 
quake. Travellers are received and entertained in the con- 
vent—those of the poorer classes gratuitously. 

The Titlis, the chief of the mountains which overhang thiji 
romantic solitude, rises on the S. of the convent to a height 
of 7530 ft. above the valley, and 10.570 ft. above the sea-level. 
Its 0'incipal peak, the NoUen, composed of limestone, is said 
to be visible (?) from Strasburg : it is frequently ascended, 
and without danger. It is covered with glaciers^ 175 feetr 

Houie 1. — Surenrn Pass. 127 

thick) Trom >vhicb uun)ero|is avalanches fall, in spring, with a 
roar like thunder. 

The difficult pass of the J5ch1i (6714 ft.) leads directly from 
Engelberg, W., into the Melchthal. 

From Engelberg to Alldorf, hy the Pass of\fhe Surmefiy 
is a fatiguing journey of 9 hours, about 39 mil^s. The fool- 
path reaches, after about 3 miles, the dairy belonging to the 
convent, called Ilerrenriili , where good cheese is made : 50 
cows are attached to it ; the pastures are refreshed^by more 
than 20 springs rising upon them. From the steep sides of 
the Hahnenberg, on the N. £., a beautiful water-fall bur.sta 
forth, called Datschbach. The path now winds round the 
base of a projecting mountain, beyond which the valley makes, 
a bend in a N. £. direction, an^v following the course of the 
A a for about a miles, crosses it, and then turns nearly due 
£. The Stierenbach, the principal feeder of that stream, is 
now seen descending in a pretty cascade into the deep abyss. 
Half an hour's walk below the summit stand a few chalets, 
and beyond them the traveller has to make his way across a ' 
iield of perpetual snow, to the summit of the pass, or Suren- 
eck, a narrow ridge not more than 5 ft. wide, between the 
Blakenstock on the 1. and the Schlossberg on the rt., 7220 ft, 
above the sea. During the greater part of the ascent the Tit- 
lis shines forth an object of the greatest magnificence, and a 
long line of peaks and glaciers eitend from it uninterruptedly 
to the Surcnen. Another view now opens out on the oppo- 
site side into the valleys of Maderan and Scbacben, and i& 
bounded in the cktreme distance by the snowy top of the 
GlSrnish in Canton Glarus. On the side of the Surenen, 
lying within the limits of Canton UrI, the surface of snow to 
bc| crossed fs greater, and the descent is steeper. Travers- 
ing the snow, and a desolate tract covered with broken rocks, 
beyond, the chalets of Waldnacht are passed; and then, by 
the frightful gorge of Boghy, the path is conducted into the 
valley of the Reuss, forking olT on the rt. to Erstfeld, for 
those who wish to ascend the St. Golthard— and on the J. ta 
Atting^hausen, for those who are bound to Altdorf. * 

In 1799, a division of the French army, under Lecourbe, 
crossed this pass with camion to attack the Austrians in the 
valley of ihe Reuss, but were soon driven back the same way 
by the impetuous descent of Suwarrow from the S^Gott-*^ 

AUdorf, (See Route 3i, p. 131.) 

128 Route o^—Sustcn Puss. 

ROUTE 3(5. 


13 standen«39 1/4 English miles. 

In 1811, Yihen the Yallais was added by Napoleon to the 
French enipire) a char-road was constructed from Meyringen 
to Stein, and on the side of Canton Uri Trom ^asen to Fer^ 
ningen, to enable the inhabitants of Canton Bern to convey 
Ihcir produce into Italy through the Swiss territory; but now 
that circunislances are* altered, it has Hillen out of repair in 
many places, and can only be regarded as a bridle-path. 
The word Sust means toll or custom-house, whence the name. 
The rouie of the Grimsel is followed from Meyringen as far 
us Im-Hof (p. 116), where, quitting the side of the Aar, the 
path follows the couise of the Gadmen, ascending the valley 
called, at its lower extremity, Muhli-thal, higher up Nessel- 
' thai ; and beyond the village of 

4 1/4 G ad me n, Gadmenthal. Thisvillage contains 550 in- 
habitants. The inTi, a very sorry one, is at Obermatt, 3/4 of 
a mile higher up. The char-road was not carried further 
I ban the chalets of Stein, and a portion of it was destroyed a 
few vears ago by the sudden advance of the glacier of Stein, 
which was originally a mile distant from it, descending from 
a valley on the S. The appearance of the glacier is remarka- 
ble, as it assumes a fan shape at its termination. A steep 
ascent of 1 3/4 hour brings the traveller to the top of the Sus- 
len Pass, 6980 feet above the level of the Mediterranean. 
The view is very fine ; the serrated ridges and the many- 
])ointe(i peaks of the mountains bounding the MayenthaU 
through which the descent lies, especially arrest the atten- 
tion. There is always some snow on the east declivity of 
the pass. The first chalets are met with on the Ilundsalp^ 
The'stream is crossed several times, until at the Hauserbruckc, 
H considerable distance below Feriiingen, the unfinished. 
( hnr-road again commences. Lower down is the village gI^ 
Meyen. Most of the houses of this valley, which numbers 
but^OO inhabitants, are protected from the descending ava- 
lanches by a stone dyke, or well-propped palisade of wood 
raised on the hill side behind ihcm, to turn away the falling 
snow from their roofs. Near the junction of the valleys ot 
the Mayen and the Reuss are shattered remains of an hexagp^ 
nal redoubt (schanze), which was fortified by the Austrians in 
1799, and stormed and taken from them by the French, 
under Loison, who forced the enemy back up the vale of th& 
Reuss. and, after five assaults, made himself master of Wa- 
sen, an important point. A very steep and rough road leads 

Route dl^.—Pass of St. GotUiard. 129 

down from thi5 into the village Wasen, on the St. Gottharil 
(p. 133). 

ROUTE 3i. 


S3 stunden » 75 1/2 English miles. 

A> posting establishment, not on a very ^lerfect Tooting, hns 
been set on foot by a number ef private individuals, chiefly 
innkeepers, in the Canton Tessin, or Ticino. Their tariff is 
3 Fr. francs for each hor^e per post, and 50 centimes to the 
postilion; and the distances are laid down as follow *.— - 


Hospital, is calculated as 4 posts. 

i V* AVrS?^^**^'^^' i Relays arc kept only on the Italian 

Z wow?* side, and as far as Hospital. 

I PAiia.rfn / N.B. The above tariff was valid in 

This was anciently perhaps the most freqaented passage 
over the Alps, as it off^ered the most direct and practicable 
line of communication between Basle and Zurich, from Nor- 
theim Switzerland and W. Germany, to Lombardy, and the 
important cities of Milan and Genoa. Not less than 16,000 
travellers and 9000 horses crossed it annually on an average, 
down to the commencement of the present century; but 
t>eihg only a bridle-path it was almost entirely abandoned 
after the construction of the carriage-roads over the. Simplon 
and Berhardin. Deprived of the trafQc across it, the inhabi- 
tants of the villages traversed by the road, chiefly innkeepers 
and muleteers, were reduced to ruin, and the revenues of 
the canton, which before drew 20,000 florins annually from 
the tolls upon it, were seriously diminished. The cantons of 
Uri and Tessin, through which. this road runs, at length be- 
came sufficiehtly alive to their own interests to perceive the 
necessity of converting it into a carriage-road, and thus ren> 
dering it fit to compete with the rival routes as a channel of 
communication ana of transport for merchandise. In con- 
sequence, in 1820, the work was b^gun, and in 1832 finally 
completed and opened. The expenses were defk'ayed by a 
joint-stock company, formed in Uri and the neighbouring 
cantons. The construction of the road yfas intrusted to an 
engineer of Altderf, named Muller. 

The poverty-stricken canton of Uri had scraped together, 
with great dlfficalty, funds sufBcient to execute her portion of 
the undertakiiig; but a storni) such as had qot been known 

U2 Route 34.— Pa5J of Si. Golihard - Altdorf. 

upon which Gessler's cap was stack, for all men to do obeis^ 
SDce to it as they passed, and to which the child was bound, 
to serve as a mark for his father's bolt, existed, a withered 
trunk, down to 1567, when it was cut down and replaced by 
the other fountain. 

The tall tower, ornamented with rude frescos, represen- 
ting Tell and Gessler, has been stated erroneously by some 
writers to occupy the siie of the lime-tree ; but it is proved 
by records, still in eiistence, to have been built before the 
time of Tell. 

On quitting Altdorf the road crosses the mouth of the vale 
of Schftchen, traversing, by a bridge, the stream in which, 
according to tradition, William Tell lost his life (1350) in 
endeavouringto rescue a child from its waters swollen by an 
inundation. Hewas a native of theSchachenthal, having been 
born in the village of BQrglen, a little to the K of our road. 
A snjall Chapel still standing, rudely painted with the events 
of hif life, was built in 1522 on the spot wherehis house stood^ 
neat' the churchyard. The inhabitants of this valley are 
considered the finest race of men in Switzerland. A path 
runs up it, and across the Klausen Pass (Route -72), to the 
baths of Stacheiberg, in Canton Glarus, and another over the 
Kinzig €ulm, into the Muotta Thai. 

On the I. bank of the Reuss, opposite its junction with 
the Sch&chen, stands Attingbausen, the birth-place of Walter 
Fiirst, one of the three liberators of Switzerland; his house i^ 
still pointed out. Above it rise the ruins of a castle, whose 
baronial owners became extinct in 1357, when the last of the 
race was buried in his helmet and hauberk. At BOtzlineen, 
3 miles above Altdorf, the parliament (Landesgemeinde) of 
the canton Uri is held every year, on the first Sunday in May, 
to settle the aflTairs of the state. Every male citizen above 
the age of 20, except a priest, has a vote. The authorities of 
the canton, on horseback, with the Landammann at their 
head, preceded by a detachment of militia, with military 
music, and the standard of the canton, attended by the 
beadles in their costume of yellow and black, and by two 
men in the ancient Swiss garb of the same colour, bearing 
aloft the two celebrated buffalo horns of Uri, march to the 
spot in procession. From a semicircular hustings, erected 
for the purpose, the business of the day is proclaimed to the 
assembled crowd, and the difiTerent speakers deliver their ha- 
rangues, after which the question is put to the vole by show 
of hands. When all affairs of state are despatched, the I^an- 
dammann and other public officers resign, and are either re- 
elected or others'are chosen in their place. 

*'The first part of the way, towards the St. Golihard, lies 

RonU3!t.-^Passof St, GotUidrd.'-irasen. 133 

IhrorughagPfreable scenery, among rich meadows, shsded t)y 
chestnut and walnut trees." —X. 

At Klus it approaches the margin of the Reuss, and beyond , 
Sih'nen, where it is partly cut through the rock, passes under 
ihe ruins of a tower, by 'some supposed to be the castle of 
Zwing Vri (Resiraifit of Uri), the construction of which by 
the tyrant G«ssler, to overawe the peasants, roused the sus> 
picion and indignation of the Swiss; so tbat it was demolish- 
ed by tbem in 1308, on the first outbreak of the revolt 
against Austria. Under it, upon the high road, is situated 
the village of 

3 A m s t e g~(/nns : Hirsch ; Stern;)— on I he high road an(r 
ot the mouth of the Maderaner Thai, which stretches E. 
as far as the base of Mount DQdi, a valley little visited, but 
well worth exploring; abounding in waterfalls and glaciers. 

The road now first crosses the'Reuss and begins to as- 
cend, having on the 1. hand the gigantic mass of the Bris- 
ten&tock; and on the rt. the river below, dashing from rock 
to rock in an almost uninterrupted cataract. A second 
bridge carries it back to the rt. bank; and, after traversing 
a wood, a third, called PfafTensprung (priest's leap), from a 
fable of a monk having leaped across it with a maiden in his 
arms, brings the travellet- to 

2 W a s e B, or Wesen — {Inn : Ochs)— a village of 550 inha- 
bitants, on the 1. bank of the Reuss, at the mouth of the 
Mayenthal, up which runs the road to the Susten (Route 32). 
Near this a toll of 1 /2 a batz for each person, and 5 or 6 batz 
for every horse, is paid. Winding from side to side the road 
slowly toils upward to Gdschenen, where the valley assumes 
a more savage character, contracting into the narrow ravine ' 
af Schelllneo, bounded for nearly 3 miles by impending clifTs 
of granite. One vast fragment, skirted by the road, was 
dropped here, according to the popular' legend, by the de^l. 
and is tbence called TeUfelstein. "This defile eiceeds all 
that one can imagine of desolation and awful grandeur; the 
walls of rock seem almost to exclude the light of day, scarce 
a blade of grass is to be seen, and nothing heard but the wild 
dashing of the Reuss at the foot of the precipice below the 
road, from which hoarse sounds this part of the valley gets 
the name of Krachenthal."— £. This part of the road is 
much exposed in spring to danger from avalanches, on which 
account galleries have been constructed to cover it in 1 or 2 
places; The difficulties of the ascent are here overcome ^by 
the skill of the engineer, who has constructed a series' of 
complicated zigzag terraces, first on one side of the Reuss, 
and (hen on the other, by means of which, and of numerous 
bridges, the traveller at length reaches 


13b Route pk.—Ths Devil's Bridge. 

The DeviVs Bridge, siluated in the midst of ibe moststem 
but magnificent scenery of the whole pass. The Reuss leaps 
down into the head or this savage gorge, in a lofty cataract, 
aod in the very midst of its din and spray a bridges ba\e 
been thrown across. Vertical rocks hem in the bed of the 
river on4)oth sides; those on the left bank, especially., ar« 
perfectly smooth and perpendicular, leaving not au inch of 
ppace for the^ole of a foot at their base, «icept wliat has been 
hewn out of it by human art. For ages this must have been 
an impassable den, a complete cul--de>sac, until, by human 
ingenuity, the torrent was bridged and the rock bored lhrou(.h. 
The old bridge, a thin segment of a circle, spanning a ter- 
rific abyss, had originally an air at once of boldness and fra- 
gility, much of which it has lost by the contrast with the 
towering and more solid structure which has now entirely 
superseded it, and seems, as it were, to domineer over it. 
like the horse over the ass in i£sop*s fable The single arch 
of slight masonry, suspended in the air at a height of 70 feet 
above the Reuss, with scarce a parapet at the side, and with 
barely breadth to allow two persons to pass, almost seemed 
to tremble With the rushing of the torrent under the feet of 
the traveller. Modern improvements have deprived the 
bridge and its vicinity of much of its terror and sublimity. A 
commodious and gradually-sloping terrace, hewn out of the 
solid rock at the foot of the precipice, leads to the broad and 
massive new bridge of 3 arches, whic^, though nearer to the 
fall (ban the old, maybe passed without the slightest emotion 
of the nerves, thanks to its solidity and high parapets. The 
construction of this part of the road presented great difficul- 
ties to the engineer from ihe hardness and smoothness .of the 
precipitous rocks and the want of easy access to them : indeed, 
the mines necessary for blasting the granite could only be 
ftiirmed by workmen ^suspended by ropes from above, and 
dangling in the air like spiders at the end of their threads. 
The ancient bridge was first founded by Abbot Gerald, of 
Einsiedelu, in 1118, so that, in the nammg of it, the devil 
has received more than his due. The' existing structure, 
however (which is allowed to remain, though of no use), 
is by no means the original one. During the extraordinary 
campaign of 1799, the Devil's Bridge and the defile of the 
Schellinen were*twice obstinately contested within the spscc 
of little more than a month. On the 14th of August the 
united French column, under Lecourbe and Loison, having 
surprised the Austrians, drove them up the valley of the 
Reuss, as far as this bridge, which, having been converted 
into an entrenched position, was defended by them for some 
time. At last even this wa? earned by the French, who, in 
their impetuous pursuit, followed their enemies across the 

briffge. In a moment, vhilc a crow4 of combatants were 
upon it, it was blown into the air. and hundreds weie pre- 
ripitaled into the abyss below. During the night the Aus- 
Irians, alarmed by the appearance of another French force in 
rheir rear» evacuated altogether the yalley of the Bieuss. On 
the auh of September following the tide of war took an op- 
posite torn; Suwarrow, pouring downfiom the summit of 
the St. Gotthard, at the head of 5000 horse and 19,000 foot, 
compelled the French, in their turn^ to retire before him. 
The progress of the Russians was. arrested here for a short 
time, as they found the road broken up, the Urnertocb filled 
with rocks, and the bridge ov^er the Reuss destroyed. A 
iriurderous fire from the French sw^pt away all who approach- 
ed the edge of the chasm;, but the Russian columns, eager for 
advance,, by their pressure, pushed the foremost ranks- into 
the foaming Reuss. The impediments in the road were soon 
removed ; an. extemporaneous bridge was constructed, b^ 
binding together beams of wood with officers* scarfs; and 
over this (he Russian army passed, pursuing the enemy as. 
far as Altdorf. 

Immediately, after passing the Devil's Bridge the road is 
carried through a tunnel, bored for 180 feet through the solid 
rock, called V'rnerloch, or Hole^of Vri. It is 15. feet high 
and 16 feet broad. Previous to its construction, in 1707, the 
only mode of passing the buttress of rock which here projects 
into the river, so as to deny all passage, was, by a bridge, or 
shelf of boards, suspended on (he outside by chains from 
above. By means of this the traveller doubled, as it were, the 
shoulder of the mountain, enveloped in the spray of (he 
torrent, within a few feet of which the frail structure was 
hung. The Gallery, of Uri was originally constructed by a 
Swiss engineer, named Morctjni; but was only passable for 
mules, until, in reconstructing th& St. Gotthard road, it was. 
enlarged to admit carriages. 

Out of this gallery the traveller emerges into the wide basin- 
shaped pastoral valley of Urseren, which, in contrast with the , 
savage gorge of Schellinen, and from the suddenness of the 
transition, has obtained from most travellers the praise of' 
beauty and fertility. Taken by itself, however, it has little 
but its verdure to reconmiend it; owing to its great height, 
4358 feet above the sea, scarcely any trees grow in it; and 
ihc inhabitants Supply themselves with corn for bread from 
more fortunate lands. It was probably once a lake, until a 
passage was opened for the Reuss through (he rocks of Schel- 
linen. It was originally colonized, it is supposed, by the 
Uhffitians. The usual entrance to it was by the pass of the 
Oberalp. Its inhabitants spoke the language of the Grisons,. 
and. the valley was a dependence of the abbot of Dissentis. 

136 Route 34. -Andermaii—Vale of Ursertn. 

Down to the 14th century it remained closed up at its lower 
extremity, and bad no direct communication with the lower 
valley of the 6eu8s. About that time, however, a palh.seems 
to have been opeaed, and the men of Urseren, allying them— 
selves with those of Uri, threw off the yoke of their former 
feudal lords. A mile from the gallery of Dri lies 

2 1/4 An d er ma tt, or Urseren (Hal. Orscra)— (/ntw : Drci 
KOnigen, Three Kings, good; Sonne, Sun). It is a village 
of 600 inhabitants, and the chief place of the valley. The 
cheese made on (he surrounding pastures is excellent, and the 
red trout of the Oberalp See enjoy the reputation, with hungry 
travellers, of being the finest in the world. They are, at least, 
un excellent dish, cither at breakfast or dinner. The Church 
of St. Co{um&anu« is said to have been built by the Lombards. 
On ihe slope of the mountain of St. Anne, which is sur- 
mounted by a glacier, above the village, are the scanty 
remains of a forest, (he last relic of (hat which perhaps at One 
lime clothed the sides of the valley entirely. " It is of a 
triangular form, with one of its angles pointed upwards, and 
is so placed as not only to break the fall of heavy bodies or 
SHOW, bui to divide the masses, throwing them off on its two 
sides. It is now a slight and seemingly a perishable defence." 
The improvidence of the inhabitants, at an early period , had 
reduced it to a small grove, which those of later times had 
learned to value, for the protection it afforded to (heir dwel- 
lings fVom falling avalanches. They therefore guarded it with 
(be utmost care, abstaining from cutting down a stem of it; 
but, in 1799, foreign invaders, reckless of the consequences, 
felled a great part of it, and consumed it for fire-wood or to 
repair the Devil's Bridge. " Weakened by this inroad, each 
successive year has seen a decrease of these all-important 
.sentinels. A few more winters, and those that are left may 
be swept away at a single swoop, when it will become neces- 
sary to abandon the village. Such is an Alpine existence. " 

I'his was but one of the evils which that calamitous year 
brought upon this remote and peaceful valley, when the armies 
of three nations chose it for the arena of their combats, letting 
loose the furies, fire, famine, and slaughter, upon its unfortu- 
nate inhabitants. Suwarrow's hordes arrived at A ndermad 
in that year, famished with hunger. Like ravenous wolves 
they seized and consumed everything they could lay hands 
on. They greedily devoured a store of soap which they found 
in the larder of the inn, and, cuning into pieces some skins 
which had been hung out to dry. previous to being tanned, 
boiled and iote them also. 

A bridle-i^ath stretches up the side valley behind Aodermatt^ 

Iloule Sk, - Pass af St. Got/tard.^HofpUliaL 1^7 

across the Oberdip, and past its lake, to Bissentis, in the 
Grisons (Koute 77). 

The vale of Urseren is about 9 nnileslong and nearly 1 broad. 
It Contains 4 villages and 1360 inhabitants, who gain a sub- 
sistence by rearing cattle and keeping dairies, and by for- 
warding 'the transit of goods across the St. Gotthard , for which 
purpose 300 horses are k«pt in it. At Andermatt, Hospital, 
and Airolo, are many mineral dealers, from whom specimens 
may be purchased of the many rare and valuable minerals with 
which the range of the St. Gotthard abounds. The variety of 
species is surprising, and the cabinet of the mineralogist 
derives some of ihe rarest substances from these Alps. 

Ou the 1. of the road, in going to Hospital, two rude stone 
pillars may be seen ; they are the potence or gallows, belong- 
ing 10 Andermatt, dating from the time when the valley of 
Urseren was an independent state, and Andermatt the chief 
place in it, enjoying the right of criminal jurisdiction , now 
removed to Altdorf. It is curious to observe to what ah extent 
the possession of a gallows and the right of hanging criminals 
thereon, was an object of pride in anci4int times. Such relics 
as this may be found throughout Switzerland : they seem 
everywhere to have been prcFcrved almost with veneration , 
and are kept in constant repair though destined never more 
to be used. 

3/4 H s p i t a I, or Hospenthal— (/nn ; Goldener Lowe (Gol- 
den Lion), good ; said to be even tmtter than that at Ander- 
matt. Excellent honey here. 

Hospital receives its name from an hospice which no longer 
exists here. Above the village rises a venerable tower, said to 
be, like the church of Andermatt, a work Of the Lombards. 
There is a fine collection of minerals here for sale, formed by 
two monks : the prices seem high. The muie path over the 
Furca (Route 30) leads hence, in 5 hours, to the glacier of the 
Rhone, and in 2 more to the hospice of the Grimsei. Our high 
road now quits the valley of Urseren, and following the coUrse 
of the Reuss, begins to ascend by numerous zigzags to the 
summitof the St. Gotthard, which may be reached in about S 
1/4 hours from Hospital. 

Under the name of St. Gotthard are comprised, not merely 
the depression, or Col, over which the road passes, but a group 
or clump of mountains, all exceeding in elevation the snow 
line, situated between the cantons of Uri, Yallais, Ticinp,and 
Grisons; and containing the sources of the Rhine, the Rhone, 
the Reuss, and the Ticino, all of which, with innumerable 
tributaries, rise within a circle of 10 miles, described from the 
summit of the pass. 

The river Reuss may be said to fall, rather than flow, into 
the lake of the Four Cantons. ^Between Urseren and Fluelen 


f3S Route Sk.-^Pass of Si. Ootthard -Hospice. 

it descends 3500 Teet, and between Urscren and the lop of the^ 
pass 2000 Teet, Torming a succession or cataracts. Near the 
summit of the pass the road crosses it for the last time by the 
bridge of Rodunt, which marks the boundary of the Cantons^ 
Uri and Ticino. The source of the Reuss is in the small lake 
of Lucendro, a short distance on the right of the road, 0808 
feet above the sea. The summit of the pass is a valley, or 
saddle-shaped depression, in the great granite ridge of the 
central chain, overlooked by snow-clad peaks varying between 
8000 and 10,000 feet in height. It is a scene of the most 
complete sterility and desolation : the road winds among, 
several other small lakes or ponds, some of which flow N., 
but the greater part are feeders of the Ticino, on theS. side 
of the pass. They may, indeed, be regarded as the headrwaters- 
of that river, which gives its name to the Canton Tesstn, or. 

i. The Hospice, a massive and roomy building, constructed- 
at the eipense of the Canton Ticino, which has also caused 
several houses of refuge to be built, is designed for the accom- 
modation of travellers, being fitted up as an inn, containing. 
15 beds, and placed under the management of two Capuchin 
friars. Attachedtoitare warehouses for goods. A very humble 
house of refuge, and a chapel have existed on this spot ever 
since the 13th century, owing their origin to the Abbot of 
Dissentis, who stationed a monk here to attend to the spiritual 
as well as physical wants of distressed travellers. In the 17th 
century, St. Carlo Rorromeo suggested the construction of a 
hospice on a larger scale, which, after his death, was executed 
by his brother. This building, however, was swept away in 
1775, by an avalanche: another which succeeded it, was 
gutte.d by the French, while encamped on this spot in 1799- 
1800, and every particle of wood burnt as fuel. It has remained 
ever sincea riiin, and the only house for the reception of tra- 
vellers on this inhospitable height, was the older hospice, 
converted into a miserable cabaret fit only for carters and 
muleteers. The new hospice will prove a convenient substi- 
tute for this hovel. 

The passage in winter and spring is by no means free 
from danger : the snow is sometimes heaped up in drifts 40 
feet high on the summit, and the descent towards Airolo is 
much exposed at times to tourmentes and avalanches ( S I^)* 
A year seldom passes without the loss of 3 or 4 lives, and at 
times melancholy catastrophes have occurred. The spot called 
Buco dei Calanchetti is so called from a party of glaziers from 
the Yal Galanka, who, persisting in pushing on from the hos- 
pice, in spite of the warnings of the inmates, were buried here 
beneath the snow. In 1478, an avalanche swept away a troop 
of 60 Swiss soldiers : in i^'^tf another, which fell from th<h 

RouU Si. - Pass of St. GoUfiard'^H ospice, 13^ 

Qassadra, buried 300 persons; and one in 1814 overwhelmed iO 
horses laden ytiih goods. The new line of road is carried as 
much as possible out of the course of these dangers, and though 
it is unprotected by any covered galleries, accidents of this- 
kiad are more rare. 

- The descent towards Italy displays much skilful engineering; 

and the diiBculties of a slope, much steeper on this side than 

on the other, have been overcomeby a scries of zigzag terraces 

not exceeded in numbers and tortuous direction.on any other 

Alpine pass. They begin a little beyond the old hospice, and 

continue nearly all the way to Airolo. The turnings are less 

sharp than on many other passes ; and a carriage drawn by 

horses. accustomed to the work may trot down at a quick pace. 

Near the uppermost zigzag the words Stucarrow Victor, in 

large letters on the face of the rock, record the success of the 

Russians in gaining the pass from the French in 1799. It was 

on this ascent that the Russian grenadiers were for some time 

arrested by thk fire of the French riflemen posted behind rocks 

and trees. The aged Suwarrow^ indignant ai being foiled for 

the first time in his life, caus'ed a grave to be dug, and lying 

down in it, declared his resolution to be buried on the spot 

where ** his children " had been repulsed. This appeal was 

responded to by his soldiers with warmth, and, no sooner did 

he putr himself at their head, than they drove the republicans- 

from their position. The upper part of the guUy, down which , 

the road passes, is called Yal Tremola (Germ. Trummeln 

Thai), Trembling Valley, from. its supposed effect on the 

nerves of those who passed it. Since the new road has been 

made its terrors, whatever they were previously, have been 

much softened. It is,howeYeri exposed to some danger from 

avalanches in spring ; and one or two houses of refuge hava 

been built to shelter travellers. A. very pretty mineral, named 

from this locality, where it, was first found, Tremolite, abounds 

in the rock, of the valley» and specimens of it occnr even in 

the walls and loose stones at the road-side. The old road lay 

along the 1. bank of the Ticino; the new keeps on the rt. 

side of it, and before reaching Airolo makes many wide 

sweeps along the flank of the mountain, up into the Yal 

Bedretto, traversing the forest of Piotella, where the slato 

rocks are full. of crystals of garnet. The view up and down 

the vale of the Ticino, and over the snowy mountains on the 

.opposite side of it, is extremely grand. 

. "B 1/2 A ir 61 (Genp. Eriels)— Inns ; the heist is that called 

"the Post, iepi by the brothers CamosSi : (hey are dealers in 

imneralf, and have some choice specimens^ Airolo lies on 

the^l.^bank'bf the Tessin, near the junction of the branch 

Howing out of "the Yal Bedretto with (hat rising on the St. 

GothsArd. It is 379i feet above the sea-level, and ils inhabi- 

140 Route 34.. —Pass of Si. GoitUard'^Air^o. 

laiiU) both in babil and langaage, are Italian. It possesses 
two relics of antiquity : an old house called /( Cotlelto, and 
I he stump of a tower <Casa det Pagani), buiit, it is said, by 
Desiderins, king of the Lombards, a.d. 774. The Lombard 
kings constructed a line of similar forts from this all the way 
to Como, many of vhich will be passed by the tra?eller in 
descending the valley. The situation of ^irolo, at the fool of 
the St. Gotlhard, and the consequent transitof travellers and 
goods, are its chief sources of prosperity. The summit of the 
pass may be reached by a carriage in 3 hours ; by the old road 
a pedestrian might reach it in less than S. Several mule patha 
also concentrate here. 1. That leading up the Yal Bedretto 
to (he Niifenen pass (Route 35) , and to the Gries (Route 89); 
3. Over the Leukmanier into the Grisons; 3. A Rummer 
path, and difficult, up the Yal Canaria, past the beautiful 
waterfall of Galcaccia (?), and over the Sella-Grat to Ander- 
matt, in 5 hours. 

The Yal Bedretto terminates about i miles below Airolo, 
at the mouth of the picturesque glen of Stalvedro, which is 
gt^arded on the rt. by another of the Lombard towers of 
King Desiderius, and by a third at its lower extremity, near^ 
Qutnto. This pass was defended in September, 1799, by a 
body of 600 French aaainst 3000 grenadiers of Suwarrow^s 
army for 12 hours, after which they effected their retreat 
over the Gries into the Yallais. The part of the yalley, of 
the Ticino traversed by the road from this loBiasca is called 
Yal Levantina,— Livinen Thai in Germ. A few miles lower 
down the river threads another defile, named after a toll^ 
house within it, 

2 1/2 Dazio Grande, one of the most picturesque scenes 
on the whole route. It is a rent in the Monte Piottino 
(Platifer), nearly a mile long, and so narrow that in ancient 
times the path down the valley found no access to it, but 
was carried over the mountains, high above the river 4»\ 
either side. The existing carriage-road threads the depths 
of the gorge, supported for a great part of the way on arches 
and terraces, and crossing the river thrice on bridges. Dur« 
ing the storm of 1834 (before alluded to) the swollen Ticino 
swept away nearly the whole of these cosUy oonstruetions ; 
the defile was rendered totaly impassable, and travellers 
were compelled to find their way by the long abandoned 
footpath over the heights. 

Chestnut trees first appear soon after quitting t|ie'defile of ■ 
Dazio, and vines are cultivated at ^ 

1 F a i do —{Inns : Angelo; — Sole)— the principal plaeein 
the valley, a village of 615 inhabitants. A revolt*of.the 
|)eople of the Yal Levantine, in 1755, against their tyrannical 
lords and masters the cowherds of Uri, to whom they had 

Jioaie 34. - Pass of St. Gotihard-Giornico. IM 

been subject since the XVth century , vas terminated on 
this spot by the e&ecution of the ringleaders, vhose heads 
were fastened td the trunks of the vast chestnut trees, in the 
r»reseneeof 3000 men of the valley. The troops of the Confe- 
ffera lion had previously surrounded and disarmed this ill- 
starred band of rebels, and arterwards compelled them, on 
bended knees, to sue for mercy. The revolt was, perhaps, 
nol to be justified; but one thing at least is certain, that the 
rreedom which had been the boast of the Swiss republicans 
was, down to the end of the last century, denied by them to 
the states dependent on them, who groaned under a bondage 
more intolerable than that of any monarchical despotism! 
A footpath runs from Faido over the Lukmanier (R. 78) to 

Through a wilderness of stones and fallen rocks the road 
reaches ' 

2&iornico (Germ. Irnis), a village of 700 inhabitants, 
containing the following objects of antiquity:— A high tower; 
the Chufch of Santa Maria di Castello, whose 6ubstruc- 
tuie is said to exhibit traces of afort, attributed to the Gauls (?), 
and the Church of San Nicholas da Mira, regarded by the 
Tulgar as originally a heathen temple. Doth these churches 
are certainly examples of the earliest form of Christian build- 
ings, and highly deserve the attention of the architect and 
antiquary. ''Service is not performed in St. Nicholas, 
though it is kept in repair. The architecture is of the rudest 
Romanesctue style, and the £. end offers, perhaps, the most 
unaltered specimen of the choir raised upon substructions 
that can hardly be called a crypt, found in the ancient Lom- 
bard churches of Italy, distinguished by staircases, whereas 
H here subsists in Its primitive forqn. The whole neigh- 
bourhood is exceedingly picturesque, and deserving at least 
of quite as muchattention as many places which enjoy much 
more extended reputation.*'— P. 

Half way to Bodio a heap of large rocks (Sassi Grossi) serves 
as a monument of the victory gained here in 1478 over the 
Milanese by the Swiss, who had made a foray across the St. 
Gotthardas far as Bellinxona, under pretext of redressing the 
injury done by the Milanese, in having felled some trees be- 
longing to Canton Uri. The winter had set in with severity, 
and the main body of the Swiss had returned across the pass 
with their plunder, leaving behind only about 600 men under 
CajHtarns Stanga of Giornieo, and Troger of Uri. The Milanese 
15,000 strong, pressed forward to expel the highland invaders, 
who, resoriiug to stratagem to counteract the preponderance 
of numbers, laid the flat land in this part of the valley under 
water, ^^i^d placing themselves behind it, awaited iheir ene- 
mies at the foot of some rocks. In the course of the night 

142 /?wrf« 34.— Jt. GoUhml Boati—Giornico. 

fbe water Troze hon], and next moraing, while (headvanro of 
the Italians across Ihc ice was naturally slow and iallering,. 
the Swiss, provided with crampons to cross iheir native gla- 
ciers, rushed down upon them in a furious charge, and at once 
put tliem to the rout. Their confusion was increased by vast 
masses of rock hurled from the rocks above by parties stationed 
for the purpose, and the slaughter was enormous. Accor- 
ding to some accounts 1400, according to others 4000, of the 
Blilanesefell on this occasion. 

The Val I^ van tine terminates a little beyond Pollegio, at 
the junction of the Blegno. After crossing that river the 
traveller reaches fiiasca, which also contains a very ancient^ 
ahurch, situated on the slope of the hill. A chain of cha- 
pels, or Via Crucis, leads from it up to the^chapel of St. Pe- 
ironilla, whence there is a pleasing view. 

In 1512, an earthquake shook down from the mountaiiv 
of Val Crenone, near the entrance of the Yal Blegno, so vast 
a mass of earth and rofk that it arrested the course of the 
river, and extended high up on ihe opposite side of the valley. 
For nearly two years so great was the strength of this dam^ 
that (he waters accumulated behind it into a Take many miles, 
in extent, inundating numerous villages, and driving out the 
inhabitants by the risingflood. At length, in 1514, itbegan to 
flow over the barrier, which, being thus loosened and weakened,^. 
suddenly gave way about Easter. The deluge thus occasioned, 
swept off everything before it,— towns, villages> houses and 
tress, as far as Jleliinzona (a part of which was destroyed}, and 
the Lago Maggiore. The accumulated debris of rocks and 
mud which it carried down with it covered the cultivated- 
land with desolation, and traces of the ruin thus caused may 
be still traced along the valley. Various causes, conformable* 
with the superstitious notions of the times, were assigned 
for this catastrophe. Some attributed it to the vengeance o£ 
God against the sins of the inhabitants of Biasca, called forth^ 
by the power of a Papal Brief; others traced it to the influence 
of "certain magicians from Armenia." It is satisfactorily 
accounted for by the supposition of an earthquake, since at 
the same time a similar fall took place from the opposite side- 
of the mountain, which buried the village of Campo Bagnino. 
in the Val Calanka. About 8 miles below Biasca the Moes& 
iiB crossed, and our road falls into that from the Pass of the 
Bernadin (Route 90), near the battlefield of A rbedo, which wa&^ 
as fatal to the Swiss as that of Glornico was to their oppi>-< 
Bents. An account of it, as well as a full description of 

BellinzonGy is given in the above-mentioned route. 

Haute 35,38— Pusses of the Nafenen nnd Gemnu, 1 hS 
ROUTE 35. 


9 stunden » 20 1/2 English miles. A footpath. It ascends 
the Yale of Eginen, as in Route 29, but before reaching the 
-Ories Glacier turns to the left, and crossing (he ridge of the 
Nufaneo, 7260 feet above the sea-level, descends into (he 
Yal Bedretto. On the s. slope of (he pass one of the branches 
of the river Ticino takes its rise. The path descends along its 
1. bank to the 

6 H o sp ice-air Acqua, a house of refuge to accommodate 
travellers, 5000 feet above the sea. A path crosses the valicy 
from this s. into the Yal Formazza. The Yal Bedretto, from 
its elevation, has but an inhospitable climate; long >vinters, 
and frosts not uncommonly in the height of summer, morning 
and evening. It is clothed with forests and pastures, from 
which its 612 inhabitants derive support in summer; white in 
winter the males migrate to Italy, to seek employment as 
servants. It is flanked on either side with glaciers and is 
dreadfully exposed to avalanches {$ 18;. The masses of fallen 
snow often remain unmeited on the margin of the Ticino 
till the end of September. At 

1/2 B e d r e 1 1 o, the principal hamlet, the church^tower, 
^hich has been once swept away, along with the parsonage^ 
is now protected by an angular buttress, directed toward 
the side froip which the avalanches fall, so as to breek and 
iurn fhem away. In the lower part of the valley a scanty 
crop of rye is grown. 

3 1/2 Airolo, in Route 34, p. 139. 

ROUTE 38. 


17 Stunden ~ 55 English miles. 

The Gemmi (pronounced Ghemmi) is one of ^he most re- 
markable passes across the Alps. Its scenery is perhaps ex- 
traordinary rather than, grand, and to be seen to advantage 
it ought to be approached from the Yallais. There is a good 
char road as farasKandersteg, at the N. foot of the pass : the 
pass itself can only be surmounted on foot or on horseback. 
The char road recoinmences at the Baths of Leuk, connecting 
them with the Simpion road. There are good inns at Kan- 
dersteg, $nd at the Baihs. 

The first part of the route lies aldng the beautiful shores of 

lU Route SS.--^Pass of the Gemmi — JtLandersleg. 

the lake of Tham Near the tall tower of Strattlingen it crosses 
the Kander by a lofty brtdge.. That river originally avoiclrfi 
the lake altogether, and, (lowing for some distance parallel 
to it, behind the -hin of StrSttlingen, joined the Aar beiow 
Thon. Owing to the quantity of mud and gravel which H 
brought With it,, and the slight inclination of its channel in 
this part of its course, it converted the surrounding district 
into an unhealthy marsh, and gave rise to a project, which 
was executed in 1714 at the expense of the canton, of turning 
(be river into the lake of Thun. This was effected by cutting 
8 canal, 3000 ft. long and 273 ft. broad, into which the 
riTer was turned; and which, seen from the bridge in cross-^ 
ing, has much the appearance. of a natural ravine. By this 
change of course the land on the banks of the Aar has been 
drained and made profitable, while the deposit of sand and 
stones brought down by the river into the lake has so accu- 
mulated as to form a delta around its mouth, extending 
already nearly a mile from the shore, and annually increa- 

The road passes the mouth of the Simmenthal (Route 4-1), 
guarded on one side by the Stockhorn, and on the 1. by the 
Niesen, two noble mountains, between which the valley 
opens out, a scene of exceeding beauty, with the castle of 
Wimmis standing as it were in its jaws. On the margin of 
iM lake rises another picturesque castle, that of Spietz. 
Skirting the base of the pyramidal Niesen we enter the valley 
of Frutigen, which is remarkable for its verdure and fertility, 
and may be said to exhibit Swiss pastoral sccneiT in perfection. 
Ascending by the side of the Kander we reach 

4 3/4 Frutigen [Inns: Ober, and Unter-Xandhaus), a 
village of 900 inhabitants : its houses are for the most part 
not older than 1826-— 7, at which lime nearly the whole of 
the buildings were destroyed in two consecutive conflagra- 
tions. Behind it the valley divides into two branches : that on 
the W. leads to the Adelboden ; that on the £. (down which 
flows the Kander) to the Gemmi. 

The road passes under the castle of Tellenburg, the resi- 
dence of theamtman, or bailifl*, of the district, and, crossing 
the Kander, proceeds up its rt. bank to 

a 1/S Kandersteg (Inn: Chevat Blanc; good, clean, and 
reasonable; furnishes excellent trout). Chars may be had here 
to Frutigen—^ ride of about 2 hours, for 7 1/2 fr.; alsogoo.d 
mules to cross the mountain to the baths of Leuk» at about 
8 fr. each, and 1 1/2 f. to the driver — a journey of 6 hours.. 
Kandersteg is the last village in the valley : its scattered ha< 
i>itations contain about 700 individuals. It is beautifully si- 
tuated 3280 ft. above the.'sea, at the^. base otthcGemnii. 

Tho^c who have lime to spare may be rewarded by walking 

dboui 5 mites into the remote T«Uey orOes<;hinen, runiiifig 
directly £. from Kandersteg, iRfhere, hemmed in by precipireA 
and glaciers, lliey will find a beautiful clear lake, which' 
mirrors on its smooth surface the snowy peaks of the Bluni-r 
Its Alp, at whose base it lies. . 

Above Kandersteg the char-road ceases, and in about 11/2 
mile from the inn, the ascent of the Pass of the Gemini cnni- 
mences in earnest. The path lie^ at first through forests^ 
soon passing the boondary^line of the Ganlons Berne and 
Wallis, and then emerges upon a tract of open pasture land, 
rendered desolat« by the fall of an «?alan€he from the Riiidor 
Horn, in 1783. The path winds, for a considerable di&tancc, 
among Che fragments of rocks brought down by it. Farther 

3 Solitary inn of Schwarenbach, a mere chalet, affording 
no other reTreshmeht than clieese, milk, and brandy; and 
containing 6 or 8 miserable beds-^accommodations which, 
however humble, are doubtless often most acceptable in such 
a situation. A small loll is demanded here for lhemaintenanc(; 
of the road. A circumstance which occur^d on this spot 
furnished the German poet, Werner, with the plot of w 
4ra^edy, somewhat extravagant and improbable, called " Thr 
2ith of February." In the course of the 17th century, a In- 
veller, having the appearance of a foreigner, in crossing the 
pass, asked for a ni^ht*s lodging at thisiiovel. Its tenant was 
a peasant, whom misfortune had reduced to the depth oV 
poverty and misery. His daughter had been accidentally 
killed by her brother, while they were both children, and 
the boy had in consequence disappeared. The man's cadle 
had died, his land had become barren, and, at the moment 
of tlie stranger*s arrival, his creditors had threatened to seize 
all he possessed and eject him. Urged by the sight of the 
wealth which the stranger carried, by the presence of waub. 
and the prospect of escaping detection in such a remote soli- 
tude, the peasant conceived and executed the murder of his 
guest^plunging his knife into his bosom while he slept. 1 he 
dying man ere he^ breathed his last, had just time to reveal 
to the assassin that he was his long-lost child, returned after 
an absence of 20 years, virtuous, and wealthy enough to havo 
raised his father abovi; all future distress. He bad delaved 
discovering himself nntiihe could gain his father*s affectiuris 
The murderer of his child, it appears^ had also slain his own 
father, and the curse of hts dying parent had alighted on 
Wniself, pursued him through Rfe, and blighted his existence 
The nwment at which the murder of the stranger was com- 
mitted was midnight, on the 2ieh of February, the anniver- 
sary of the paternal malediction. The guilty wretch, over- 
ly ' 


i46 Route 2&.*^Pass of ih$ Gemm, 

^helmedivilh remorse, gave himself up, of his own accord, to 
justice, and suflTered by the hangman. 

About d miles above iWs, the path reaches and winds along 
the £. margin of a small lake, called Dauben See, suppllietl 
by snow, not by springs, Which often swell it so as to cover 
the path : for R months of the year it is frozen. Nothing .4»ik 
exceed the dreary aspect of the seared and naked limestootr 
rocks which form the summit of the pass : they seem too bar-- 
ren for even the hardiest lichens, the culminating point ira-^ 
versed by the road is 7160 ft. above the sea-level. From a 
rocky eminence on the I. of the path a superb view is ob^ 
tained of the Honte Bosa, and the chain of Alps, beyond the 
Ehone. separating the Vailais from Fiedmont, theWeissfaoj-ii 
(Gervin), and the Arc de Zan. It is one of the most striking 
Views in Switzerland. , . . . 

Near the verge of the descent stands a small shed, capable 
of affording only partial shelter in a storm. A little lower 
down the traveller finds himself on the brink of a precipice, 
from which a plumb-line might be thrown into the valley be* 
low, nearly 1600 ft^ almost without touching the rock, so 
vertical are its sides. It is along the face of this vast wall, 
thai one of the most extraordinary of all the alpine roads, 
constructed in 1736-41, by a party of Tyrolese, has been car- 
ried. Its zigzags have been very ingeniously contrived, for 
in many places the rocks overhang the path, and an upper 
terrace projects farther out than the one immediately below 
it. It varies in width from 3 ft. to & ft., ia bordered at the 
side by a dry wall, and is practicable for mules. There is m> 
danger in it, but its proximity to the abyss must be a trial 
for some nerves. 

The wonders of this pass are increased to those who 
approach it from the side of Leuk. 

. "*The upper end of the valley ,^syou look towards the Gemmi, 
has all the appearance of a cul-de^ac, shutin by a mountaiD 
wall. Up to the very last moment, and until you reach the foot 
of the precipice, it is scarcely possible lo discover ibe way 
out, or to tell whither the road goes, or how it can be carried 
up a vertical surface of rOck. It is a mere shelf— in someparta 
a mere groove cut in the face of (he huge cliff, just whio 
enough for a mule to pass, and at the turns of the zigzags you 
constautly overhang a depthof nearly 500 ft. We were recom- 
mended to dismount in several places, but I believe that the 
foot of an alpine mule is seldom less snre than that of tl^ 
biped he cairies. It is yet down this difficult road that inva*<- 
lids are carried to the bath : it is the only way of approach^ 
ing them from the N., unless you were to make a slight 
detour of 200 miles by Berne, Friburg, Vevey, and Maritgny* 
Persons who are very infirm are borne on men's shoulders^ 

RcuU3S.'^Tk$G£nmi^TheBaikiofL09k. iVI 

In • foH of litter, and it U said, often kaire their eyes ban- 
daged to prevent the shock which might be given to weak 
nerves by the terrors of\the pathway. 

'' While at Leuk I copied the foUowiDg claofe, relative to 
the transpcMTt of invalids, from the printed regniations issued 
bj the director of the baths r^^'Pour one persomie aa-dessiis da 
141 ans il faudra i portenrs; si elle est d'un poids an^essus du 
eommuB, 6 pertenrs; si eependant elle est d'un poids eitraor- 
dinaire, et que le conmiissatre le iuge ndceasahre* il pourra 
fldooter t BOffteurs, et iamats plus.' I was amused by this 
provision fcrescessive corpulence. The ascent from the baths 
to the summit takes up nearly S hours. " 

% ZjA Baihs of L$uk (Leukerbad. Fr. — Lo^he). Inns : 
HaisoB Blanche; the best, and good; -^ Croix d'Or ; several 
pensions. The accommodation is as good as can be espeeted, 
considering that the lx»uses (except the first) are Of wood , 
not very well built, shut up and abandoned from October to 
Mbj. The fare is tolerable, everything but milk and cheese 
being brought from the valley below. 

The baths consist of 5 or 6 lodging-houses^ attached to a 
fcamlet of about 300 inliabitaBts» situated more than 4S00 ft. 
above the level of the sea, <.e. Id^er than the highest moun- 
tain in Great Britain, its hot spnnfi^ annually attract a nuuk* 
bBF of visitors, chiefly Swiss and French* during tlie season* 
ns., in the months of July and Auftust, though the inns are 
op^n from May to October* From the dreariness of the situa- 
tion, the coldiwss of the cliroate, and the defects of the lod« 
giDgs» €ew EngUsh wouAd desi^ to prolong their stay here, 
after satisfslDg their cnriosity by a sight of the place. The 
bBlbs and adjacent buildings have been three times swept 
away by aValanehes since their estabAisbment in the 16th ceni- 
tury; and, lo guard against a recurrence of the calamity, a 
Tery strong dyke is now buiit behind the village to want off 
the snaw. Such danaer, however, is passed before the bathing 
season begins. One.of thefiist patronsof the baths was the cele-* 
brated Cardinal, and Archbishop ofSion, Matthew ^ehiooer. 

The springs, to the number of lOofr i^ rise in and aroQB4 
tbe village, and nine-tenths of them rua off into the Bida 
torrent without being used. The ehUf spring of St Law- 
rence hursts forth out of the ground between the inn anA 
the bath-house; a rivulet in volume at its source, with a ten^-; 
peniture of \U^ Far. It is used for the baths after being 
sMghtly cooled. The other springs vary somewhet in terope*} 
ralwre, but little in contents. They contain only a sraaHl 
pof tioo of saline natter, and seem to owe their heneiieial 
elfects leisto their mineral gualittes than to their tempera- 
ture and ibe mode of using thenu The patient begins with a 
bath of an boor's duration, but goes on increasmg it daily. 

IkS Route 3S.—The Gemmi—Baih oft»uk. 

until at length he remains in the water 8 hours a day— 4 be- 
fore breakfast and 4 after dinner. The usaaletire time (kur) 
is aboat 3 weeks. The want of the accommodation of privale 
baths, and the necessity of preventing the ennui of such an 
amphibious existence, if passed in solitude, has led to tbe 
practice of bathing in common. The principal bath-house is 
a large shed divided into 4 compartments or baths, each 
about iO ft. square, and capable of holding 15 or 20 persons. 
To each of these baths there are two entrances, communi- 
cating with dressing-rooms, one for the ladies, theotherfor the 
gentlemen. Along the partitions dividing the baths runs a 
a slight gallery, into which any one is admitted, either to 
look on or converge with the bathers below. The stranger 
will be amazed, on entering, to perceive a group of some 
\% or 15 heads emerging from the water, on the surface of 
which float wooden tables, holding coffee-cups, newspapers, 
snuff-boxes, books, and other aids, to enable the bathers to 
pass away their alloted hours with as small a trial to their 
patience as possible. The patients, a motley company, of alt 
ages, both sexes, and various ranks, delicate young ladies, 
burly friars, invalid officers, and ancient dames, are ranged 
around the sides on benches, below the water, all clad in 
long woollen mantles, with a tippet over their shoulders. 
It is not a little amusing to a bystander to see people sipping 
their breakfasts, or reading the newspapers, up to their chins 
water — in one corner a party at chess, in another an appa- 
rently interesting (^(e-d-f#(0, is soing on ; while a solitary 
sitter may be seen reviving in the hot water a nosegay of 
withered flowers. The temperature of the bath is preserved 
by a supply of fres^ water constantly flowing into it, from 
which the patients drink at times. Against the walls are 
hung a set of regulations and sumptuary laws for tlie preser- 
ration of order and decorum in the baths, siened by the bur-' 
gomaster, who enforces his authority by the threat of a fine of 
Sfr. for the highest olTence against his code. 
; "Ar. 7. Personne ne pent entrer daiis ces bains sans itre 
revdtue d*une chemise longue , et ample, d*une ^toffe grofr- 
sidre, sous peine de i fr. d'amende. 

**At. 9. La mdme peine sera encouru par ceux qui n'en 
entreraient pas , ou n'en sortiralent pas d'une mamirci de- 

Four hours of subaqueous penance are, by the ddctofs de- 
cree, succeeded by one hour in bed ; and many a fair nymph 
in extreme nigligi, with stockingless feet, and unco.ifed hair, 
may be encountered crossing the open space between the 
bath and the hotels. From their coqdition one might sup- 
pose they had been driven out of doors by an alarm of fire» 
or some such threatening calamity. 

Route ^S.—Th$ Getnmi - Baths of Leak. 1 W 

The' principal curiosity of the neighbourhood is the Lad- 
€ter4. (Leitern), A rough path through the ipvoods, ou the I. 
or K. side of the Dala, about 11/2 mile long, leads to the 
foot of the precipice, which, as before observed, hews in the 
valley of Leuk on all sides, as with a colossal wall. Upon 
the summit of. this precipice, however, stands a village, caW 
led Albinen; and the only mode by which its inhabitants can 
communicate directly wifib the baths, is by a series of 8 or 10 
ladders placed perpendicularly against the face of the dilT. 
It can hardly be called difficult to climb to the top» but it 
would not do for any of weak nerves, and a dizzy head, as 
many rounds of the ladder are loose, others broki^n ; and the 
ladders themselves, whiph are pinned to the crevices of the 
rock by hooked sticks, are often awry and very unsteady : 
^et thiey are travei;se<l at all seasons, day and night, by the 
inhabitants of the villi|ge above— by men as well as women 
and children, often with heavy burdens. The use of the lad- 
ders, which the nature of the sides of the valley render indis- 
pensable, has given rise io a singular modification of the 
dress of the female peasanHs, which here includes those ne- 
ther habiliments confined in other parts of the world to men 
and shrews. Nor ar& they ashamed of this portion of their 
attire, as, in climbing ihe mountains, the petticoat is 
tucked up, and the wearers do not differ io appearance from 

The rocky pass, called Tfelsen Gallerie, on th^ opposite side 
of the Dala, ou the way to Siders, near Inden, is a tery strik- 
ing scene. ^ 

Mules are kept at the baths, under the direction of a com- 
niissaire, to transport travellers : the prices are fixed by a 
printed tariff ($10). 

There are two ways irom the baths into the valley of the 
Rhone and the road of the Simpion— the one follows the 
course of the Dala torrent through the centre of the valley- 
and conducts, in about 9 miles, to the village of Leuk : it is 
just passable for a cAar-<»-6atic, but is very rough. 

% 2/3 Leuk {Inns : Kreutz ; Stern)— a village of 620 inhabi- 
tants, on the rt. bank of the Rhotie, near its junction with 
the Dala. A covered bridge over the Hhone connects it with 
the Simplon road (RouteJ 59). Above it are ruins of two cas- 
tles, destroyed by the Vallaisans in tlU. 

The other, a mule-path carried along the W. side of tt^o 
valley of the Dala, but high above that river, conducts at once 
to the town. of Sierre (Siders), 15 miles distant, and is a 
short cut for those who wish to descend the valley of the 
Rhone towards Martigny and Geneva. It traverses the high 
pasturages, and beyond them a forest, of larch, and passes, 
first, the'viHage of fmdeo, near which a most extensive view 

150 Route 99.— The Pass ofUie RawyL 

is gained over the valley of the Rhone, its towns, Tillages, 
ftirms, and old castles. The unsightly debris brought down 
by the furious torrents issuing from the opposite vaUey, and 
the wide eipanse of bare gravel overflowed by the Rhone in 
spring, and converted into a river-channel^but in ^anmier 
left bare and arid,~give a desolate character to the scene. 

.Between Imden and another village, called Varen, the road 
makes an abrupt turn, and the traveller finds himself beneatb 
the shadow of a most tremendous and overhanging precipice. 
The effect of approaching it from the side of Sierre w grand 
in the eitreme, and totally uneipected, after taming a corner 
of the rock. The path is carried along a narrow ledge in 
front of the cliflT; beneath it is a gaping abyss, extending 
nearly down to the bed of the Dala, and above, the rocks lean 
so far forward, that stones falling from their tops would des* 
eend upon the road, and it is therefore partly protected by a 
roof. This spot is called the Gallerie, and was the scene of 
a bloody combat in 1799, when the Yallaisans defended tbif 
spot for several weeks against the Frendi, effectually checluBg 
all attempts to pass, by rolling dbwn stones and logs from 

A rough and steep descent leads nx>m this, in about 1 A.1% 
hour, to S^rre, upon the Simplon road (Route 59.) 

ROUTE 39. 


SS stnnden-eTS Eng. miles. 

This pass was once more frequented than at present : it J8> 
in places difficult and dangerous, ti is only practicable on 
foot, and should not be attempted eieept by one of sore fool 
and steady nerves, nor without the aid of ao experienced and 
stout guide. 

An der Lenk, at the N. foot of the pass, is a good halting^- 
place ; thence lo Sion, over the mountain, ibrms a day*s jour- 

It is about 11 miles from Thun, along the margin of the- 
lake (see Route 38, p. lU), to 

3 1 /3 £ r 1 e n b a c h, at the entrance of the Simmenthal. As 
that valley (described in Route 41) makes 'a considerable* 
curve, the shortest way to the Rawyl is to strike up the 
Diemtigen Thai, running nearly due S. from Erlenbach. The 
pass crosses the stream of the Cbivel, and follows its I. bank 
through Diemtigen and 'Narrenbach, then crosses it to 

as/iThiermatte n,where there4s an inn. About a roii0 
beyond this It again crosses the stream, and, leaving it oa 

Route 3d. — The Pass of the rawyl. 1 5t 

the 1;., gradually asceruls U) the pass of the Griiuiui (5&80 ft). 
HescendiDg through the Feriuel Thai (a fertile valley, only 6 
miles long), it reaches 

3 1/2 Matten, in the Upper Slinmentbal- About 4 
mites above this, on the 1. bank of the Simmen, lies the viK 
lage of 

i 1/4 4 u derLenk (fnnf : Bftr ; Kreuls;)— beautifully 
situated, surrounded by high peaks and glaciers. '' The 
wild Strubel (10,500 feet), with the wHste of snowy glaciers 
beneath it, forms the most striking and promineht feature, 
rising into the air above an unusually long line of grey 
precipices, down which 10 or 12 cascades are seen rofling 
into the country at the base.*^— £arro&e. 

The Stmmen rises about 6 miles above An der Lenk, at the 
foot of the glacier of B^liberg«.from a source called the Seven 
Fountains. In the source itself there is little to compensate 
Cor the tri>uble of the ascent to it» but the scenery around it is 
«f great grandeur. Between it and An der L^nk the Simmen 
forms several cascades. 

The direct jroad from Lenk over the Bawyl to Sion, a 
distance of 11 leagues, or 30 miles^ adheres to the W. side of 
the valley, and instead of proceeding to the source of the Sim- 
men, ascends by the bank of its tributary,, the Iffigenbach, 
flowing from theS.W. to Iffigen, a group of wretched chalets, 
at the foot of the Bawyi CLes Ravins). A series of short 
zigzags lead up the mountain over fallen rocks and detached 
patches of snow, crossing the channel grooved by the descen- 
ding avalanches; and then along a ledge, in many places not 
a foot broad, with a precipice on one side and an abyss on 
Jlhe other. '*When about 1500 feet above the Iffigenthal the 
j>ath becomes more and more hazardoas. . . . Here one 
cascade, from the higher part of the precipice, flies over the 
liead of the passenger as he creeps between it and the rock; 
and there, in a blade and dismal rift, round which, the path- 
way winds, a second falls upon the very ledj^e upon which 
you pass, and sweeps down the precipice below you. To be 
caught on this passage by a tornado, or violent thundergust, 
which instantly adds to the volume of these cascades, can^ 
hardly fail to entail loss of life, which, in this part particu- 
larly, not unfrequenlly occurs in bad weather aiid early in 
spring. After 11/2 hour's climb (from Ifligen) I reached- 
ihe summit of the precipices without accident. The pathway 
emerged upon a flat, partly loose, wet shale, partly thick 

A bed of snow lying on the W. bank of a small lake, the 
Rawyl Sec, must then be crossed; an acclivity succeeds which 
tarings you to the cross marking the summit of the pass 

i 5t Route 40. — Pass of the SmieUch. 

4 1/1 The siiminit of ihe ridge, or plateau, between the K. 
and S. declivities, is seferal miles broad. Another sraall 
lake is reached before the traveller gains the brow of the S. 
(ieclivity of the mountain, consisting of precipices similar to 
thtise on the side of Berne. The yjew nence of the moun— 
tains on tbeS. side of the vale of the Rhone, especially of the 
Matterhom and its glaciers, is very sublime. A zigzag palb 
(oitducts down the cliffs, and then bearing away to the rt.^ 
ascends another steep mountain, passing over rough ground^ 
Olid through fir forests; a walk of 4 hours from the summit 
kefore it reaches the Qrst hamlet 

.41/4 A yen t—(No /tm here )>^.'* Among the many cas- 
cades on the S. declivitiesof the Rawy II noticed, in particular, 
one, as I descended the line of precipices, of an uncommonly 
fine and singular appearance, bursting out of a black cleft iu 
(he face or a broad and precipitous rock, in 5 or 6 distinct 
/otiuims, and afterwards forming a fine wild tumble of foam* 
lug water.'*— taCro^B. 

i5ton (Route 59). 

*/ The above route is not described from personal know— 
ledge, but chiefly from Lalrobe, and some Gorman authorities. 
The editor will be thankful for any |)ersonal information res-- 
peeling the passes of the Rawyl and Sanetsch. 

ROUTE 40. / . . 


t01/4 stunden==3S. 1/3 English miles. 

This is «^a walk of 9 hours without interruption ; a long^ 
steep, and tedious pass, but not dangerous, eicept in very bad 
weather. The village of Saanen (ur Gessoney) and the road 
between it and Thun is described in Route 41. 

At $taad the path turns S. by the valley of the Saane, the 
upper end of which is called Gsteig-Tbal to 

3 Gsteig— ^/nns;Rdr; Rabe)— the highest village in itj. 
situated close under the lofty and precipitous Mitlaghom, and 
near the foot of the Sanetsch, the most westerly of the passes 
over the Bernese chain. The direction of the path from 
Gsteig is S. £., still by the side of the Saane, through a con- 
fined and savage gorge, until its source is passed. The sum- 
mit may be reached in 11/2 hour. 

2 1/3 The summit is 7.500 feet above the s^a, and presents 
a wild rocky solitude, unvaried by vegetation ; but the view 
fro.m the S. side, over the chain of Alps and glaciers, from 
Mont Blanc to the Cervin, is very noble. 

After descending for some time, skirting along under th& 
edge of the great glacier de Chimp Fleuri, the path reaches, 
the stream of the Morge, and crosses it to 

Koutelki^ — Simminthai --Baths offVeUsenburg, i6S 

3S/3 € h a mp ago o I. thence de^*endiDg upon 
ll/S5ion (Route 59). 

ROUTE 41. 


24 1/a stundens 80 1/3 English miles. 

The road through the Simmenthal has only recently been 
inade practicable for carriages. It U a little longer than the 
highway by Rerne and Freiburg, Route 42. 

The entrance to the Simmenthal lies between the Stockhorn 
on the rt. and the Niesen on the 1.^ and is approached froiii 
Thun by the road along the margin ot the lake, and the banks 
of the Kander, as far as its junction with the Simmen, a litile 
below the picturesque castle of Wimmis, which our road 
passes on the 1. 

3 1/3 About two miles farther on, ''the house of the pas- 
torof Erlenbach indicates, by its neatness, the ettremecom-^ 
fort of Its internal arrangements. Jbarge airy rooms and a 
capital German library, with the society of the worthy pas^ 
|or and his wife, offer many inducements to a lover of quiet 
and romantic scenery. The clergymen in this neighbour- 
hood are all willing to receive boarders at the very moderate 
rate of 4 or 5 Louis a month. From this parsonage Latrobe 
started pn those alpine expeditions which he has described in 
i^ admirable and interestmg a manner in his Alpenttwik (au 
excellent English guide with a foreign name). The Stock- 
horn rises almost immediately behind the village of Erlen- 
bach.*'— (/ims ; LOwe and RAr).—X* 

1 1/4^ Weissenburg <'has a good inn, where moles may 
be hired and chairs, with bearers, to convey persons, who do 
not choose to walk, to i\i% Baths of Wei$senburg, distent 
between 3 and 3 miles from this. There is an ascent imme- 
diately on leaving the village, but after that ther path winds 
Arough the most beautifol and picturesque defiile^ narrowing 
at every step into a profound chasm, till suddenly the Bath^ 
house, singulaity situated in its recesses, bursts upon the 
yiew. This large building is placed in a little nook between 
the boiling torrent Biintschi and the rocks, barely, space suffi- 
cient for the house and baths. In this retired spot the tra- 
veller is surprised td find himself surrounded by a.crotptf of 
peasants. In July there were 75 of that class, and 30 Of a 
higher cUiss of visitors : later in-the year the latter preponde- 
late^ It is difficult to imagine how they pass their time in 
Ibis iolitttde. Three weeks is the ''care'* or period allotted 

. 15k FouUki •^Simnunilml'^BaihiofW^iUinburgi. 

to the trial of tlie remedy of the waten^ which aresttlpbureous, 
and are suppoaed to be most efficacious iu removiog all In- 
ternal obstmetions. Great mast be their power to induce 
patients to remain in so melancholy a place; yet the scenery 
around is highly picturesque, but inaccessible to all but stout 
climbers, eicept along the road to Weissenburg. The source 
is situated about 1/S a mile higher up in the gorge, and the 
water, which has a temperature or above SS« Reaum., is 
conveyed to the baths in wooden pipes carried along the Ikce 
of the precipice. 

" Tne bath^use is entirely of wood: the food is said to be 
coarse but good ; table d*h6te at IS ; salle a manger large but 
low; bed-rooms small. The whole expense, baths included^ 
9 fr. a-day for the superior class, and about half for the pea- 
•ants."-.i. t- , 

Some way up the ravine the peasants have formed a paUi- 
wav out or it to the upper pastures, by cutting notches, or 
rude steps, in the face of the rock, and partly oy atUching 
ladders to it. By this means they scale a dizzy precipice 
between iOO and 300 feet high. The pedestrian bound for 
the upper Simmenthal need not retrace his steps to Weis- 
senburg, as there is 1 short cut direct from the baths to 
Oberwyl, on the high road. 

The Simmenthal is thus described by Inglis : *'I have seen 
few paru of Switzerland more beautilul than this valley; no 
part of it so riante. I should think it must be impossible to 
travel through it without being conscious of an inward cheer^ 
fulness; it is fruitful, smiling, abundant, beautiful. There 
is no sublimity to be seen, scarcely even anything of the 
picturesque. The hills, which slope gracefuBy back, are 
covered to the summit with« varied carpet of meadow, wood, 
qnd com. Houses, hamlets, and villages, lie thickly along 
the banks of the river, which flows through ft JMiccession of 
orchards and gardens." 

i Boltingen--{/nn:B&r;)— a village siUiated 9000 feet 
above the sea, a little to the S. of the old castle of Simmeneck. 
Th9 river Is crossed three tiroes before reaching 

a 1/3 Zw^isimmen— {lnn$ : LOwe; B&r;) — a village 
situated at the junction of the. great and lesser Siitiraen. 
The castle of Blankenburg crowns the height about a mila 
abovct it* The road now quits the Simmenthal, and, turning 
totheS^W*, crosses an elevated track of marshland, till it 
descends .upon 

SIM S«Lanen(Fr.Ges8enay)— (/niis:Gros86S,andKleines 
Landhau8;)~the principal place in the pastoral valley ot 
the upper Saane (Serine), whose inhabitants are almost exclu- 
sively ('».t.Ue^wuer$, or occupied in their dairies^ and in 
inanufttcturing most excellent cheese, exported io tit parl» 

Rouie 4t. — Bmi d§ Jbma»i - Gruyires. 155 

ef the world as Gruyires cheeses A kind poouUar to the 
valley^ and which is too delicate to bear exportation, ia 
called Fdischart-kfise. A mile below Saanen the road imsses 
out ofBeroe into Canton Vaud. German, the language of the 
upper extremity of the valley, i» soon exchanged rer a French 
patois, in the lower portion, which is called Pays d*en hunt 
Aomand. The first Yaudois village is Rougemont (Germ. 
Retchmund). Its chAteau was formerly a convent 

3 Ghdteau^'Oex-^C'nn»;L-Ourft; la Maison deT>Ue;)— 
a village of 612 inhabitants^ 3030 feet above the sea,, lately 
rebuilt after a conflagration which almost entirely consumed 
it. The road next cHosses the Saaue, and traversing the 
narrow pass of La Tine, reaches 

SMontbovon, which Byron calls ** a pretty scraggy vil- 
lage, with a wild river and a wooden bridge :" it is situated 
in Canton Freiburg. A path practicable for mules, over the 
l>ass of the Dent da Jamany descending upon the lake of 
Geneva above Montreux, will bring the traveller to Vevey itt- 
stunden»i0i/3 miles. Byron, who crossed it, describes 
the whole route as ** beautiful as a dream :"-^ 

" The view ft-om the highest points (we had both sides of 
the Jura before us in one point of vi^w, with alps in pteniy) 
comprises, on one side, Uie greatest part of LakeLeman; on 
the other, the valleys and mountaifi of the canton of Friboctrg^ 
and an immense plain, with- the lakes of NeiifchAtel and Mo- 
rat, and all which the borders of the lake of Geneva inherit. 

''The musio of the cows' bells (for their wealth, like the 
patriarch's, Is cattle) In the pastures, which reach to a height 
far above any mountains in Britain, and the shepherds shout- 
ing to us from crag to crag, and playing on their reeds where 
the steeps appealed almost inaccessible, with the surround- 
ing scenery^ realised aU that I have ever heard or imagined 
of a pastoral existence :— much more so than Greece or Asia 
Minor, for there we have a little too much of the sabre and 
musket order, and if there is a erook in one hand, you are 
sure to see a gun in the other :— but this was pure and unmixed 
—solitary, savage, and patriarch^. As we went they {day ed 
the *^Ranz des vaches" and other airs, by way of farewell. I 
nave hitely repeopled my mind with nature."— ih/ron:'# Jbar- 

The Dent de Jaman is 4500 feet hifj^. The earriage-ioad 
to Vevay makes a very long detour from Montbovon, descend- 
ing the valley of the Saane, and passing at the base of the 
Moiesbn (61«1 feet), the highest mounUin in Canton Fri- 

2 Gruyires (German, Greyerz)— intM : Stadthaus; Lilie, 
said not to be good. This dirty little mouldering tawu of 375 
kihabitants, is built on a hill, the top of which is crowned 

i 56 houie ki . — Gruyire^. 

hy ihe Ca«r<«» one of the most extensive and best presened* 
(«iidal monoinents in Switzerland. Its owners, the CouDt5 
cfGruyires were soyereignsofthe furroonding district, down 
to 1554, when the family became bankrapt, and thus for- 
feited the lordship, so that their last descendants died in a 
tranffe land. It ts now occupied by the bailiff of the district. 
The gioomY antiquity of the interior corresponds with the pic- 
turesque character of its watch-towers, battlements, loopholes, 
trom without. The walls are 14 ft. thick, the halls vaulted 
itnd dimlv lighted by small windows : in one hall is a fire- 
place at which oxen were roasted whole. The torture chamber 
htill conUins {or did till within a few years contain) the rack 
which had been used since the beginning of the present 
t^ntury, to inflict punishment. If tradition be credited, the 
castle was founded in the t5th century, by the chief of a 
Vandal horde. The language sp<^en by the people of the 
district, a dialect of the Romansch (called, in German, Gru- 
verin-Welsch), is thought to prove their descent ftt>m the 
Burgundians. It is a subject worthy the attention of travel- 
lers. The district is also famous for its cheeses, and supplies 
from its rich pastures a great part of the 40,000 centners 
(cwt.) of cheese which Canton Fribourgmanufectures yearly, 
and which is chiefly exported under the name of G^rny^s. 
ThecAurch of St, Thomas is remarkable for its antiquity. 
The inhabitants of the town are a lazy set, many of them pen- 
sioners of a very rich Hospital here. 

The watch-tower of La Toufde Treme was an outpost of 
the Counts of Gruyires. 

1 Bulle— (/nn«; Che val Blanc; Maison dd Title, said to 
be good ;)— one of the most industrious towns in the canton. 
ll contains nearly 1500 inhabitants, and is the chief dep<yt for 
Ihe Gruyeres cheese, made in the valleys of the SaWine^and 
of Charmey. It is distant about 18 miles ttom Frihoorg, and 
the same tVom Vevey. Our course now Cunts S. along tiie 
high road between these two places, Skirting the W. haee oi 
the Moleson, to 

4 1/2 Chatel St. Denis— (/nn: Maison de TiHer)-a 
picturesque village, with an elevated castle on the 1. bank 
of the Yevayse. Haifa mile 6. of it the road enters Xlanton 

A gradual descent towahls the beautiful lake Lemail, coo- 
duets the traveller to 

1 1/2 Vevey, ^ (Route 56.) 

Xoute k^^^Deme io Fkeybdr^. tSt 



t7 stiinden ^ 55 3/4 Eng. miles 

A diligence fobs daiiy, in about 14 hours. The road i» 
Siilly, but an Improved line to Freybarg is neaHy completed 

Quitting Berne by the gate of Morat, flanked by its two 
bears, we traverse a fertile, but not very interesting country. 
At Neueneck, where there is a good inn (the Hirsch), the 
stream of the Sense, which seiiarates Canton Berne from 
Freyhurg, is crossed. About 4 miles lower down this stream 
is Latcpen, famous for the bailie in which the Swiss Confe- 
derates, under Budolph of Erlach defeated the mailed chi- 
irah>y of Burgundy and Suabia, in 1339. 

At Neueneck a steep asrent commences, to surmount which 
vorspann are. required. The gauze wings and dark dress of 
the female peasantry of Berne is eichanged for broad-brim- 
ined, flappingstraw hats and red petticoats; while the nume- 
rous crosses at the road-side announce a Catholic canton. 

The appearance of Freyburg from the Berne road is singu- 
larly striking and picturesque, as the road, winding round 
the shoulder of the steep hill overlooking the valley of the 
Saarine, brings the travellers suddenly in view of its antique 
battlements and numerous towers, crowning the summit of a 
precipitous rock on the opposite side of the gorge* Near the 
top of the hill is seen the Jesuits* Pensipnnat, a staring mo- 
dem building, like a manufactory, with 5 stories and many 
windows; not far from it the Jesuits* college and convent; 
next, the Gothic tower and the church of St. Nicholas; 
beyond appears the suspension-bridge, buns by 4 ropes of 
iron across the river, avd linking together the two sides -of 
the valley. Previous to its construction the only way of reach- 
ing the town from Berne was by descending the steep hiH 
on the one side, and following numerous circuitous zig- 
zags which led to the water side. The road then crossed the 
river 3 times by 3 different low bridges, after whic^ it imme* 
^lately ascended another slope equally steep. A diligence, or 
heavy carriage, performing this meandering and difficult 
route, required not much less than an hour to pass through 
the town ; at present the traveller rolls luxuriously over this 
beautiful bridge, and without either ascending or descending^ 
is transported in 9 minutes through a breach fbrmed in the 
old houses, on the edge of the precipice, into the centre of 
the town. A moderate toll of half a batz for every person^ 
end one balz for each horse and carriage, is paid on cross- 

tSS IiouUh% — Friykirg-^mpemion Bridge. 

5 Fmbyborg. — (inru : ZAhringer Hof, close to the bridsf»- 
— Dew and good; beds, %t; breakfast, 9 f.; tea, 1 f.; — Hdte^ 
des Marchands. near|tfae church, of St. Nicolas also good.) 

ThistowD, the capital of Canton Freyburg, is situated on a 

Comontory formed by the windings of the Saarine (Saade). 
aoY of the houses stand on the very edge of the precipice 
ovcFhangifig the river, and their quaint architecture, the 
long line of embattled walls stretching up hill and down dale^ 
varied by the chain of feudal watch-towers, and gateways of 
the ancient fortifications which still exist in a perfect 8Ute» 
together with the singular and romantic features of the gorge 
of the Saarine, give the distant view of the town an aspect 
different fl'om that of any other in Europe, which is at once 
imposing and highly picturesque. The narrow dirty streets 
and mean buildings of the interior do not altogether corres- 
pond with these outward promises of interest. 

Freyburg was founded in 1175, by Duke Berchthold, of 
Zihringen. The number of inhabitants at present is about 

• The Stupeneian Bridge, the longest in the world, was 
completed and thrown open in 1834. The engineer who 
constructed itislf.Chaley, of Lyons. Its dimensions, com- 
pared with those of the Menai bridge, are as follows : — 

Length. Elevntioa. Breadth. 
Freyburg. . . ^ . . . 905 ft. 174 ft. 28 CI. 
Menai 580 180 25 

It Is supported on 4 cables of iron wire, each containing 105^ 
wires, the united strength of which is capable of supporting 4 
times the weight which the bridge will ever be likely tobear, or a 
times the weightof 2 rows of waggons, extending entirely across 
it. The cables enter the ground on each side obliquely foracon- 
siderable distance, and are then carried down vertical shafts cot 
in the rock, and filled with masonry, through which tbey 
pass, being attached at the extremity to enormous blocks of 
stone. The materials of which it is composed are almost 
exclusively Swiss ; the iron came from Berne, the UraestODe 
masonry firom the quarries of the Jura, the wood-work from 
the forests of Freyburg : the workmen were, with the excep- 
tion of one man, natives who had never seen such a bridge 
before. It was completed in 3 years at an expense of about 
600,000f (25,000 1. sterling ), and in 1834, was subjected to 
various severe trials to prove its strength. First, 15 pieces of 
actillery„drawn by 50 horses and accompanied by 300 people, 

nied over it at one time, and were collected in as close a 
y as possible, first on the centre, and then at the two 
extremities, to try the effect of their concentrated weight. 

Boui$\%^Fr§ybarg^Chu(rck^Orgmi. 1S» 

A depression of • metre (39 1/3 ioches) was Ibus produced 
in tbe part most weighed upon, but no sensible oscillation' 
was produced. A few days after the bridge was opened by 
the bishop and authorities of the town, accompanied by 
about iOOO persons, who passed over it twice, in proces- 
sion, preceded by a military band, and keeping step. On tliif. 
occasion a slight horizontal vibration was produced, but it i» 
very improbable that the bridge ip its ordinary service will 
ever receive such a multitude at once. The passage pf 2 or 3 
lieavy carriages or carts across it does not cause the slightest 
4>erceptible oscillation ; and nQthin^ is more extraordinary in 
ihis beautiful structure than the combination of stability with 
«uch apparent fragility. The bridge is well seen from the 
platform of the Hotel de Z&hringue, from the old road below 
it, and from the singular gorge .of Gotteron. A similar bridge 
is now (1837) heing built over the* same river at Courbiere, 
on the 1. of the road to Yevey. 

The principal Chureh of St, Nicholas is rather a hand- 
some Gothk building. The portal under the tower is sur- 
mounted br a curious bas-relief,, representing the last judg- 
ment. In the centre stands St. Nicholas and above him is 
aeated the Saviour; on the I. an angel is weighing mankind in 
a liuge pair of scales, not singly but by lots, and a pair of 
imps are maliciously endeavouring to puU down one scale, 
and make the other kick the beam; below is St, Peter, usher- 
ing the good into Paradise. On the rt. hand is the reverse 
of this picture— a devil, with a pig's head, is dragging after 
him, by a diain, a crowd of wicked, and carries a hasket on 
his back, also filled with figures, apparently about to precipi- 
tate them into a vast caldron suspended over a fire, which 
several other imps are stirring. In the corner Is Hell, repre- 
.aented by the jaws of a monster, filled up to the teeth with 
evil-doers, and above it is Satan, seated on his throne. 
, The Organ, built by Mooser, a native of the town,.is one 
of the finest instruments in Europe. The organist is allowed 
io play OD it for the gratification of travellers only at hours 
wlien the mass is not going on~in the morning at half-^past 
Bine, and in ihe afternoon. His fee is U f. for a party, and 
^he valet de place will make an appointment with Mm. The 
lierformance terminates with the Imitatipn of a storm, intro- 
ducing the howling of the wind, and the roaring of the 
(hnnder, interspersed with a few flashes of lightoing, fronk 
:*' Der Freyschou.^' The instrument has 6i stops and 780a 
pipes, some of them 32ft. long. 

; .Gantikn Freybnrg presents a remarkable inatance of a stat^ 
with a oonstitotion purely democratic, in which the duet 
influence is exercised by the hierarchy. The town of Frey- 
biurg is a stronghold of the Romish priesthood : it i» the slK^ 

iGO RoaUkl^—Frfyburg^ Jesuits. 

of a bishop, who still styles himself Bishop of LausanfMr, 
although since the ReforinaliOD, the Canton Vaud is cutoff 
from his diocese : it contains no less than 9 convents (5 for 
monks and 4 for nans), 13 churches, and 10 chapels. The 
Jesuits, still interdicted from most other states of Europe, 
are here openly tolerated, having been recalled in 1818 by a 
decree of the Grand Council of the Canton. Th« Jesuits' 
e&nvent, ot college, was founded in 11^84 by Father Canisius, 
who died In the odour of sanctity at the age of 77 , and is 
interred in the Jestiits* church; awaiting the honours of cano- 
nization which have been, it is said, long promised to his re- 
mains. Henry IV. of France subscribed towards the build- 
ing of the church, and presented the high altar, little aware 
of his coming fate from the dagger of a Jesuit. The College 
supports 60 brothers, chiefly teachers and professors, who 
instruct the pupils of the Pensionnat, and lecture at the 
Lyee^m, a college r^centl^r erected. The building of the 
convent is of Very humble kind, rather mean than otherwise, 
and contains nothing remarkable. Its walls are lined wi(h 
bad portraits of tfa\e generals of the order of Jesuits, and of the 
rectors of tbe establishment. 

The Pensionnat, or Jesuits* School, the most conspicioiis 
building in the town^ situated on a spot over-looking ihe 
other edifices, is destined for the reception of about iOOpupils, 
many of them children of the Roman Catholic noblesse of 
France and Germany, who are sent hither for their educsr^ 
tion. The establishment is said lo be very welt conducted. 
In the summer holidays the boys, in little troops, headed by 
a tutor, make the tour of Switzerland. 

Among the curiosities of Freyburg is the ancient trunk of 
a Htme-free, planted, according to tradition, on the 
day of the battle of Morat, in 1476. The story relate» 
that a young Freyburgois, who had fought in the battle, 
anxious to bring home the good news, ran the whole way, 
and arrived on this spot, bleeding, but of breath, and so 
exhausted by fatigue, that he fell down, and had barely time - 
to cry "Victory!" when he expired. The branch of lin^e 
which he carried in his hand was immediately planted and 
grew into the tree, of which this decayed trunk, 20ft. in cir- 
cumference, is the remains. Its branches are supported b^r 
stone pillars. ^ 

Near to it is tile ancient R athhaus, a building of no con- 
sequence, but standing on the site of the Duke of Z&bringen's 

A long flight of steps leads from this down to the lower 
town, aiid river side. : it is called the Rue Court C^mt'n, and 
the roofs of some of its houses serve as paretnent for (he 
street abo^e it called Hue Grande Fontaine* * -• ' 

fkouie 42. — frtyburg to Lausanne. 161 

Tbe Canton Freyburg is singularly difided between ibe 
German and French languages, and the line of separation, 
oitending from the S.E. corner to the N.W., passes through 
the town 0t Freyburg— so ihatUn the upper town French is 
spoken, and in the lower German. This distinction^ hbweyer, 
is wearing out. 

The walls and gates of the town are singularly perfeet 
specimens of ancient fortification, and contribute, along with 
the general airof antiquity, to carry back the spectator to a 
n>iHote state of society. One tower, near the Prefedture 
(ihrown across the street, and now converted into a prison), 
lias acquired the name of La Mauvaise Jour, because iJt 
roiitaids the rack. Though the torture had been disused 
ill. the canton for many years, it was not legally abolished 
until 1830! 

The singularly romantic character of the winding gorge 
of the Saarine. on whose margin Freyburg is planted, haa 
been before alluded to. Close to the old bridge of fieroA, 
r.nother gorge, deep sunk between rocks of sandstone, called 
Gorge de Gotteron, opens into the Saarine. It is a singu-- 
Inrly wild spot, and the wire bridge^ with its web-like fila- 
ments, is well seen from it. 

About three miles lowar down the valley of the Saarine, 
is the Grotto of St. Magdalene, a hermitage and chapel cut 
out of the sandstone, rock, by a native ofGruy^s, named 
Dupr^, between 1670 and 1680. its wonders have been 
exaggerated by the guide-books, and it^ is scarce worth a 

Morat is about lOmiles from Freyburg (Route i3). Coach^ 
es run to and fro in correspondence with ibe steamer na- 
vigating the lake to Xeuchltel. There is a good road from 
Freyburg to Vevey by BuUe (Route 41, p. 156). 

The shortest way to Lausanne is by Romont, but the road 
is so bad that it la rarely followed. Instead of it, the circuitous 
route by Payeme, in Canton Yaud, is usually uken : i€ is 
hilly and not veiy interesting. 

4 Payerne— Germ. Pelerllngeh— (fnn#: B4r is newer, 
but not better than the HOtel de Ville). There are two chur- 
ches in this walled town— tbe one, now turned into a waro-^ 
house, is in the round style, and very ancient. Bertha,, 
(jueen of Burgundy, the founder of it, and of the adjoining 
< onvent suppressed since the Hefornialion, and now a school> 
was. buried in it. The curiosity of the place is Queen Bertha's 
$iiddle, kept in the church, from which it appears that, in 
her days, it was the fashion for ladies to ride en eavalier ,* 
but Bertha spun as she rode, having a distafF planted on the 

•163 ReuU 43.-^ Berne to Laiaanney ky Morai. 

Tbe road ascends the vUley of the Broye, pastLucens andl 
its caslle to 

iMoudoo-- Germ . Mildeo — {irm : Gerf ; dirty and 
dear). This town was the Roman Minidunum^ henc^ its 
modem name. 

At the village of Garouge a road turns off on the I. ta 

The stage to Lausanne, about 13 miles* consists of nearly 7 
of long and incessant ascent, and 5 of descent. Extra horses 
are required for the first. From the summit and S. slope of 
the Jorat (for that is the name of the bill) a beautiful view 
expands over the Leman Lake, and in clear weather the 
snows of Mont Blanc and the high Alps border ttie horizoD. 

It is a drive of 3 hours from Moudon to 

4 LAUsAififB (Route 56). 

ROUTE 43. 

ibbub to lausakiib, bt morat, km atbncbes (aven- 

iB 2/3 stunden»54 3/i Eng. miles. 

Bilig^Qce daily, in 14 hours. 

A distant view of the Alps is obtained or the I. The Saa- 
rine is crossed at 

a 3/4Allenlflfften, and a little farther on tbe road enters 
Canton Freyburg. This part of it exhibits a more indus- 
trious and thriving aspect than the rest : It is Protestant. 

31/3 Jf oral -r Germ. Murten--(inns : Couronne, Croix 
Blanche)— a thriving town of 1650 inhabitants, situated on the 
E. shore of the lake of Morat, on the high road from Berne,. 
Bas1e> and Soleure, to Lausanne.. Its narrow and somewhat 
dismal streets are overlooked by an old Cast {a; and it is ^till 
partly surrounded biy feudal fortifications— the same which^ 
for 10 days, withstood the artillery of Charles the Bold, 

'*There is r spot should not be pass'd in vain— 
Morat ! the proud, the patriot iit*lil ! Where nian 
May gaz«f on ghastly trnphies of the slain, 
Nor blush for those who cOnquer'd on that plain.. 
Here Burgundy Itequeathed his, 
A bony heap through ages to remain ; 
Themselves their monument.** 

The battle of 1476, which has rendered the name of (his 
otherwise insignific4int town famous all over the world, was. 
fought under its walls. The Swiss were drawn up along tbe 
heights a little to the S.W., and nothing could resist theic^ 

BouU 43 — Btrne io Lausanne, by Mofai. 163 

impeiuous charge. The loss of the Bargiiiidians was im- 
luense: 15,000 dead bodies were left on the field, and thou- 
sands perished in the lake. The bodies of the slain were col- 
lected by the Swiss in an Ossuary, which, after standing 300 
years, was destroy ied in 1798 by the soldiers of the Burgun- 
dian Legion in the Revolutionary French army, anxious to 
elTace this record of their ancestors' disgrace aod defeat.. The 
ringleaders were the band of the 75th half-brigade. 

Byron, who visited the spot in 1816, says— ''^ A few bones 
still remain , notwithstanding the pains taken by the 3urgun- 
dians for ages (all who passed that way removing a bone to 
their own country), and the less justifiable larcenies of the 
Swiss postilions, who carried them oCf to sell for knife-han- 
dles— a purpose for which the whiteness, imbibed by the 
1)teaehingofvears, had rendered them rn great request. Of 
those relics I ventured to bring away as much as may have 
made a quarter of a hero, for which the sole excuse is, that^. 
if I had not, the next passer-by might have perverted them to 
, worse uses than the carefiil preservMion which 1 intended for 
them/'— Byrow. 

Since Byron visited the spot the scattered remaitts have 
been eoUeeted and buried, and an obelisk has been set up 
6ver them (in 133i)« by the canton, at the road-aide about a 
quarter of a mile S* of Morat, on the site of tlie bone-house. 
The inscription belonging to it, and one or twoeannon, made 
of iron hoops, ujMd in tbe battle, tre still preserved in the 
Jotpn-Jhouaa of Morat< 

The best view of the battle-field and lake is from the hill 
Qt MiinehwifUr, neJBir an enormous lime-tree, 36ft. incir- 
cumfereuce, and 90ft. high, still in fall vigour and luxuriant 
foliage; it is probably at least ,600 years old, since, according 
to tradition, the Swiss held a council of war before the battle, 
Mnder its shade. According to Ebel, the tree is 36 feet in 
fiiameter, and the American, Cooper,, in consequence, took 
a long walk up the hill, under « hot sun, to see it. '' There 
we went, dragging our weary limbs after us, to discover that 
for * diam^tre' w^ ought to have read ' circcmference.' I wish 
the erratum had been in his book instead of mipe. " 

The lake of Moratis about 5 miles long and 3 broad : )( is 
separated by a narrow flat tract of land from the lake of 
Neuchkel, but empties itself into it through the river Broye. 

The sleamer from NeuehAtel proceeds, 3 times a week, to 
Morat, up the Broye, returning the same days. 

About 5 miles beyond HmsU i& 

1 1/S Avouches— Gfefm^WiflisbQrg— (inns : Couronne; 
Hfttel de Yille) an ancient walled town of 1050 inhabitanU„ 
situated in the S.W. an^e of' the area once occupied by 
Av^tieum^ the Romaii capital oC Helvetia*. It appears to. 

164 RouU 43. — Moral ^Axeniicum, 

have eiisted before the time of Cesar : it attained the height 
of its prosperity, and a population of 60,000 souls, in the 
reign of Vespasian and Titus; and it was destroyed, first by 
the Allemanni, and afterwards by Attila. The ancient waits 
may be traced for nearly 4 miles, in some places 14ft. thick 
and 15ft. high. The modern town fills but one-tenth of the 
space they enclosed—the rest is meadow-land or corn-field. 
About a mile before reaching Avenches the road from Morait 
is carried through a breach in these ancient fortifications. On 
the I. is seen a tower, which, though ruined, is the most 
perfect of the Roman edifices here. They owe their total des- 
truction to their massy masonry having been for ages re- 
garded as a quarry, oat of which the neighbouring houses 
and villages have been built. Close to the modern town, on 
the 1. of the road, a solitary Corinthian column, 37ft. high, 
i« still standing, and has, for a long time, served the storks 
as a pedestal to build their nests on. 

**By a lone wall a lonelier column rears 
A gray and grief-worn aspect of old days : 
*Ti8 ihe fast remnant of the wreck of years, 
And looks as with the wild-bewiltler*d gaze 
Of one to stone converted by amaze, 
Yet still with conciousness ; and there it stands. 
Making a marvel that it not decays, 
When the coeval pride of human hands, 
Leveird Aventicum, hath strew'd her subject lands.*' 

Other traces of former splendour, such as broken eornicer, 
inscriptions, ihe remains of an amphitheatre, and fragments 
of an aqueduct, eiist, and may be discovered by minute 

Tacitus has recorded the history of a young Aventian 
priestess, named Julia Alpinula, who, when her father, the 
chief man of the city, had been condemned to death for aid- 
ing and abetting an insurrection against the Romans ( a. d. 
69) betook herself to the camp of the Roman General, an- 
throwing herself at his feet, besousht him to spare her fa- 
ther's lire. He proved ineiorable to her tears; her youth and 
innocence were alike unavailing ; the sentence wds fulfilled^ 
and she died of a broken heart. 

*'. . oh! sweet and sacred be the name! — 
Julia — the daughter, the devoted-«-gave 
Her youth to Heaven ; her heart, beneath a claim 
Nearest to Heaven's, broke oWa father's grave. 
Justice is sworn '(gainst teats, and her'swouKt crave 
The life she lived in ; but the judge was just, . 

RouU U. -- Berne to NeuchiieL 165 

,Aod then she died on hirti she could not save. 
Their tomb was simple, And without a husl, 
And held wilhin one urn one mind^ one heart, one dust." 

1500 years after thU event the epitaph of Jiilia was found 
among these ruins : —it run thus: — '* Julia Alpinula: Bic 
jaceo. Infelicis patris infelix proles. Den A?entiiB Sacerdus. 
Exorare patris necem non potui : Male mori in fatis ill! erat. 
Yixi annos xxiii. (I, Julia Alpinula lie here— unfortunate 
child of an unfortunate parent, priestess of th& Goddess 
Aventia. I failed in averting by my prayers, the death of my 
father : the Fates had decreed that he should die ignomini- 
ously. Hived to the age of 23.)" Byron says — ** 1 know of 
no human composition so affecting as this, nor, a history of 
deeper interest. These are the names and actions Mhich 
ought not to perish, and to which we turn with a true and 
healthy tenderness, from the wretched and glittering detail 
of a confused mass of conquests and battles, with which the 
mind is roused for a time to a false and feverish sympathy, 
from whence it recurs at length with all the nausea conse- 
quent on such intoxication.*'~Fyron. 

This inscription has been bought by an Englishman and 
removed (h>m the spot. 

The feudal Castle was built by a Gpunt Wivilo, in the 7th 
century, whence the German name of A vencbes. 

At Domdidier, a miles from A vencbes, a road strikes off oii 
the right to Freyburg, described, along with its remarkable 
bridge, in Route 4S. 

' aPayerne. Here we faU into the Route' 42. From 
Freyburg to 

8 Ladsanivb. (Route ,56.) 

ROUTE 44. 


. 9 stnnden (of Benie)a-29 1/2 English miles. 
. Diligences go daily in 6 hours. 

There is another way by Morat, and thence .in the steamer 
to NeuchAtel; but itonly goes 3 Umeft a week, and-the days and 
hours must be a8cei:tained before setting out. The following 
road passes, by Seedorf, a village named from a pretty little 
lake, to 

, 3 2/3Afri;berg— (/nn:Krone);— a town ofa single street, 
on a promontory on the Aar, which, when high, sometimes 
flows entirely around it. Here, the roads ft-om Basle, Soleure, 

166 RouU lA.'-Benu ioNeuchiiei. 

NeachAtel, and Laatannemeet. Travellers desiropsofvisiting 
Rousseau's islaod^oo the lake of Bienne (Rtmte. i&), may 
proceed front this by WalperschWyl and Teuffelen to &eral- 
fingen, on the margin of the lake, about 4 miles from Aarberg. 
The road to NeuchAtel is carried through Siselen and 

2 3/4 An et, or Ins^ a Tillage on an eminence, from whlcab 
the Alps are well seen in clear weather, with the lake ofH orat 
and NeuchAtel near at hand. The lake of Bienne lies .about 
3 miles to the N. of this place. Skirting the hill of Jofinoont 
we cross the river Thiel, or Zihl, through which the waters or 
the lake of NeuchAtel are discharged into that of Bienne. It 
forms the boundary line of Cantons Berne and Nench&lel« 
The Gastle,*tlose to the bridge, is now a prison ; a road runs 
from this to Erlach (Cerlier), a town of 1(K)0 inhabitants, on 
a spur of the JoUmont, which projects into the lake like a 
wail or causeway, nearly as far as Rousseau's lisland* , The 
castle of Erlach "was the cradle of the noble family of that 
name: among its members was Rudolph, the hero of Laupen. 

Near St. Bldize the road, recently macadamized and im- 
proved, reaches the margin of the lake of Neuchlitel, and 
continues along it at the foot of the Ghaumont, as for as 

as/iNEUCHAT B L, German Neuenburg—(/nnj: Faucon, 
good ;— H. des Alpes, at the Water-side, recently built}. 

NeuchAtel, the chief town of the canton, is built upon the 
steep slope of the Jura mountains, and along a narrow shelf 
of level ground between the hills and the hike, partly gahied 
by embankments from the water. Within a few years sever 
ral new streets have been built on the land thus acquired. It 
has nearly 6000 inhabitants. Except as the threshold of Si^iW 
zerland, it has little to interest the passing traveller : it has 
but little trade, and not much activity except on market days. 
Its objects of curiosity arefew and unimportant, and the sce- 
nery of its lake, though agreeable, is tame, compared with 
that of other Swiss lakes. Ob the other hand, to one newly 
arrived in the country, the first, and under all circumstances 

glorious, view of the Alps from the heights of the Jura above 
tie town, must appear magnificent; and 'should the sky be 
clear, and the traveller*s temper even, the objects around 
will assume a different aspect, and Reuchfttet, with its pictu- 
resque old castle, its numerous white country houses, its^ioe- 
clad hills, and its blue expanse of lake,:wm be pronounced 

The Old CoitU on the height, now occupied by the IPros- 
iian Governor, was originally the residence of the French 
princes of Neuchfttel of the house of Gh&loBS (Lonnieville), 
who were, at least nominally, the sovereigns of this little 
state : literally a principality, with republiean institotfons; 
yet retaining many feadal tenurer. The subjects, indeed, of 

RouU kk.—NeaeftdUi. 167 

the Prince of NetichAteU maintained jealously tbeir privile($e9 
and liberties, allowing bim but very limited aatbority over 
them; When the house of ChAlons became extinct in fUn, 
the King of JPrussla was chosen as the nearest descendant by 
the female line, to be sovereign, or stadtholder. The rule oC 
the house of Brandenbnrg was interrupted by Napoleon, who 
made Mar^l Bertbier Prince of NeuehAtel, but has been 
resuined since 1615. The king has the right of appointing a 
governor, the mayor and 45 members out of the 75 who com- 
pose the errand Council. Of these the governor alone is per* 
mitted to be a foreigner : 70»000 francs are paid out of the 
taxes annually to the King. Though long an ally of the Swis^ 
cantons, NeucfaAtel was not formally incorporated as a member 
of the Confederation until 18U. ' 

The Church, adjoining the casOe, is a Gothic building of 
the 12lh century; but the E. end, in the round style, i» 
older. Within it is a curiousraonument of the French pHnccs 
of NeuchAiel, decorated with their effigies. Farel, the fe^ 
former, was buried on the terrace, in ft'ont of the building, 
hut the situation of his grave is unknown. There is a pleas- 
ing view from this terrace. 

The Bdl$l de niU, in the lower town, is a large modem 
edi6ce, faced with a Grecian portico. In it the meetings of 
the Grand Council of the canton are beld. 

The Gymnoiium, a handsome new building near the lake^ 
erected by the town, as a kind of public school, contains a 
a very interesting JITuseum of Natural History , including 
good collections m zoology, conchology, and geology. The 
specimens of rocks and fossils, illqstratmg the structure of 
the Jura mountains, are very complete and instructive. This 
institution owes much to the zeal and talents of Professor 
Agassiz, a native of NeuchAtel, whose interesting discove- 
ries in the history of fossil fishes have thrown more light oo 
that branch of the study than any one since Guvier had done. 
The charitable institutions of this town, for which it is 
Indebted to its own citizens, are on a very splendid scale. lo 
1786 one David Pury left his whole fortune of 4,000,000 of 
livres (166,0001.), to endow an hospital and poor-house, and 
for other purposes connected with the improvement of his 
native town. Ue had quitted it a poor lad, without money 
or friends, had gradually, by industry and talent for business, 
increased his means, becoming, in turn jeweller, owner of 
mines, banker, and, finally^ roUUonaire, at Lisbon, where 
he died. 

The Bosfital PourtaUs is a similar monument*of the bene*- 
volenceand publlc.spirit of a townsman.. It is open to people 
of all religions and countries alike. 
Those who would enjoy ode of the fioeat distant viewt of 

IM Route kk^-^NewQhaUI^Pierrt d hot. 

the Alps, wilii the lakes of Meuchlitel, Morat, and Bienne in 
the foregroand, and the long range of the Jura on the M. 
should ascend to the mmwvit of the Chaumont, the bill in>»- 
mediately ahove jNeuchAtel. It is biit an hour's walk» and 
a carriage-road was about to be made thither in 1837.. It is 
5580 feet above the sea level. The view comprehends (be 
whole array of Alps, from the Titlis to. Hont Blanc, and is 
said to be finer even than that from the Weissenstein. It 
must, however, be borne in mind, that the atmosphere is 
seldom perfectly clear; so that this magnificent view is, per^* 
haps, seen to perfection not more than between 18 and 40 
times in a summer. 

On the slope of the hill, about a mile above the town, tics 
the largest boulder-stone known on the Jura; it is called 
'^pierre a bot," (toad-stone), and is situated in a wood, near 
a farm-house; it is 62 feet long by 48 broad, and Is calcula- 
ted to contain 18,000 cubic feet. It is of granite, similar to 
that of the Great St. Bernard, from which part of the Alps 
fit probably came, as there is no similar rock nearer at hand; 
yet it exhibits no symptoms ot attrition, all its angles betnc; 
perfectly sharp. No satisfactory explanation has yet been 
given of the extraordinary multitude of similar detached rocks, 
which strew the entire N. slope of the Jura, and which, from 
the nature of the slone, must have all been derived from the 
high Alps. 

The Goirge of the Seyon (the stream passing through ihe 
town), i I mediately behind Neuchjltel, is a most singular 
scene, and those who find little to amuse them in the toMfi 
will not repent a walk to explore it, though its recesses are 
only to be reached by scrambling and climbing. It is a deep 
narrow fissi^re, cleaving the centre of the chain of the Jura, 
and allowing the river Seyon to escape from the Val de Ritz, 
into the lake of Neuchdtel. The section it presents of (he 
strata of the Jura limestone will prove particularly instructive 
to the geologist. In one spot they may be observed curved 
and fractured, probably by the upheaving force from below , 
which first broke this crevice in the mountain. Outside the 
town^ near a singularly-placed water-mill, the rent, ur 
gorge, makes a sudden bend at right angles to its former di- 
rection, and the rocks nearly close over the stream,, whfct^ 
there sweeps round the eminence on which the caslle stands, 
and flows into (he lake after passing through the centre of 
the town. Though in winter a furious torrent sweeping everj- 
thing, it is reduced in summer to a noisome driblet 
of water, exaling unwholesome effluvia. A tunnel has. in 
Consequence, been projected through the rock at the' bend 
before alluded to, for the purpose of carrying its vraters en- 

RonU is. -^Laki of Bienne. 16§ 

tirely e\thr of the town Into the lake, at a considerable dts- 
lanceS. of its present outlet. 

A new road to Vallengin has been traced up this gorge, 
fottowing nearly the line of the conduit irhfrh supplies 
Neuehdtet with water. It will require to be cut through the 
limestone rock for nearly 2 miles, but will avoid altogether 
the- painful ascenC and diesceni which the existing road 

The principal' produce «f the canton is wine; the best 
«orts resemble Burgundy, but are nrach inTerior. The chief 
manufacture is watches and clocks, of which 130,000 are, It 
Is said, exported annually : the central seat of it may be 
vaid to be the valley of Chaux de Fonds and Lode (Route 
48) j but much is done iti the town of NeuchAtel. Thewatch>> 
es of this canton are of an inferior kind to those of Gc^ 

The Steamer navigating the hike sets out from Neucbfttel 
«t 6 A.M., reaches Yverdun at9 ; sets out'to return at 10 ; readbes 
Neuchfttel at 12 or 1. Three times a-week it leaves for Morat al > 
S, returns thence at i, and arrives at NeuefaAtel at 7 p.m. 
&y means of this conveyance a traveller, leaving NeucliAtel in 
the morning may reach Lausanne at 11/2; in time for the 
^Geneva steamer, so as to arrive at diat place by • t/2 P, h. 

Coaches run frbm Morat to Berne and Freyburg, in corres- 
pondence with the steam-^boat. 

The new road to Bienne, along the W. shore of the lake, 
shortens tbe journey to that place, to Soleure, and to Blislc. 
by 3 hours, and is far prettier than the old road (Route 45); ' 

DiLigencei go daily from Neuchdtel to Fontarlier and Be- 
Sanson, to Berne and Bdle, to Geneva and Lausanne. 

ROUTE 45. 


19 1/2 stttndettft»«0 a/4 English miles. 

Bienne is described in Route 1. 

An excellent new road was fioislied in 1S37, a-long the W. 
shore of the lake of Bienne, partly by cutting a passage 
through the rock. K is about ft miles shorter than tbe olfl 
road by Siseleuv and perfectly level, while the other is very 

The Lake of Bienne (German Bieler See) is about 10 miles 
long and neariv 3 broad. It is 8 feet lower than the lake of 
NeuchAtel, anci receives its waters at the S. extremity by the 
Tbieir discharging them again at the N.E. comer, thnongh a 
contfiHHiliipn of the same river. Its banks are neither bold 


170 RouUkb.—Rous$eau*s Island. 

nor striking, and it owes its eelebrtty to Rotisseaa's residence 
on it, and to his somewhat extravagant praises, rather than 
to any pre-eminent beaaty of its scenery. The Isle ^t. 
Pierre f un which he took refuge for a months, ia 1765,.aftiY 
his proscription at Paris, and his pretended stoning at Motiers 
(Route 49), is situated about 6 miles from Bienne. Boats 
may be hired at almost all the villages on the lake to row 
to it. 

The island, a pretty object^ is a ridge of sandstone, rising 
13 feet above the lake, and prolonged southwards, under 
water, to the hill called Jotimont. It is crowned by a beanii- 
ful grove of magnificent old oaks, the shade of Which in sum- 
mer is most reHeshing. The following description is give h 
of it by Rousseau in bis Riveries :— 

"De toules les habitations, ou j'ai demeur^.(.etj'en ai eu 
de charmantes), aucune ne m*a rendu si v^ritablenient beii^ 
reux, et ne m^a laiss^ de si tendres regrets ^ue Tilo de S( .- 
Pierre au milieu du lac de Bienne. Cette petite lie qu*on ap - 
pelle a Neufchdtel Vile de la Motte^ est bien peu connue^ 
m^me en Suisse. Cependant elle est ir^s agrdable et singulie- 
rement silu^c pour le bonheur d*un homnie qui ainie a se cir^ 
conscrire; car quoigue je sois peut-dtre le seul au monde Sk 
qui sa destin^e en ait fait une loi , Je ne puis croire etre le seul 
qui ait un goiit si naturel, quoique je ne Taie trouv^ jusqu'ici 
chez nul autre. 

**Les rives du lac de Bienne sont plus sauvages et plus ro- 
mantiques que celles du lac de Geneve, parce que leg rochcrs 
et les hois y bordent Veau de plus pres; mais elles ne sont 
pas moins rf antes : il y a moins de culture de <-hamps et de 
vignes , moins de villes et de maisons ; il y a aussi plus de ver- 
dure nalurelle , plus de prairies, d'asiles ombrag^s de boi-a- 
ges, des contrasles plus frequents et des accident! plus rap- 
procbds. Comme il n'y a pas sur ces heureux bords de gran- 
des routes commodes pour les voitures, le pays est peu fr^- 
queni^ par les voyageurs "; mais il est intik-essant pour des 
contemplatifs solitaires, qui aimenta s*^nivrer des charmes de 
la nature ^et a se recueillir dans un silence que ne trouble eu- 
cun bruit que le cri des aigles, le ramage entrecoupe de quel- 
ques oiseaux . et le roulement. des torrents qui tombent^de la 
montagne. Ce beau bassin d'une forme presque ronde, reih* 
ferme dans son milieu deux petites lies, I'une habU^ et cuUi- 
Y^e, d'environ demi-lieue de tour; Tautre, plus petite, d<^- 

* Steam boats and new roads, especially thai ju»t completfHl 
along ihe W. shore of the lake, williin a musket shot of the 
inland, haye produced a great change oh this head since Rous«* 
stau wiot»*. ' ., 

Routs 45. --Rou'seaiij* Islani. 171 

serte et en friche , vi qui srra diiiriiite a ia fin par Ics trans- 
ports de la terre qii'on en dte sans cesse pour r^parer les ddgals 
<f<ia les vagues et^les orages font a la grande. C*e8t ainsi que 
la siibstaaee cUi Taible est tou jours, employee au profit du puis* 
sant: . 

*' II n'y 9i dans Tile qu'une seule^ maison , mais grande, 
agri^able et. commode, qui appartient a rhdpital de Berne, 
ainsi que rile# et 06 loge le rcceveur avec sa famille et ses 
(lomestiqaes. II y entrelientune nainbreuse basse-cour, une 
vol lire et des reservoirs pour les poissons. L'Ue dans sa pe- 
titesseest tellemeni vari^ dans scs terrains- et dans ses as- 
|ie(*ts, qn'elle ofTre toutes sortes de sites, et souiTre toutes 
M»rte6 de culture : on y (rouve des champs, des vignes, det 
bois^ des vergers, des gras pdturages oinbrag^ de bosquets et 
bordfis d'arbrisseaux de- toute espice , dont le bord des eaux 
«fitretient la fraicheur ; une haute terrasse plant^e de deux 
rangs d'arbres enlace llle dans toute sa longueur, et dans le 
milieu de cetle terrasse on a bdti un joli salon , ou les habi- 
Innts des rives rassemblent et viennent danser les 
dimanches durant les vendanges. Une de mes navigations lea 
plns.fri^iuentes ilalt d'aller de la grande a la petite lie , d*y 
di^barquer et d*y passer Tapres-dtnife ; tantdt a des promena^ 
des tris circonscrites au milieu des m«rceaux, des bourdaines, 
des. persicaires et detf arbrisseaux de. toute espke ; et tantOt 
m'^tablissant ausomraetr crun terire saUpnneux, convert de 
gazon, de serpolet, de fleiirs, m£me d*esparcetteset de trifles 
qu'oR avail vraisembiablfement semis autrefois. 

*' Quand le.lac agiti iit) me tiermettait |mis la navigation je 
passais mon apres-midi a parcourir rtlje, m'asseyant tant6t 
dans les riduits les plus riants eL les plus solitaires ponr y 
river a nu>n aise, tantdt s^ir les terrasses et les tertrcs pour 
parcQurir des yeux le superbe ct ravissan^ coup d*oeil duJac 
ct,de>«es rivages, couronni d*un c6li par des montagnes pro* 
rhaines, et de I'autre ilargi en ridie et fertiles plaines.. dans 
lesquelles.. la . vue s*itendait jusqu'aux monUgiies bleuAtres 
plus iloignies qui la bomaient. En sorlant<l.une longue et 
douce riverie, me voyant entouri de verdure, dc flcurs, d'oi- 
seaux; et laissaat errer mes yeux an loin sur les ivomanesques 
rivages qiii bordaient une vaste itendue d'une eau claire et 
cristaline, j'assimilais.a roes fictions tous.cesaimables objets; 
et me irouviint enfin rameni par. degris a moi-mime, et a 
tout ceq uim'entourait, je ne.pouvais marquer le point de 
sf^paration des fictions aux rialitis, tant tout conconrait iga- 
Icment a me rendre chire la vie recueillie et solitaire que je 
tnenai&dans ce beau sijour. Que ne peut-elle renaltre encore! 
Que ne puis^^je aller finir mes jours dans celte tie rhirie, 
tansenressortir jamais, ni jamais y revoir aurun habitant dn 
fiPAlinenI qui it^e rappeldt le souvenir des calamiiis de toute 

espto quilg le ptaiscDt a rassemUer siir moi depais tant 

He has farther recorded the mode of passing his time oa 
the island, in botanizing, in music, iii clirabiiig the trees» 
vithiftbag lied roond him to gatlier the fruit, in carrying over 
a coiooy of rabbits, to stock the neighbonring telet,ahdi» 
aUowiog himself to drift for hoars a6ro8S the lake, stretched 
«n his back in a tittle boat« The fann-house in which h& 
dwelt DOW serves as an inn, but Rousseau's room is pre- 
served nearly in the state in which be left it, except that its 
wails, doors, shutters, and windows are scribbled over with 
names of visitors of aU nations. For some time after his. 
arrival he remained almost unknown ; bol as soon as the 
pn^sence of the author of the ''^Cbntrat Social'* on the island 
became noised abroad, it was inundated with' shoals of curioas. 
visitors. To escape their importunities he u&ed to climb upi 
by a stove, through a trap-<loor into the garret, and fre- 
«|ueiitly when informed by his host that a party had come 
expressly to see htm, -refused to appear-^'* Je nesuis pas ici 
dans une menagerie/' 

Afler having, by his own account, maila up his mind to< 
end his days on his beloved island, he was at length expelled 
the canton of Berne, by a decree of the Grand Gouficil, after 
iu vafai begging them, in preference, to eoramute his sentence 
Uito perpetual imprisonment and to lock him up for Dfe in 
souM) ola caslle. 

3 Neu ve ville (Qerm. Neustadt); a little town of laoo in-^ 
habitants, on the edge of the lake at the footof the-Ghasseral^ 
and a little to the S. W. of the two> islands. 
^ On the opposite side of the lake, near its S. extremity, stands 
Erlach(GerIier),atUiefoot of theJotimont, a hill of sandstone, 
which sends put the spur prolonged into the Isle St. Pierre^, 
producing sballowa covered wilbveedsstretchingintotlielake.. 

The borders of the lake of NeuchAtei are reached at 

1 1 /i 8 1. B 1 ai s e , and an improved road skirting the edge 
of the vineyards, conducts thence to 

1 Neuc^atel (see Route 44, p. 166). 

A steam<-bdat (see p. 169) and diligence run daily between^ 
Neucbfttel and Yverdun. 

A little more than a mile from the gates of Neuchfttel the 
road crosses the glen of Serriires by a handsome stone bridge,, 
bnilt by marshal Berthier^ The bottom of it is occupied by 
a little hamlet, composed of a group of water-mills, turned 
by a remarkable stream, rising in the head of the dell and 
falling into the lake, afler a course of not more than half a 
mile. Though it remains, as it were, but a feiy minutes 
above ground, it rises in sufficient force and volume to turn a 
wheel wilhiu 900 yards of its source, and subsequently sets^ 

I-enU i&.-'St. J utiiu— Grandson. 173 

m motion several others, both above and below the bridge. 
It is ted from secret reservoirs witbin the mountain, and 10 
probably to be identified with some of those, singular stream* 
which bury themselves in various phiees among th^ eavernoua 
range of the 3 urn. 

About 3 miles farther is Colurobier, once the »eat of the 
Scotch Marshal K,eith,. the friend and general of Frederick 
the Great : he was governor of NeuchAtel. Cortaittod, by 
the water-side; produces one of the best wines in the oantoii. 

3 3/4 St. AublnH/n»*Couronne;)— a village half-way 
to Yverdun. r^ear it are the^stles of Gorsier and Yaumar- 
cus. All excursion may be made A'om Ibis over the bills to 
the Greui de Yent (RoM i»). 

It was with the view of xelieviiig the unimportant foH of 
Taumarcus, in whichsome of his councillors and Mends were 
besieged by the Sw^s, ' that Charles the Bold of Burgundy 
abandoned bis strongly fortified camp behind Grandson, and 
marched his forces down to the narrow strip between the lake 
and the mountains, where there was not space to deploy a 
third part of them, and where his cavalry and artillery w«re 
useless. The advanced guard of the Swvs, who came fro» 
Neuchlitel, was posted pear Concise (a village in Canton Yaud), 
and their batteries on the heighta did great execuiion upon 
the Burgundians. Here, falling on their knees in prayer, as 
was the custom of tbe,9wiss at the openihg of a haitia, they 
received on their lances, the charge of the Burguodian horse, 
who mistook their attitude for one of submission. From the 
bills above, later in the day, echoed the war-horns ofUrian^ 
Unterwalden, announcing the arrival of reinforcements from 
those cantons, and spreading dismay in the hearts of Chaito 
and bis forces. The scene of the battle lies between GoBr 
clse~(/nn ; L'Ecu de France, comfortable)^and 

a 3/i Grandson— Inn$ :Uon d'Or; Croix Bouge, no* 
good ; )— a town of 890 inhabitants, with a venerable castle, 
now converted into a snufr-manufactory, on an eminence 
above the lake. It is historically remarkable because before 
the battle of Grandson it resisted for 10 days the assaults and 
artillery of the Burgundian army. When al lengtbt the gar- 
rison, reduced by fhmtne and invited by the offer of (Tee 
pardon, by a spy or deserter who had entered the casUe by 
stealth, surrendered it, Charies, with a ferodty peculiar 
to his character, caused them to be stripped nd bung, 
by hundreds on the Iwrrounding trees> and as many 
more to be drowned in the Idte. But two days after, 
on the 3rd of Varch, 1*476, he expiated this atrodoua 
crime, and experienced the vengeance of the Swiss in the me.- 
morable defeat of his host 50,000 strong, by the army of the 
confederates, amounting to not much more than t/3of thai 


fli Bouie hS. - Neu£hditl to Laehmar dt FoiUs^ 

number; and was himself compell^ to fly for his life across- 
Ihe mountains, with but Ave followers. The spoil of his camp, 
which fell into the hands of the tictors, inchided 120 pieces 
of cannon, <MH) standards, all bis jewels and regalia, costly 
hangings, and military chest; on that day gold and' diamonds 
were dealt out to the Swiss by handfuls. 
' The Church of Grandson is very ancient; Farel preached 
the reformed doctrines from its pulpit. There is a path over 
the hills from Grandson to Motiers Travels. 

1 Yverdun (German Iflferten)— (/nns : H. dc Londres, 
good but dear ; La Maison Rouge, also good, and said to be more 
reasonable)— a town of saiS inhabitants, at the S. eitremity 
of the lakeNeuchAtel, at the spot where the Orbe (thenceforth 
called Tbiele) falls into it. It is built upon the site of the 
Roman Ebrodununif whose naftie, with a little change, it 
still inherits. 

The Caitle, built in the 12th century by Conrad of ZSh- 
ringen, becaine the school-house and residence of Pestalozzi, 
from 1805 to 1885. Although the founder of a system of 
education, and of many schools both in Europe and America, 
he was a very bad practical schoolmaster himself; and thi$ 
establishment, the head-quarters as it were of his system, 
turned out a signal failure. 

A very delightful excursion may be made from this up the 
Val Orbe to the Lac de Joux (Route 50). The- road hence to 
Geneva passes through Val Orbe . 

Diligences go to Lausanne, and a steam4)oal to Neuchlitel 
from Yverdun daily. 

About a mile S. of the tdwn, at the extremity of an avenue 
of poplars, a mineral bath is passed : the water is warm and 

12/3 Essertines. 

1 2/3 Ec hall ens, a village on the river Talent, with. 
714 inhabitants. 

2 2/3 Lausanne (in Route 56). 

ROUTE 48. 


6 8tunden«19 3/4 Eng. miles. 

Diligences daily. 

The high road to Yallengin is at present carried over the 
steep hill at the back of Neuchiliel; a new line is proposed, 
which will conduct it directly through the profound chasm of 
the SeyoD (see p. 168). 

• 1 1/4 yallengin>-(/nn : Conronne)— is theprincipal 
place in the fertile Val de Ruz. Ks CasUe (now a prison) is 

Route k^S* — La CkauxdeFonds-^Locle. 175. 

ia pari as old as the 12lh century :it8 base is washed by the 

A steep^andlon^ascentup the T^tc de Rang leads, ibrough 
udinieresting country, to 

aLaChauzdeFond s— (Inn : Lilte, comfortable)— a scat- 
tered village, of'6550 inhabitants, in a bleak, upland, and 
desolate vaUey, bare of wood, and; from its great elevation 
t>f 3070 ft. above the sea, capable of producing only a scanty 
crop of oats* After Lode, it is- tfae> chief seat of the ma- 
nufacture of clocks and watches. This is not carried on in 
large factories, but in the«eparate dwellings oMhe workmen. 
'£ach' mail usually* makes only one -particular piece efmachi- 
nery, leaving even the finishing of it to others. An expert 
workman caneasilyearnSf.a day.aodthe youngestapprenticc 
8 sous. There are two iub^erranean milU here, turned by 
the stream ot the valley previous to its sinking underground; 
the rocks have been blasted to. affocd space for the mills; but 
those at Lode are even more curious. 

Instead of following the high-road to Lode, the pedestrian 
may take a foot-path (a walk of six hours) across the hills to 
the Saut du Doubs^ or waterfeUs. of the Doobs— the river 
"Which separates Switzerland fron) France. 1 1 here traverses 
one of those singular gaps or rents in the rock, between 300(1. 
^and iOOft. deep, which are common in the Jura. Numerous 
TBills are turned by the force of the stream. Some large frag- 
menis of rock, which have fallen into the bed of the river, dam 
ii.up partly, and form what is called the Lacdes Brennets. The 
scene is wild, and has been compared to a Welsh landscape, 
but Its beauty has been exaggerated. Brennets is about 3 
miles A-om Locle. 

There is a carriage-road direct from Chaux de Fonds to 

1 3/i Locle— (fnn : TroisRois)— another scattered village, 
^copied by an industrious population of 5886 souls— the men 
chiefly watch-makers, the women lace-makers. 

The iittle stream of the Bied, which traverses the valley, 
loses itsdf, at a short distance from Locle, in a chasm in the 
rock. This outlet, however, proved insufBcient la drain the 
valley; and the district around the town was, in consequence, 
inundated at the season of the melting of the snows— and not 
much better than a morass at any time. To remedy this evil, 
8 tunnel, 950 ft long, was [uerced through the screeaof solid 
limestone-rock which en^mpasses the valley, and this now 
effectual^ carries off into the Doubs the previously stagnant 
iv^ters. At a short distance from this artificial drain or 
emissary^' an<i ahtout a mile fpom Locle, the river disappears 
in a natural opening, sinking into the heart of the mountain, 
through a vertical abyss, more than 100ft. deep. This water- 
power^ or. puvilege, as an American would call it, is not lost; 

1 76 . RouU h9 ^PonimriUr to HmchdUl^ 

iMit, ID order to render it- aYailaMe, 3 or 4 milts bave he^th 
constructed:, one below the other, in the cavernous cleft — 
each receiving, in turn, the stream which puts Hs wheets m 
motion. *' You go down fl^^hts of broken and slippery stairs,. 
rut in the rock, to these mills, placed one under another, i» 
very frightful situations undoubtedly, but rendered more so 
to the imagination of the beholder from the circumstances of 
darkness and ignorance of the means by which the works are 
scttred, by the noise, the unfathomable depth below/' etc.-^ 

There is ai other road ftromLode to NeuehAtelbyLaChaHm 
de Biilieu, Les Fonts,, the heights of La Toume» and La Gour«> 

ROUTE 49. 

foutablieb (in frahcb), to iobuchatbl, bt ■oiiBm& 


to S/4 stunden«35 Eng. miles. 

A diligence daily. 

At Pomarlier-*(/nnf ; La Poste, good->Lion d'Or)*-the lasl 
town in France: an arrangement may be.made with the post^ 
master to convey a carriage as fares Motiers, more than half 
way to NeochAtel. The road first ascends by the side of the- 
river Doubs, and through the pass of La Close, which may 
be called a mountain-gateway between France and Switeer- 
land, to St. Pierre de Joux. The defile is comnuinded by the 
fhdleau de Joux, situated on the summit of a precipice, at 
the foot of which the roads from Pontarlier and Salins, and 
those from NeuchAtel and Geneva, by Jougne, unite. This 
frontier-fort was the prison ' of flie unfortunate Toussaint 
rOuverture, when treacherou^ carried off frem St. Domingo 
by command of Napoleon. He ended his days here, some 
say by violent means; but the sudden transition from the 
climate of the tropics to that of the Jura auffieiently explains 
the cau^e of his death, without the need of violence. 

Between the villages of Verri^res de Joux and 

31/4 Verri^resde Suisse, the French frontier iscros- 
sed. The Custom house regulations on this part of the French 
frontier are more than usually rigorous. In some pioces,. 
there is a treble line of douaniers, which makes it advisable 
to have the luggage plomb^ at the first station. In some 
places the dooaniers attend or^y during certain hours ofthe 
day, and persons arriving in their absence must await their 
return. Travjellers should ascertain by previous ioqu'n'y 
what these hours are. 

The country now becomes exceedingly romantic— The 
hills clothed with forests, (he valleys carpeted with the richest 

RohU 4ft. - Moiur$ Traver^-^Crtux d$ Vent. 17T 

verdure, and fprinkled urith nett cottages in the picturesque 
stile of architecture peculiar to tbe chain of the Jura and 
^Ips. Cheese nearly as good as that of Gniykes, and sol<t 
under Ihat name, is made on the upland pastures of the Jura. 

The descent fkrom the summit of the ridge into tba Yal 
Tra?ers is .through another narrow gorge, called La ChaiMy 
hecause the passagewas at one time stopped hy a massy chain 
drawn across the road, and fisstened to stafies in the rock. 
This primitive fortification is said to be a relic of the Bur-» 
{EHndian wars, intended to arrest the-arUllery of Charles the 

. A^the Tillage of St. Snlpice the river Reuse, which waters 
the Yal Travers,.ri8es out of the rock. This *handant source 
is said to he the outlet of ihe Lac d'Etalieres, situated about 
Id miles off, among the hills. 

3 Metiers TraverS'-(/hn:Uai6on de Commane)-^is 
a vilkige inhabited hy watch and lace-makers, on the it. 
bank of the Reuse, which has obtained some notoriety as 
the place of residence of Jean Jacques Roussejaa after fai» 
banishment from Geneva. In the house occupied by him, 
his desk in shown, at which he wrote his celebrated ** Lettres* 
do la Montague;" and up-stairs, in a wooden gallery, two 
peeping-holes, through which he could observe pe<^le out of 
doors without being seoi himself. He quitted. the place 
glider the pretence of having been persecuted, and because 
f he bays threw stones at his windows. Buring his residence 
here, Voltaire vented his bile against him in a aatire>ot 
which the following verses are a sample :— 

*' Daas nil vftUon fort hwu nomin^ Traifen 

S'eleve ud moot vrai sejour des hi Vers, 

Son front sitier se perd d«D« les tiuages, 

Ses £bn44>ineDt» sont an creux des enfen. 

An pied dn mont soot des antres sanvages, 

Du Dieu du jour ignores a jamais. 

C'est de Rousseau ^e dtgne eC noir palais ; 

\A s« tapit, ce sombre ^nergara^ne 

Cet enn4'mi de la nature huroaine ; 

P^ri d'orgueil et devor^ de "fiel , ' 

II fait le moiide- et emint de voir le ci^.*^ 

The Yal Travers is highly picturesque. A few miles lower 
down it is bounded on the rt. by a remarkable mountain, 
calied Crcva; ^s t^ent^ 4800(1 above the sea. '^ Its summit 
is bellowed out into a vast and profoiknd cavity, 5eoft. 
deep, surrounded by an emphltbeatre of limestone rock from 
the top to the bottom.*' It is more than 8 miles in diameter. 
*>'At times, when, a change of weather is inpendiog, the 

1 78 Route SO. — Yverdun to Geneva. 

crater of the mountain is seen to beconte suddenly filled" 
with a L loud of ivbite vapour, working, and rising and fall- 
ing with an easy but perceptible motion, until the Whole 
bollow presents the appearance of an immense caldron of 
itoiling vapour, whicb seldom rises above the edge. If any 
<;scape, it is by the opening towards the defile; and I have 
seen it repeatedly issue in a thin white line, and float gra- 
dually down the centre of the valley till imperceptibly di- 
Mitnisbed and dissipated."— £«ifro6«. 

The echo produced by firing a gun witlfin the Creux de 
Vent, is like a scattered fire of musketry, or a succession of 
discharges from a battery; and the liollow may be called the 
:\ei7 cradle of the winds, which apiiear to be perpetually 
blowing from it. 

La Cluselte, near Brod, is a. verv picturesque defile— ihe 
road hanging over the precipice. A sleep ascent carries the 
road out of the Yal Travers; and at the top of the ridge, 
nearly under the castle of 

23/4 Roche fort, a beautiful view opens through the 
gap of the defile, over the lake of Neuchlitel, and the Alps, 
abog the horizon, 

13/4 Nbucuatel. (Route 4i). 

ROUTE. 50: 


15 9t/3 stunden. aB 51 3/i Eng. miles. ^ . 

The daily diligence perlorms the journey from Neuchdtel 
te Geneva in 16 hours. 

a Orbe— (/nn .* La Maison de Ville)— a picturesque and 
ancient town of 1927 inhabitants, built on a hill nearly in- 
sulated by the Orbe, whiih is crossed by a bold arch. It 
was the Roman slatJon Urbigenum, and a place of impor- 
tance in the middle ages, under the Burgundian Kings, who 
had a Royal Castle here. The fair but cruel Brunehilde, 
Queen of the Franks, took refuge here, with her grand- 
daughter, but was soon put to death. The 3 sons of Lothair& 
I. met here, hi 855, to divide his kingdom. In 1475 the 
Swiss took Orbe by assault; but the Castle, whose venerable 
and extensive ruins, especially the solitary towers of antique 
structure, are stills! conspicuous object in the view of the town^ 
made a lengthened resistance. The gardson yielding step by 
slep.disputed the possession of eachchamber, stair, and passage. 
The last remnant were pursued into a tower, which the Swiss 
set fire to, and the few who fell, into their hands alive were 
thrown over th.e battlements.. '^The eivcular tower of ih»> 

. Jioute 50. rr-Lac de Joux. 179 

ICBS^Ie, noil unlike the celebrated Irish towers in eonifrueftofi, 
ihoagh, of very different proportions, should be attentively 

There is a high-road into France l^om Orbe, along the I. 
l>ank qf the Or be, by Jougne and Sal ins. , 

Abou( 2 miles above the town, near Mont Charand, is a 
cavern, with stalactites, called Grotte aux F^es; not far from 
it is a cascade of the Orbe. 

An interesting excursion may be made from Orbe to the 
Xoc de JoMix, ... 

The carri^gerroad thither turns awiay from the river oi 
once, and proceeds through Romainmolier, iinder the singu- 
lar mountain called Dent de Vaulion, to Le Pont, on the Lac 
de Ibux. The vale of the Orbe is one of the most beautiful iii 
the Jura, and the pedestrian may find a foot-path along its 
banks, up to its source, in the cliff below Pont. 

Pont, a little village, named from a bridge across the chan- 
nel which connects the Lac de Joux with the small Lac des 
Brennet, is the best head-quarters, as it has a tolerable inn. 
It is prettily situated, at the S. base of the 1>tnt de Vauliov, 
one side of which is a sheer precipice of bare limestone SOOOft. 
high --the other a steep slope, or inclined plane, covered wirh 
verdant turf. It requires a steady head to look from the top 
over the verge of the precipice. 

About 3 miles N. of Pont, and the same distance above 
Yallorbe, is the. source of the Orbe, which rises at once a co- 
pious stream, supplied, it is supposed, by subterranean conduits 
from the Lac de Joux. 

The Valley in which the Lac de Joux is situated contains 
two other lakes, Le Ter and Brennet, and is entirely shut 
in by high hills; so that, although these sheets of water are 
fed by all the streams of the valley, they have no visible 
outlet above ground. There are, however, large cavities and 
orifices in the beds of these lakes called entonnoirs, through 
which the Waters escape. These fissures are sometimes ren- 
dered incapable of carrying off the waters from internal ob- 
structions, and thus inundations are caused in the valley. A 
tunnel, of no very great extent, might drain the lake entirely. 
The source of the Orbe is about 700 ft. lower than the surfai-e 
of the lake. The scenery of. the Valley de Joux is most ro- 
mantic, and will alone compensate for a visit. Along the S. E. 
^de of the lake rises the imposing mass of the MenlTendre, 
5730 ft. high : its lower slopes are well wooded. The view 
from its sumrnit, extending to Mont BIdnc on the one side, 
and to. Sol^ure on. the Other, will repay the troufile of the' 
ascent. There is a path down the opposite side of the ■moun- 
tain , leading , in S hours, to the village of Mont Richer. An 
unfortunate £oglish gentleman, named Herbert, who wa» 

18ft RouU 53.-^D</9fi to Genn«i. 

drowned Id a weH near the cbilets of the Mom f endre, in 
1837, it buried at Mont Richer. Henri Chena, Ihiitier, ia said 
lo be a good guide for tbe Mont Tendre. There is a eros9^ 
road along the If .W. shore of the Lac de Joui from Pool to 
Les Roiisses, on the great post road from Dijon la General. 
Another road , winding roond the shonlder of the Mont Ten^ 
dre, runs direct from Pont to Aubonne, on the way to Ge- 
neva, rendering it unnecessary to return to Orbe. 

The laiLe of Geneva is only about 190(1. lower than that of 
Neuebfttel. The road from Orbe traverses the high ground, 
or water-shed separating the two basins. An atieropt was 
made, in 1639, to connect the two lakes, and through them 
unite the Rhine wiih the Rhone, by means of a canal cut 
between the rivers Orbe and Yenoge. It was finished as far as 
Entre Roche, a distance of about 12 miles; but difficulties, 
either in the levelling, or occasioned by the interference of 
private interests, prevented its being carried farther. The 
plan of completing it has been revived in 1838. It lies about 
a mile and a half to the £. of the road. 

11/ftLaSarrazisan ancient town , romantically situated 
on the Yenoge. About i miles farther is Gossonea, from 
which town roads branch off to Lausanne and Merges. 

i 1/S Aubonne^(/nfi: Couronne)^an ancient town of 1667 
inhabitants, with an Eastern-looking eotile. Byron says of it 
— '*The entrance and bridge, something like that of Dor- 
ham : it commands by far the foirest vlew.of the lake of Ge« 
neva (and of Mont Blanc behind it); a frove, on the height, 
of very noble trees. Here Tavernier, the Eastern traveller, 
bought ( or built) the cbllteau, because the site resembled and 
equalled that of Erivan, a frontier city of Persia. Here be 
finished his voyages.** Aubonne is less than 3 miles distant 
from the lake. 

1 RoUCy on the high-road from Geneva to Laaaanne 
(Route 56). 

6 s/3w Gbhita (See Route 53). 

ROUTE 53. 


S5 French posts-sito Eng. miles. 

Diligences run daily. 

DuoH« /fins : H6tel du Pare in a sort of park outside the 
town;-~H. de la Cloche in the midst of the town;>-Ghapeatt 

Dijon y the ancient capital of the Dukedom of Burgundy, 
owes its origin and name to the Roman town Dibio : it is now 

Mi>ute bSi-'-Di/on to Gf^etA. 1 8t 

tihidPlel^n of the depftrlorom ofCdto d*Or, aod contains 
26,000 iDhabitanls. 

the Chtureh of St. Benigne merits notiqe, but, like iho 
t»lbef ecelesiastical edifices in the town, it has not recoverej^ 
the iojuries it sustained in the Revolii4ion. *' the Church of 
NoiTB Bame is a very fine specinien of the purest.ahd earliest 
Gothic , and very interesting for the boldness of its construe^, 
tion. It was much studied for this reason by the celebrated 
Vauban. The facade of the building eihibits a remarkable 
effect of light and shade. Qn this facade siiU stand the clock 
and striking figures brought by Philip le Bon from Cour* 
tray."— P. 

The Museum contains a collection of second-rate pictures^ 
and some very interestinfi relics of the middle ages. In it are 
also placed 4wo very curious monmnents of Jean Sans Peur 
and Philip le Hardi, Dukes of Burgundy, formerly in the Car- 
thusian Church. They were taken dowq and pulled to pieces 
at the Revolution, but have been repaired ''end restored 
with great skill. The alabaster figures of mourners by 
which they are surrounded are, perhaps, the fiae^t specimens 
of sculpture of the sort now eiisting. 

'' There are some valuable priyat« collections here, partis 
eularly one formed by the late M. Baudot, wbere^ amongst 
other objects , may be seen the BauUe of the celebrated fra- 
ternity called ' La M^re FoUe.* 

" A day may be well and agreeably, spent in this fine city.* 
—P. The diligence performs the. journey from Dijon to Cbalou 
«ur Sadne in 8-10 hours. Steam-bo9t^ 1839: tbereare 4 
steamers on the Sadne : tbe Papin is comfortable; from CbA- 
Ion to Lyon in 10 hours. See the Guide, de* . voyageurs by 

a Genlis. This village is often mistaken for the residence 
of the celebi-ated Madame de ^renlis; —she, however, lived 
at anotber Genlis, in Picardy. 

1 3/4 Auxonne— (Inn; Hdteljdu Grand Cerf)— a fortress - 
on the Sa^ne. 

2 Ddle {Inn : Hdtel de la Ville de Paris). In clear weatiier 
Mont Blanc may be seen from this neigbourhood. 

3 1/2 Mont Sous Vandrey. A delightful road leads from 
this to Neuch&tel , by Salins and ^ Val Travers ( Route 49). 

S l/4Poligny {Inn: H6tel de Geneve). The road h^ce 
overtheJura was constructed by Napoleon. : > 

1 1/2 Mon trend. 

i l/2ChampagBolehas two small inns, Hdtelde Geneve 

1 l/SMaisonoeuve. 

1 l/2St.Laurent'(/nn; LaPoste)-. 

ll,2Morcy</i»»;LaP«Ste). ' 


182 RouU 53*~ Di/on to Geneva* 

1 1 /S Lei Roil 9869. Here 19 the frontier Ctastom-hoose of 
France. Travellerg arriving from Geneva nnderco strict 
search. Trinkets, masical boxes, and Watches (moretlian one) 
are prohibited, and, ir declared, are confisr4ited ; if discovered 
concealed, they are confiscated with a fine. From recent in- 
formation (1838) , it appears that watches may now be intro- 
duced by paying a duty of 4 fr. a-piece: 

1 3/4 La Yattay. In descendmgthe mountain a sublime 
view is disclosed of the Alps, Mont Blanc, the lake of Geneva, 
and the intervening pUiin. There is another road to Geneva 
by St. Cergues (instead of Gei), *' it branches off a littie beyond 
Les Rousses , and is very preferable in every respect. This 
road has been made at a great expense by the Canton deVaud 
within the last 10 years , and it is one of the finest works of 
the kind. In going from Geneva to Paris, it is particularly to 
be recommended, as the ascent is much less severe. 

"Les Rousses to St. €ergues, 1 1/2 post; St. Cergues to 

** The traveller is recommended to mount the steep and 
picturesque streets of Nyon up to «he fine old Chdteao, once 
the seat of the Baillis de Nyon , in order to see the view from 
the Terrasse desMarroniers.** 

** St. Cergues is the spot from which the D61e, the highest 
summit of this part of the chain of the Jura, can be most easily 
ascended. Mules and Guides can be procured at the small inn 
of St. Cergues , which affords tolerable accommodation for a 
night. The ascent of the D61e from St. Cergues requires about 
three hours* marth ; but it is neither fatiguing nor dangerous. 
'Perhaps thcire is no mountain in Switzerland which better 
repays the traveller for his fatigue; and no view more won- 
derfully extensive, and admirably diversified, than that which 
il commands.*'— A. 

9 G ex. Ferney, Voltaire's residence (described in page 194), 
is passed 5 miles before reaching 
' 2 Geneva.— (/nn« : Hdtel des Bergues , a grand establish- 
ment, recently built, facing the lake—expensive^ CAar^09 
— Table d'hdte at 1 , 3f. ; at 5, 4 f., including wine ; dinner 
in private, 6f., without wine; breakfast, 2f. ; tea, 1 l/8f. For 
4 beds and a sitting-room overlooking the lake, 15f. a-day 
were charged in 1837; servant's boafd, 4f. a^day ;— Couronne, 
a very good house, recently rebuilt, and also facing the lake, 
capital cuisine , and more moderate eharges ; » room on the 
2nd floor, fronting the lake, cost only 3f. a-day ;-^L'£«u de 
Geneve; — La Balance. At S^cheron, about 1 1/3 mile from 
Geneva, on the road to Lausanne, is the Hdtel d'Angleterrev 
kept by Dejean, and nearer to the town on the same side the 
Hdtel des Etrangers, which is well spoken of.) 

Geneva, though capital of the smallesi of the l^iss Can- 

Aouie 53. -^Centva - Imprwimmis, ] 83 

'tODS, eieept Zug, is the most populous town in the Gonrode- 
ration, since it contains 29,960 inhabitants. It is urell situ- 
ated, at theW. extremity of the lake ot Geneva, at the point 
where '* the blue waters of the arrowy Rhone" issue out of it. 
The river divides the town into two parts, and the intensely 
blue coloaroC its wateis, alluded to by Byron, is ceriainly 
very remarkable, and resembles nothing so much as the 
•diseharge of indigo from a dver^s vat. The cause of it has not 
4)e^n satisfactorily explained. Sir. Humphry Davy attributed 
•it to the presence of iodine. The exb'eme purity lasts but 
for a short space, since a mile below the town it is polluted 
•by the admixture of the waters of the turbid Arve, and retains 
the same dingy hue all the way to the sea. 

Geneva, if approached from the lake, now presents a very 
imposing appearance, in consequence of improvementa recent- 
ly completed, for which it is indebted, in no slight degree, to 
the circulation of the gold of Englbb travellers among iis in- 
habitants. An entirely new quarter has started up on the rt. 
-bank of the Rhone, called Quartier dea Bergues^ and displays 
a handaome fyont of tall houses, among which is the Hdtel 
des Berguea, lined with a broad quay, towards the lake, A 
spirit of emulation has beeA eicited on the opposite bank by 
the sight of this modern rival. The unsightly bouses which 
lined the margin oT the lake have been refaeed and beautified, 
while a broad belt of land has been gained from the water to 
fotmaOuai. This i« cenneeted with the Quaides Bergues 
by two lamdsome bridges, thrown across the l8ke» and united 
with a smaM island, formerly a parl^of the fortifications, now 
occupied by ayery inferior statue ol Rdusseau. Geneva is 
fltili snrrounded with ramparts and bastions, erected in the 
middle Of the last century by the aristocratic magistral y of 
that period. It is divided into the upper and lower town ; 
and this distinction, arising from the uneven nature of the 
ground, is perpetuated in the rank and condition of the iiriia- 
bitants of the two divisions. The upper town consists almost 
entirely of the large and handsome hotels of the burgher ari-^ 
atocra^, heietofbre the senators and magistrates of the repu* 
iilic. The k)wer town is the seat of trade and of democracy : 
ili« streeu ase nartow, its houses lofty, and it has something 
of the air of the old town, of Edinburgh. A Urn of the older 
buildings are famished with a shed, or pent-house, called 
here, '* J^dma,'* ptolectlng from the roof over the street, aad 
supported by wooden props, and reaching from the pavement 
lo the roof. About %h years ago they w^re almdst universal, 
bat their number, of tote, has diminished, and the whc^row 
which lined the houses in the Rue Basse has been taken down 
by order of the gOTernment. 

ThetfeH^sAniiBe between the high and low tewn wetn 

184> RouU 53. — Geneva — Raih Museum. 

not few, DOr void of interest; indeed, they would fill. a loag^ 
and amusing historical chapter: they often led to bloodshed, 
but the democrats below generally brought their exalted 
neighbours to reason by the simple expedient of cutting off the 
water-pipes, taking especial care to guard the hydraulic ma- 
chine, which furnished the supply to the upper town, and 
which is situated in their quarter. 

Although Geneva is a great focus of attraction for travel- 
lers of all nations, 30,000 being the number which is calcu- 
lated to pass through the town annually, it possesses few ob- 
jects of interest to the passing stranger. As a town it is not 
very prepossessing; it has no fine. public buildings, and scarce- 
ly any Hghts. It is owing to its beautiful environs , to its 
vicinity to Chamouni, to the charming scenery of its lake, 
and to its position on the high road froui Paris to Italy, that 
it has become a place of so much resort. 

The Cathedral, or Church of St, Pierrey is of an extreme 
simplicity of architecture. The Corinthian portico added on 
the outside is a blemish where it is placed, but its interior 
possesses interest as a very early and uncorrupted specimen 
of the Gothic of the eleventh century. It contains the tombs 
of Aggrippa d'Aubigny, the frieifd of Henry lY., and grand- 
father of Maintenon, and thatof tbeComte de Rohan, 
a leader of the French Protestants in the reign of Louis 

Theilfuf^eAaf A, so named after its founder, Gi^neral Rath, 
who left the reversion of his fortune to it, is a neat building, 
close to the Porte Neuve; it contains a collection of pictures 
and other works of art, of no very great merit, the greater 
part by native artists. Among the Genevese painters, TOpfer, 
Guignon, Hornung, and Calame, deserve to be mentioned. 

The l^utee d'Histoire Naturelle, in the Gnmde^Rue, is 
chiefly interesting to the student as containing the geological 
collections of Saussure; the fossil plants of.M.M. Brogniart 
and Decandolle, and the collections of M. Necker. It is prin- 
cipally filled with the native productions of Switzerland, and 
contams specimens of the chamois, of the Bouquetin, the dog 
of St. Bernard, of all the fishes of the rivensand hikes of. this 
country; among them the ferra^ the lotte, and a trout, weigh- 
ing 431bs. from the lake of Geneva. 

There is the skin of an elephant, which lived a long time 
in a menagerie in the town, but at length becoming tmruljr 
was shot. 

There is also a cabinet 6t antiquities; some of them found 
in the neighbourhood, such as a silver buckler, discovered 
in the bed of the Arve, inscribed *' Largltus Valentiniani 
Augusti;*' some instruments of sacrifice found near the rocks 
of Neptune in the lake, etc., etc. Also the laatern carried by 

Route 53. — Genera — Library, 1 8S 

the sftntrnel i^ho, in going bis rounds, discovered the Sa^ 
voyards seaKng the walls In 1602 (see p. 188). 

The Reading-room in the upper slory of ihe museum, is 
irefl supplied wilh the best European journals, including the 
Times, John Bull, Athenaeum, etc. Strangers receiving a 
<* carte d*entr^e" from a member are liberally admitted for 
a month. 

• The best and most fashionable club in Geneva is that called 
Ifce- Cercle de la Rive. 

The Public Library attached to the College^ a scholastic- 
looking building*, of no architectural pretensions, behind the 
('atbedral, founded by Calvin, contains iO,00e volumes, and 
the following curiosities:— 3 folio volumes of autograph letters 
of Calvin (there is one addressed to Lady Jane Grey while a 
prisoner in Ihe TOwer); manv of Calvin's manuscript sermons- 
^veral volumes of letters of Theodore Beza; the manuscript 
df the *' NoWe Lecon," a work of the ancient Waldenses. 
The accoont-book of the household of Philip le Bel, written 
with a style upon waxed tablets, but now almost effaced ; a 
translation of Quihtus Curtius, taken along with the baggage 
ef Charles the Bold, at Morat. The discourses of St. Augus- 
tine, a MS. on papyrus of the 7th century. The library is 
epened only 3 times a-week— Monday, Tuesday, and Wed- 
nesday, from 1 to 4. 

Geneva, if looked at in an historical point of view, may be 
said to possess an interest for the intelligent traveller far 
greater than that to be derived from the mdividual objects 
of curiosity contained within ita walls. The influence Which 
she has exercised, not only over Europe but over the world, 
by means of her children, or those whom she has adopted as 
her citizens, is quite out of proportion to the limited extent 
of a territory which one may traverse from end to end in a 
morning's ride. Voltaire ridiculed its diminutiveness by 
saving, "Quand je secoue ma perruque, je poudre toute la 
r^publique i"^' and the Emperor Paul called the disputes of its 
citizens a tempest in a tumbler of water; yet from Geneva 
emanated those religious doctrines whence Scotland* Hol- 
land, and a large part of France, Germany, and Switzerland 
derive their form of faith, and which was transported by the 
pilgrim fathers to the opposite shores of the Atlantic. Her& 
also were sown those political opinions which bore fruit in 
the English revolution under Charles I., in the American 
and the French revolutions. 

Some few memorials still exist in the town serving to re- 
ejjill the events which have occurred in it, and the great names 
connected with it. 

On the island, in the middle of the Rhone, not far from 
tl^e Hydraulic machine, traces may, it is said, be diseovere<| 

186 Route ^» — Geneva — Cakin. 

or a Roman structure, supposed to be the foDndalions of one' 
of the towers erected by Julius Cssar, lo preveDi the Helve- 
tians crossing the river. The earliest mention of Geoeva 
occurs in his Commentaries, where U is described m **Ait 
last fortress of the A.IIobroges, and neareit to iiie Hdfelian 
frontier." ''Near the 'Bourg ilu Fom' is a verf anciealaKii^ 
possibly Roman, but which some anliqiiartes bavv eonsi^ 
dered a portion of the Palace of OoilMa, Quren of CloVtt ; 
olhers attribute it to Bertha, aoeen of Burgundy. It is, at 
all events, of very early date, rfear it is the town residence 
uf the celebrated M. Sismondi.'*— P. 

The building of the Old Prison, still called the £vdch^» 
near St. Peter's church, was originally the palace of the bis-^ 
ho(>s, who governed the city as temporal rulers, elected by 
the citizens, for many ages; but at length became almost 
nominees of the Duke of Savoy. The citizens, from the 
vefy first, enjoyed a liberty above other great towns of the 
empire, and showed a bold and steady resistance to the en-> 
croachments of their rulers, maintaining, against force and 
persuasion, the municipal prerogatives derived from theil* 
ancestors and from the (golden Bull of the Emperor Charles 
IV. Thus, by a cautious and well-conducted policy, they 
avoided being swallowed up by their powerful neighbours. 
Savoy and France, or by their friends the Swiss Cantons, 
who, though called in as allies to protect them, were equally 
ambitious of incorporating OeiieVa in their own territory as 
a f^ubject state. 

John Calvin, the reformer, is supposed to have lived in 
the house now occupied by the Evangelical Society, No. 116, 
in the rue des Chanoines, and he probably died there. It 
was in the year 1536 that he passed through the town a fu- 
gitive, on his way from Italy to Basle. Two years had not 
elapsed since the Genevesehad abolished Roman Catholicism, 
expelled iheir bishop, an^ adopted the Reformation. Farel,. 
who was the means of introducing it , was then preaching at 
Geneva, and, aware of Calvin*s talents and powerful elon 
quencc, entreated him to remain. Calvin obeyed the call, 
and, in a short space, the itinerant preacher and foreigner 
was raised to be the dictator of the republic, ruling its tur- 
bulent democracy with a sway not more mild than that of 
the dukes of Savoy and bishops of Geneva, uiider which the 
< itizens had groaned for ages, and from which ihe reforma- 
tion had at length released them. From the pulpit of St. 
Peter's church, which became at once the tribune and judg- 
ment-seat of the reformer, he donounced the prevailing inw 
morality of the town with such eloquence and force that pro- 
iligacy was obliged to hide its head. His hearers, running 
into an opposite extreme, adopted a rigorous and puritanical 

Route 5Z.—Genera^Cahin~The Ei^calade. 187 

avsteriiy of manoers. and every transgression of Calvin's 
code of morals was visited with punishmeot of the utmost 

Bat Calvin's influence wast not confined to the pulpit ; he 
was elected president of the Consistory, of which one-third 
of the permanent members were ministers, and the remain- 
der laymen holding office for a year only. This counsel as- 
sumed an authority far more despotic than that of the bi- 
shops : it exercised the power of an inquisition, to examine 
Into men's private lives, and into the affairs of families of 
whatever rank. 

The sumptuary laws enacted by Calvin were severe, but 
were i^igidly enforced by the Consistory. They contained 
such enactments as the following : a dinner for ten persons 
was limited to five dishes ; plush breeches were laid under 
interdict; violations of the sabbath were followed by a public 
adfiionition from the pulpit;, adultery was punished with 
death; and the gamester was exposed in the pillory, with a 
IMick of cards tied round his neck. 

Calvin was equally rigorous in the maintenance of ortho- 
doxy. Servetus, condemned by him for holding anli-trinita- 
rian doctrines which, however, he did not attempt to disse- 
minate in Geneva, was burnt at the stake in (he Champ de 
Bourreau, the ancie/it place of execution outside the walls. 
The hole in which it was planted 1$ now filled up, and the 
destination of the spot is rhanged. This act of the stern 
lawgiver admits of no palliation^ as his victim was not a sub- 
ject of Geneva, and therefore not amenable to its laws. The 
execution of Servetus casts a s(ain upon Geneva and the cause 
of the Beformation as^ great as that with which the murder 
of Huss taints the Papist Council of Constance. 

Geneva, thus become the metropolis of Calvinism^ and 
"the Rome of Protestantism.'* was resorted to by many fo^ 
reigners, who sought refuge here f^om religious persecutions 
in their own country. Among a number of English and 
Scotch exiled by the atrocities of the reign of Bloody Mary, 
was John Knox. He was made a citizen of Geneva in 1558, 
and did not Anally quit it till'! 560. Calvin died in 156i, at 
the age of 55, after 23 years of uninterrupted power : he was 
buried in the old cemefery of the Plain Palais, now aban- 
doned; but he forbade the Genevese to mark the spot where 
bis remains were laid with a monument, and the very site of 
bis grave is not known with certainty . A Genevese law now 
limits the period of property in a grave tol5yeac$, after which 
it may be opened for a fresh occupant. 

The Duke of Savoy, whose authority within the town had 
been destroyed by the expulsion of the bishop, was unwill- 
ing^ notwithstanding, to abandon his claim to the- possession 

188 Route 53. - Geneva-— The EscalacU. 

or it. For many years after that event he was cisaged in re- 
peated open contests with the citizens; nor did he omit t» 
maintain within the walls spies, and secret partisans, in the 
hopes of gaining possession of it by surprise. The street call- 
eil CorrateriBf at the time or the town ditch, was the scene 
of the most memorable of thesu attempts, known in Swiss 
history as the Escalade. In 1602 the inhabitants, lulled to 
security by a display of pacific intentions on the part of the 
reigning Duke Charles Emanuel, had neglected all precau- 
tions to guard against an attack, even though warnings had 
been given them of approaching danger. On the night or 
Dec. 30th, the town was aroused from sleep by the firing of 
musketry, and an alarm that the enemy was already in pos-- 
session. It appeared that a sentinel, in going his rounds 
with a lantern, bad fallen among a party of armed men, who 
had quickly despatched him, but not before his cries and the 
report of bis matchlock had alarmed the rest of the guard. 
It was quickly discovered that a party of Savoyards, SOD 
strong, detached from a still larger force of 3000 men, who 
had approached the city in the darkness, and were posted on 
the Plain Palais, a little distance beyond the walls, had de- 
scended into the fbsse of Gorralerie, and by the aid of scal- 
ing-ladders, painted black in order that they might not be 
seen, had surmounted the ramparts, , were proceeding in 
small parties to burst open the Porte Neuve» and thus admit 
their associates on the outside. The Savoyards had already 
despatched a messenger announcing to their commander the 
capture of the town; but the citizens, though completely 
taken by surprise, were by no means seized with the panic 
which such an occu rrence was likely to pruduce. Every man^ 
i^rmed as he might be, issued out into the streets ; the small 
body of Savoyards who bad gained the ramparts were quickly 
overpowered; the first gun fired from the walls, i)y a chance 
shot, swept away three of the scaling-ladders; and the enemy 
on the outside, on approaching the Porte Neuve, found that, 
.instead of being blown up, it was strongly guarded, with the 
portcullis down. Many anecdotes are told of the prowess of 
the town's-people on that night, and an iron saucepan, with 
which an old woman knocked down a soldier, is still preser- 
ved in the arsenal along with a piece of the scaling^adders. 
The storming party thus uniopectedly attacked, and at the 
Fame time cut olT from their fk-iends, ware quickly killed or 
made prisoners. Those who fell alive into the hands of the 
Genevese were hung neit day as house-breakers : 67 beads 
were planted along the ramparts ; but many more than these 
felt in the ditch and outside the town. In the cemetery of 
St. Gervais, on the right bank of the Rhone, a monument 
epitaph was set up to commemorate the names of 17 Gene^ 

Moule 53.. — Geneva'^ Rousseau, ^ f89f 

vese ivho yrerjd killed on the occasion; and the venerable 
Theodore Beza, at that time 80 years old, gave out from the 
palpit next day the ISilh Psalm, which has been sung ever 
3ince on the anniversary of the Escalade. 

Jean Jacques Rousseau, son of a watchmaker of Geneva, 
first saw the light in a street of the Qudrtier St. Gervais, 
«nce named after him (Rue de Rousseau), and in thie house 
No. 69. |t is no longer in its original condition, having 
been altered and partly rebuilt, flis book, the £mt7e, was 
burnt, in confi)rmity with an order of ihe Council of Geneva, 
by the common hangman, in ftont of th6 Hi^tel de Yille in 
1763. The instigators of this act were Voltaire and the 
Council of the Sorbonne, who, by a singular coincidence, in 
this InstAnee, acted in unison. The Council at the same time 
issued a warrant for the arrest ofthe author. 

The Botanic Garden behind the theatre and near the 
Porte Neuve deserves mention, a9 having beenl^id out under 
ihe direction of the eminent botaniu Decandolle; but the 
funds are so limited that the collection of plants is of no great 
importance. • The ground it occtipies has also painful histo- 
rical associations. Geneva, forages the nursery of riepubli- 
canism and democratic opinions, became ** a principle of 
explosion to revolutionary France, placed at its extremity, as 
the/'iMa is on the surface ofthe bomb,*' butshe likewise reaped 
the fruits of the seed sown by her in the establishment of a 
tribunal of blood- and the enactment of a reign of terror in 
1794; a humble imitation of that of Paris. On this spot took 
place fusillades and butcheries, too horrible to be detailed, in 
which the blood of the most respectable Citizens of the town 
was shed, condemned to execution by a band of wretches, 
most of whom were their fellow-citizens, though directed by 
a deputy from the Comity de Salut Public, at Paris. Here, 
as in other ptaces, subjected to the madness ofthe reign of 
terror, the atfoeities were committed by a mere handful of 
assassins, while thourands looked on, disapproving, but yet 
notraising a voice to condemn, nor an arm to resist. Another 
result of the connexion of Switzerland wit|i France was the 
forfeiture of its independence. After resisting, for ages, the 
«ncroachments and attacks of the Dukes of Savoy, and the 
intrigues of despotic France, ^rcn when under the rule of the 
all-powerftd Louis XlV.j the repubiic was destined to fall by 
the treachery of fellow-republicans, with whom she had so 
jrecently fraternized. Geneva was taken by surprise April 
15, 1798, and arbitrarily annexed' to France, forming a part 
(Of the department ofthe Leman. ' 
' Btisidea the names of Calvin and Rousseau^ which are 
/connected with Geneva— the one by adoption; the oilier by 
l>irth^it. iB the birth-place of many illustrioas men» whose 


190 Routed , — Geneva — Waiclm and Jewellery, 

reputation may be styled European. Tht list includes ihose^ 
of Abauzit and Casaubon; of Lefort, theTriend and councillor 
of Peter the Great; of Neeker, ihe weak and ill-starred 
minister of Louis XVI., and father of Bladame deStael; or 
the naturalists Saussure, who first ascended Mont Blanc, 
Bonnet, and De Luc; and Huber, the biographer of the bee 
and ant; and of Dument, the friend and 'adviser of Mirabeau 
and Jeremy JEi^ntbam. Among the living there are Sismondi, 
thehistorian»Decandolla, the botanist; Neckar, the geologist; De 
la Rive, the chemist ; and If armoir, the oculist. 

Geneva may be regarded as the intellectual metropolis of 
Switzerland, and strangers who choose it as their residence, 
if provided with good introductions, will find among the 
upper classes a very agreeable society, including many indi- 
viduals distinguished for their literary and scientific acquire- 

The staple manufacture of Creneva , from which it de^ 
rives its chief commercial prosperity, is that of watches, 
muiical boxes, and jewellery. The first watch was brought 
to Geneva in 1587, and at the end of the lait century iOOO 
persons were employed within the town, an4 2000 withoat 
the walls, on this^manufacture. At present the number is 
diminished to less than 3090, though, from improvements in th« 
mechanical processes and increased skill of the^n^oikmen, the 
number of watches made is much greater than before, more 
than 90,000 being now manufactured annually. Upwards of 
50 watchmakers'and 70 jew^il^rs' workshops are kept in eon- 
. stant employment in the town, and it has been calculated 
that in good years 75,000 ounces of gold,*&000 marks of 
silver, and precious stones to the value of a million of hranes,. 
are used In them. A committee of master workmen willi a 
syndic at their head, called commisMiori de. ttirtwiUonce, are 
appointed by the Government to inspect every workshop and 
the articles made in it, to guard against fhind in the suhstH> 
tution of metals not of legal alloy, end thus to prevent any 
deterioration in a branch of industry productive of so great 
an advantage to Geneva. Lecoultre et Frahgois are recom-* 
mended as respectable watchmakers; their shop is hn the 
Rue de la Gorratterie. Gapt Aubort, Place da Rhone, op^ 
posUe the bridge, seems to have a good assortment of yewel- 
lery. As a working Jewdler Schatz-Ylgufer, at the corner oT 
the Git4, is very aood and more moderate in his priees. 

The French Custom-house is very severe in (XrohibitiDg 
the entrance of Generese maaafectures into Frtrnce : musi- 
cal snuff-boxes, and more than one watch are contraband^ 
apd liable to seimre. (It is possible (hat these restiictioos 
may have been recently modified.) The jewellers Of Geneva, 
however, wUI guarantee the safe delivery nf any artldei 

191 Rauie 59L*— 6l«iieva-«<»£«(;trvm4. 

I^urchaied from them eilher in Paris or London, upon pay** 
•VMntoC a small per rentage on Iheir value by way of insurance. 
SraiiggUog. is. carried on to an enormous extent between the 
J^wlss and French frontiers. 

. Theatrical performances, for centaries interdicted in Ge^ 
-seva by one of the austere laws of Calvin, are now tolerated, 
fiind B SaU&d& SpettadB has been built close to the Porte 
.Neuve. Voltaire greatly shocked the prejudices of thecititens 
by acting plays, as il were under their very nose at les D^li- 
.ees and Ferney. Rousseau writes to him, ** Je ncTOus aime 
pas, vous avex oorrompu ma r6publique en 4ui donnant des 

Passports are demanded at the gates with as much strict^ 
-nesa and formality as in the dominions of a despotic monarch. 
Hefore going to Chamouni (Route 115) (an excursion which 
no traveller should omit, as it includes the sublimest Alpine 
scenery in Europe), the signature of the Sardinian conM 
is necessary, and for It i francs are charged. His house is 
in Rue yerdine,.not far from the Porte de Rive. 
. The gat$s of Geneva are shut at to in the evening, bnd a 
4fnall toll is exacted up to midnight, after which it is doubled. 
in former times they finally closed before midnight, and it 
•will be remembered that ii was the accident of being shut out 
fone eyemnf , on his return from a walk in the country, that 
induced Rousseau to fly from his native town and a tyran-^ 
inical matter, whom ho, as a traiuii apprentice , feared to face. 
• On the g^nd Quai, close to the port where the steamers 
tend, a Hnmimetre (lake measure) has been erected to mark 
.ihe rise and fall of the waters of the lake. 
' Near the BoucheritSj on ihe some quai, the town main- 
4aiiis, at the public expense, a brace of eagles. These birds 
;4ire the armorial bearings of Geneva, as the bear is of Berne. 
The English ehuroh servioe is performed in the church oX 
,tfae. hospital every Sunday at half-past 11. 

The Post^ffiee is in ^e Rue du Rhone : a letter reaches 
^Englaod in § days. 

•. . i^ilifftnces go daUy to Paris in 73 hours, to Lyons in Si 
Iiours, to Berne in iS hours , to Zurich and Basle in 44; to 
i*aii9anne,yevey, and St. Maurice; to NeuchAtel in 16 hours; 
io Sallenche,.op the way to Chamouni, daily; to Chambery 
«nd Turin, by way of Annecy, 3 or 4 times a-rweek ; 3 times 
jB^week ov^r theSimplon to Milan, in 67 hours. 
. De Jean, a celebrated master voiturier (g 7), has an office 
in ihe Place du Rhdne. 

. ' ' Placed as Geneva is on the furthest range of those stales, 
in which freedom of trade is allowed, it may be useful to 
iidd, that the £ngUsh traveller, especially' if he be proceed^ 
ing to the French or Austrian dominions, will do well to 

192 R0ttt$ 53>—*Gefut>a — Etaironi* 

provide himself here with those lUUe English comrorts which 
he will not find beyond the neit costom-house. At the shop 
of Archinard and Bordier, in the Rue Basse, ail Itinds of 
English cutlery and household goods may be had genuine. 
The Demoiselles Lacour, in the Grande Rue, are celebrated 
for gloves and ladies* shoes; and the tourist will not disdain 
to be told that Wistag, at the Chateau Royal, near the Porte 
de Gornavin, has the best supply of cigars, tobacco, andsnolT, 
which is to be met with on the continent. Wesel, in the 
Grande Rue, has a complete assortment of English stationery. 
At the shop of Derogis, rue du Rhdne, will be found the host 
collection of itinerary hand-books for Travellers.— Briquet et 
Dubois have a great variety of maps, and < views. Manega's 
Gallery is recommendable. — See the Guide du voyageur a 
Geneve, 18mo." R. 

Sieamrboatt traverse the lake daily, and two of them make 
the voyage to Villeneuve and back in 8 1/S hours ( see p. 199.) 

Environs of Geneva. 

It has been already observed, that Geneva is chiefly distin* 
guished for its beautiful situation, on the margin of an en- 
chanting lake, whose gently-sloping banks are scattered over 
with villas, surrounded by gardens, and looking more like 
English country-houses than any to be found in other parts 
of the Continent. 

The rides, walks, and views in the vicinity are delightful, and 
almost endless ; but the great charm of every prospect is the 
JUont Btano, and the range of Alps of Savoy, when they deign 
to show themselves, which they do not, in perfecidistinctnesa, 
mote than 60 times a-year, on an average. There cannot be 
a more lovely sight than thatof AfontBlanc,andthesurroun<i^ 
JBg Aiguilles, tinged with the pink hue which the departing 
sun sheds upon them, in certain states of the atmosphere. 

The Remparts, no longer of much use as fortifications, 
serve as promenades. Three suspension, toidges of iron wire 
have been thrown over them, to facilitate ingress and egress 
between the town and surrounding country. The Btietion de 
Chante-poulet is a good point of view to> see the lake and 
Mont Blanc. In the Cemetery of Plain Palais, a little way 
beyond the Porte Neuve, Sir Humphry Davy, who died here 
in 1829, is buried. 

In the bed of the lake lie many granitic boulders, transported 
from the high Alps. Two of these, a short distance beyond 
the port of Geneva, and a little to the 8. E. of the town, arc 
so large as to project above the water. They are called 
Pierres de Niton, from a tradition that sacrifices were of- 
fered upon them to the god Neptune by the Romans. Indeed 
instruments of sacritice have been found near them. . 

Route 53. — Geneva — Junction of ike ArtB, 19$ 

The juncticn of ihe Arve with the Bhone is vorth 
visitiog, and is best seen from the grounds of a country- 
tioiise, called Chatellainie, or Campagne Matthieu, on tbe rt. 
bank of the road, about 1 1/2 mile beyond the Porte <}e Cor- 
navin. On the way to it, Les D^ices, a country-house of 
Voltaire, is passed. 

The Arve^ a furious torrent, fed by the snows and glaciers 
of Mont Blanc, looks like a river of mud. The pellucid blue 
waters of the Rhone, though driven on one side by the furious 
entrance of its new ally, for a longtime refuse to mix with it, 
and the line of separation between the blue and white water 
is most distinctly marked. At length the Arve gains the mas- 
tery, and the Rhone, onc^e polluted, does not recover its 
parity before reaching the sea. 

On the S.E. side of Geneva rises the Mont Saleve, a long 
line of limestone precipices, seeming to impend over the 
town, though it is in reality 5 miles off, and within the Sar- 
dinian territory. Those who are acquainted with Edinburgh 
may be reminded of Salisbury Crags in looking at it. The S. 
side of this mountain is a sentle slope, covered with verdant 
pasture/ and sprinkled with houses. The whole of this vast 
inclined plane facing the Alps is strewn over with fragments 
ofrock(protog)ne), identical with that of which Mont Blanc is 
composed. By what agency they have been transported hither 
— a distance of 50 miles, as the crow flies<-let the geologist 
explain. The largest of these masses is 7 ft. long. 

The summit of the Saleve, more than 3100 ft. above the 
lake, is frequently scaled by the inhabitants of Geneva, who 
make piqnic parties to enjoy the view from its summit. The 
shortest road to it is by Carougeand Veyrier, 3 miles; whence 
a very steep path, practicable only on foot, leads up a gap in 
the mountain, partly formed by steps cut in the rock, and 
called Pas deVEchelle, to the village of Monctier (pronoun- 
ced Monte) 2 1/2 miles. Those who cannot walk may reach 
Monetier by a carriage-road, which makes a detour of ft miles 
from Geneva, through the beautiful village ofMornex, at the 
hack of the mountain. Tbe pleasantest way is to be driven 
lo Monetier, thence to ascend the Petit, or the Grand Sa16ve, 
on foot, and to descend the Pas de TEchelle on foot to Yey- 
rier, whither the carriage may be sent round to wait for the 
party. " — R. 

From Monetier to the top is about two miles. The view 
extends S. up the valley of the Arve over the Mole to Mont 
Blanc; E. over a vast expanse of the lake; N. to the town of 
Geneva, the Rhone, and the Jura behind ; W. the eye follows 
the valley of tbe Rhone as far as the gap in the Jura Moun- 
tain, through which the river forces its way into France. 

On the S. shore of the lake, about 2 miles from Geneva, 

i9k Routs S3. '^Geneva — Femey. 

and « little to the I. of Che high-^road to Thoaon, » ibe C^m- 
pagne Diodati, Lord Byron's residence in 1816; where be 
wrote the greater part of his '^Manfred/' and Che 3rd cantoa 
of "Childe Harold." 

The object of the greatest attraction to travellers^ howeter, 
near Geneva, is, commonly, Femey, the residence of Vol- 
iaire. It is situated withiui the French territory, about S 
miles N. of Geneva, on the road to Paris by Gez. On the 
way thither, near Grand Saconnei, an eminence presents ane 
of the best points of view of Mont Blanc. 

Voltaire resided for nearly 20 years at Ferney, from 1759 
to 1777. He may be said to be the founder of the village, 
which, before his time, consisted of but 6 or 8 hovels. He 
collected industrious colonists, introduced useful manufactures 
among them, and improved his estate of about 9B0 acres by 
draining, etc., besides building on it the Ci^reou which still 
eiists. On the 1. hand, as you enter the gates, stands the 
Churchy originally inscribed with the words "Deo ereiit 
Voltaire r* the 27^afre stood opposite, in which his own tra- 
gedies werejacted by amateurs, but it no longer eiists. The 
Chiiteau was never handsome, and is now somewhat dilapi- 
dated. Two rooms are still preserved, nearly in the state in 
which Voltaire left them. The furniture is faded by time, 
and decayed principally from the depredations of miscbieyous, 
relic-hunting visitors. The curtains of his bed arc reduced 
to one>lhird of their original length by such thefts, and, if the 
practice be not arrested, will soon disappear altogether. On 
the walls of his bedroom hang some bad prints, but selected 
and placed there by himself; and worse paintings of his 
friends, Frederick the Great (a present from hinaself), I^ 
Kain the actor, Catherine II. of Russia (executed in needle- 
work by her own hand), and Madame du Chitelet. The 
Rnssian Empress, it will be remembered, sent an embassy 
from St. Petersburg to Ferney to compliment the Nestor of 
poets. On one side of the room is a monument, intended to 
hold his heart, inscribed, *'Mes mdnes sont consoliTs pnisque 
mon cwur est au milieu de vuus :" it was set up by his adop- 
ted daughter, the Marquise de Vilette, and bears.a strong re- 
semblance to a German stove. By the side of it hang por- 
traits of his seamstress, of the Savoyard boy, his servant, aad 
of Pope Ganganelli. In the ante-room is a singular pictare* 
painted by some artist of sign-pibst calibre, but designed by 
Vottaire himself. On the 1. hand he appears in the set ot 
being introduced to Apollo by Henry IV., who hoMs in ms 
hand a copy of the "Henriade." On the opposite side, wt 
same Voljtaire is seen conducted in triiunph by the Mns^^ 
the temple of Memory, while his enemies and detractors, 
prostrated before him, writhe in torments beneath his feet- 

Routs 53. -^Genita^Perte dn Bhdne. 19& 

The situation of Ferncy is most cbarmin^, in fuU view or 
the lake and of Mont Blanc ; but of its beauty Voltaire seems 
to have had no idea, or at least no taste for it, as the windows 
of the house are turned directly away from the landscape. 
In the garden is a long berceau Walk closely arched oTer with 
clipped horn beam^-a verdant cloister, with gws cut in It, 
Jiore and there, to admit a glipapse of the prospect. Here he 
used to walk tip and down, and dictate to his secretary. 
Ameiig the tre^s of the grove roond the house is an elm, 
planted by his Own hand in 1768 1 it was struck bv lightning 
in 18&4, The old gardener of Vokaire, who was living withiti 
a few years, related some curious particulars of his master. 
He was always addressed by the people of the village as 
"Monseignew :" he drove out erefy day in a gilt coach;, 
drawn by i. horses, and he was a terror to all the little boys 
he met in his walks. Ferney, at preseat,. belongs to the 
family of M. Bude de Botssy. 

Perte du Rhone. 

For travellers who are unacquainted with the route from 
Lyons to Geneva, the excursion to the Perte du Rhdne at 
Bellegarde on the French frontier, may be recommended. 
The distance is about 16 miles, and by starting early it may 
easily be accomplished in a day. The road lies jlhrough St. 
Geoiz, where it turns off to the W., and skirts the base of the 
Jura to Collonges. A little beyond this village you enter 

<* wherie the swift Khone cleaves his way between 

Heighu which tfp)»ear MloTert Who have parted." 

The lofty Vuaehe on thie side of Savoy, and the huge mats 
of the highest part of the Jura chain, slope precipitously down 
to the torrent of the Rhone. The road bangs midway in this 
prodigious passage, and the celebrated Fort de TEdute, the 
fortress which gives its name to the pass, commands this en- 
trance of France. Infinite labour and expense have been 
used by the French Gt>vemment to strengthen this position ; 
additional batteries have been hewn in the rock above the 
lower fortress, and thesa communicate with the guard^nnooms 
below by a broad staircase, more than 106 feet in height, 
hewn inside the >solid mouniain. Leave may sometimes he 
obtained from the fovernor to view the fortress; but at any 
rate the road passes through it, and enables the traveller to 
see sometluBg of its remarkable defences, from CoHonaes 
to Bellegarde {Hotel de <a Poffe) the road sweeps along the 
wild gorge through which the Rhone pours* At Bellegarde 
it crosses the narrow ftAd ti^eky bed of the Valselifle, The 
trav^er will walk from the inn to the Perte du Rhdne (1/4 

196 ' Route 55 — Lake of Geneva, 

of a mile); be "will find plenty of squalid guides to show^ falm 
the spot where the 'river, which he has accompanied from 
the clear cistern of its waters through the rough moan tain 
pass, plunges at once into the earth. When (he waters {are 
tolerably low, as in the spring or winter, ibe whole river is 
absorbed for a distance of 130 yards. No bottom has ever 
been found to the huge cavern which engorges the Rhone ; 
nor has any substance or living thing thrown into it been 
known to come out again. The bed of the Valseline is more 
picturesque and scarcely less curious than the Perte. It is 
worth while to descend from the garden of the inn into the 
worn channel of this little river, winch is almost dry in sum- 
iner time, except where a runlet of its water burrows into 
the clefts and fantastid bends of Che calcareous rock. 

Another pleasant excursion may be made to D*Ivoune 
where the river Yersoix takes its rise in a pretty grotto at 
the foot of the Jura; and people go to eat the small delicate 
trout which are taken in it. The view from the terrace of 
the ChAteau D'lvoune is very fine. The best road to go is 
by Coppet and Geligny (where the water-falls should also be 
visited), and to return by Ferney. The distance from Ge^ 
neva to D'lvoune is about 8 miles. 

ROUTE 55. 


Lake Leman^ in a Calm, 

"Clear; placid Leman I thy contrasted lake, 
AiVith the wild worUI I dwell in, is a thing 
Which warns me, with its stillness, to forsake 
Earth's troubled waters for a purer spring. 
This quiet sail is as a noiseless wing 
To waft me from destruction ; once I loved 
Torn ocean's roar, hut thy soft murmuring^ 
Sounds sweet as if a Sister's voice reproved, 
That 1 with stern delights should e'er have been so moved. 

It is the hush of night, and all between 
Thy margin and the mountains, dusk, yet clear, 
Mellow'd and mingled, yet distinctly seen, 
Save darkened Jura, whose capt heights appear 
Precipitously steep ; and drawing near. 
There breathes a living fragrance from the shore. 
Of flowers yet fresh with childhobd ; on the ear 
Drops the light drip of the suspended oar, > 
Or chirps the grasshopper one good^night carol more. 

Route 5^.^Lake of Genna. 197 

A I iiitrrvals, some bird rrom out the brake* 
Starts into voice a inoiui^iit, then is still. 
There seems a floating whisper on the hilly 
But that is fancy > — for the starlight dews 
AH silently their tears of love instil, 
. Weeping themselves away." 

Lake Leman, in a Stortn. 
"Thy sky is changed ! — and such a change! Oh night> 
And storm, and darkness, ye are wondrous strottg,^ 
Yet lovely in your strength, as is the light 
Of a dark eye in woman ! Far along, 
From peak to peak, the rattling crags among 
Leaps the live thunder! Not from one lone cloud. 
But every mountain now hath found a tongue. 
And Jura answers, through her misty shroud. 

Back to the joyous Alps, who call to her aloud! 

Mow, where the swift Rhone cleaves his way between 

Heiglits which appear as lovers who have parted 

In hate, whose mining depths so intervene, 

That they can meet no more, though broken hearted ! 

Though in their souls, which thus each other thwarted, 

liOve was the very root of the fond rage 

Which blighted their life's bloom, and then departed , 

Itself expired, but leaving them an age 

Of years all wintrrs,*— war within themselves to wage. 
Now, where the quick Rhone thus hath cleft his way, 
The mightiest of the storms bath ta*en his stand : 
For here, not one, iHit many, make their play, 
And flin^ their tbunder->bolts from hand to hand. 
Flashing and cast around : of all the band, 
The brightest through these parted bills hath fork'd 
Bis lighlBings, — as if he did und^stand, 
That in such gaps as desolation work*d. 

There the hot shaft should blast whatever therein lurk'd. 
And this is in the night ; — Most glorious night! 
Thou Wert not sent for slumber! let me be 
A sharer in thy fierce and far delight, — 
A portion of the tempest and of thee! 
How the lit lake shines, a phosphoric sea, 
And the big rain comes dancing to the earth ! 
And now again 'tis black, — and now, the glee 
Of the loud hills shakes with its mountain-mirth. 

As if ihey did rejoice o'er a young earthquake's birth. 
Sky, mountains, river, winds, lake, lightnings! ye! 
With night, ami clouds, and thunder, and a soul 

108 Boute 55 —Lake of Geneva, 

To make these felt aikI feeliags, well mar lie 

Things ihat have macU nie watchful ; the' far roll 

Of your departing voices, is the knoll 

Of what in me is sleepless, — if I rest. 

But where of ye, oh tempests f is the goal ? 

Are ye like those within the hnman breast? 
Or do ye find, at length, like eagles, some high nest?'* 

The Lake of Geneva, called by the Romans Lacus Lemanus, 
has nearly ibe shape of a balf-moon, its boras being turned 
towards the S. It is the largest lake in Switzerland, being 55 
miles long, measared close to Its N. shore, and about 40 miles 
along its S. bank; it is 6 miles wide at the broadest part 
( between Rolle and Thonon ], and its greatest depth (between 
Evian and Ouchy) Is 900 ft. Its waters often vary in one year 
more than 50 inches, being usually lowest in the winter, 
between January and April, and highest in August and part 
of July and September, owing to the supplies then derived 
from the melting snows and glaciers. Besides these periodical 
variations, the lake is subject to other more arbitrary changes 
of level, called seiches. This phenomenon consists of a sadden 
rise afid fall of the water In particular parts of the lake, inde- 
pendently of the agency of the wind or of any other apparent 
cause. It is most common in the vicinity of Geneva. During 
these oscillations the waters sometimes rise 5 ft., though the 
usual increase is not more than 2; it never lasts longer than 
25 minutes, but is generally less. The cause of these seiches 
has not been explained with certainty, but it is believed to 
depend upon the unequal pressure of the atmosphere upon 
dilTerent parts of the surface of the lake ; and they" are observed 
to occur most commonly when the clouds are heavy and low. 
The lake never freezes entirely, owing to its great depth; bat 
in severe winters the lower extremity is covered with ice. 
The sand and mud brought down by the Rhone and deposited 
around its mouth have caused considerable encroacbmeiUs 
upon its. upper extremity : even within the records of hitftory 
Porte Yallais stood on ils margin, and its basin is reported to 
have originally extended upwards as far as Bex. 

*' Mon lac est Ic premier" are the words in which Voltaire 
has vaunted the beauties of the Lake of Geneva; and it must 
be confessed that, though it wants the gloomy sublimity of the 
Ray of Uri and the sunny softness of the Italian lakes, w^ith 
their olive and citron groves, it has high claims to admiration. 
It also possesses great variety of scenery. The vine-covered 
slopes of Vaud contrast well with the abrupt, rocky precipices 
of Savoy. NearGencva the hills subside, admitting an exquisite 
view of Mont Blanc, whose snowy summit, though 60 miles 
distant, is often reflected in its waters. 

Route b(} — Lake of Genet a, 199 

''.I.ak(! Leman woos iiie witii its crystal faiT, 
The mirror where the stars niul Diouiilains view 
The stillness of ibeir aspect in earli trace 
its clear depth yields of their far height and hue." 

At its eastern or upper exlremtly it eitends to the very 
base of the high Alps, which by their close vicinity give its 
scenery a character of increased magniGcence. 

The boats on the lake are very pictnresqae, having latine 
sails like the craft of the Mediterranean. 

Steam-boatSy 1838.— There are 4 steamers on the Lake of 
Geneva. The best and swiftest of these, the Aigle and Vau- 
doisy rufifrom Geneva to Villeneuve and back in 8 1/2 hours, 
almost as quickly as the other two perform the voyage from 
one end to the other. The Leman and Winkelried (the 
first is the best) set out from either end of the lake daily, 
and reach the opposite extremity in 7 or 8 hours. The fare 
is 65 batz. They stop to land and receive passengers at 
Cqppet, Nyon, RoUe, Merges, Ouchy (the port of Lausanne), 
Yevey, and Yilleneuve—all situated on the N. shore of the 
lake, and described in the next route. The S. oc Savoyard 
shore is described in Route 57. 

Fares from Creneva, 

1st pi. 

2a place 

To Coppet 

12 batz. 





RoMe . 















ROUTE 56. 


17 l/4posts«71 Eng. milfes. 

This is a post^road, toleraMy supplied with post-horses, 
the charges being the same as in. France, viz. 1 fr. 50 c. for 
each horse per post,'and-75 c. to the postilion, except that for 
every person in the carriage above the number of horses 1 fr. 
50 c. is charged instead of 1 fr. (as in France). The postboys 
expect 40 sous a post. 

Diligences go twice a-day to Lausanne, and four times a~ 
week to Martigny. A voiturier will take about 6 1/3 hours 
to Lausanne, exclusive of stoppages. The tolls at each post 
are heavy. 

200 Route 56. - Geneva to Mariigny — Coppet, 

N.D. The road by ihc S. shore of the lake (Route 57) lo 
St. Maurice is 2 1/2 posts shorter than this by Lausanne. 

The greater part of the first stage out cif Geneva lies among 
villas and pleasure-grounds not unlike English country- 
$ea\s. Few spots in. Europe present so many admirable siies 
for a dwelling as the shores of Lake Lemau in; full view of 
Mont Blanc. About a mile from Geneva the Hotel o(S^- 
4'beron is passed. After a mile or two Mont Blanc is hid 
behind the intervening mountains of Yoirons, and does not 
reappear until near Nyon. 

The parish of Tersoix, through which the road passes, 
formerly belonged lo Fram.e. The Duke de.Choiseul, n)i- 
iiister of Louis XV., irritated with some proceedings of the 
inhabitants of Geneva, proposed to raise a rival city at Ver- 
soix which should deprive Geneva of its trade. A pier was 
projected into the lake, to form a port, a grand place was laid 
down, and streets running at right angles were marked out; 
but beyond this the plan was never carried into execution. 
Hence the verses of Voltaire : 

*' A Versoix nous avons 4le& rups, 
Mais nous n'avons point Ue maisons.'* 

A little beyond Versbix (now an inconsiderable village) we 
pass out of the Canton of Geneva into that of Yaud. 

f 3/i Coppet, a small village of 600 .inhabitants, only 
remarkable for the Chateau^ which belonged to Madame de 
Sta61, immediately behind it. It is now the property of the 
Due de Broglie, her son-in-law. It is a plain edifice, forming 
three sides of a square, the front towards the lake being^ 
flanked with a tower at each end. It was the residence of 
Madame de 8ta6l as wefl as of her father, the Frohch minis- 
ter Neeker. There is a portrait of her by David, and a bust 
of Nccker. One room is pointed out as the study in which 
the author of Corinne composed many of her works. Ucr 
Inkstand and desk are still preserved. The grounds are 
traversed by shady walks; and a clump of trees surrounded 
by a wall, in a field a little to the W. of the house, shrouds 
from view a sort of chapel in which Necker and his daughter 
are buried. 

1 1/2 Nyon— {/mm: Sole!l)--a town of 2682 inhabitants, 
stands On a height; but its suburb, through which the high 
road runs, extends down to the lake. It was the RomaR 

An excellent carriage-road ascends the Jura from this in 
zigzags to St. Cergues (Route 53). From the top of theDdle, 
on the left of (his road, and 15 miles fW>m Nyon, there is an 
exquiiite view (see p^ 182). 

Route 56.— Ouchy^-^Lausanne-^CaihedraL 20 1 

1 1/2 R li e. (Inn : Tdte Noire small and nat firot rate.) 
The hills arouod this village are covered with vineyards, pro- 
ducing a tolerahle wine. One of the best Vaudois wines is 
Krown on the slope between Rolle and Aubonne, called La 
Cote. On the opposite shore of the lake is discerned the Gulf 
of Thonon, aiid the snowy head of Mont Blanc peering over 
the mountains of the Chablais. A little further on the rocks 
of Meillerie and the entrance of the Vaiais appear. 

1 3/4 Morges. [inn: LaCouronne.) Behind this Itttfe 
town of 2800 inhabitants rises the old castle of Wufflens, 
distinguished by its tall square donjon and group of minor 
turrets, built of brick, with deep machicolations. It is said to 
have been built by Queen Bertha in the tenth century. It is 
veil preserved ieiud highly picturesque. On the next stage 
the river Venoge is crossed. 

The distant view of Lausanne, seated on sloping hills and 
surmounted by its cathedral and castle, is pleasing. Between 
it and thelakfi, at the distance of 3/i of a mile, stands the 
suburb or village of Ouchy (Inn: Ancre, at the water-side), 
which may be termed the port of Lausanne. Lord Byron 
wrote the Prisoner of Chillon in this little inn, in the short 
space of two days, during which he . was detained here by 
bad weather, June, 1816 : "thus adding one more deathless 
association to the already immortalised localities of the 

Traversing thie shady promenade of Montbenon we enter 

1 1/2 Lausanne. (/iin« : Faucon, excellent, but rather 
expensive;— a new house, to be called Hdtel de Gibbon, is in 
progress (1838); Lion d'Or, a comfortable and not expensive 
house.) Lausanne, capital of the Canton Vaud, contains 
14,120 mhabilants. The Pays de Vaud (Germ. Waadtland), 
was originally subject to the Dukes of Savoy, but having been 
conquered by the Bernese, remained tributary to the republic 
for 2 1/2 centuries, until 1798, when it purchased its own 
independence. The town stands on the lower slope of the? 
Mont Jorat, which sinks gradually down to the lake, but is 
intersected by several ravines, giving it the form of distinct 
emmences. Froip this cause the streets ranging over broken 
ground are a series of ups and downs ; many are very steep, 
and run in a direction parallel to the lake, so as to exclude all 
view of it.. They are mostly narrow and not very clean, and 
few of the houses stand on the same level. If the stranger 
vrould emerge from this labyrinth of dusky buildings to look 
about him, he must climb up the steep ascent behind. A 
very good point of view is the 

Terrace of the Cathedral, At the foot of ihe flight of 
steps leading to it from the market-place ask for the keys of 
the door, kept at the se^iilon's house, No. 6. The Catheidral, 

202 Route 56. -^Lmtamtng^House ofQMon. 

a very eitentife boifding, and internally ihe finest Golhic 
church in Switzerland, was founded a. d. tooa, and some 
traces of the original edifice may perhaps be traced in the 
rovnd arches behind the high altar. With this eiception the 
eiisting building dates fTom the tSth centui7, 1275. Some 
of the pillars supporting the nave are detached. The circu- 
lar window in the N. transept, 30 ft. in diameter, is remar- 
Icable. Among the monuments within the church are a 
mailed effigy of Otho of Gransom, whose ancestor. Otto de 
Grandeson, held several important offices in England, under 
Henry III. and Edward I.; the monument of Victor Amaden$ 
Vllf. (Yoltaire^s " Bizarre Am^d^e"), who was duke of Sa- 
voy, Bishop of Geneva, and pope under the title of Felix V., 
but resigned in succession all these dignities, preferring to 
end his days as a monk in the convent of Ripaille, on the 
opposite shore of the lake. His tomb is much mutilated. 
The monument of Mrs. Stratford Canning, a vase with a 
bas-relief, by Bartolini (not by Canova, as most guide- 
books have it), is not very remarkable. Here also is inter- 
red the venerated Bernard de Bfenthon, founder of the 
Hospice of the Great St. Bernard, which is named after him. 

On another platform, a little way behind the Terrace of the 
Cathedral, stands the Castle, a picturesque, massive square 
tower with four turrets at the angles. It was originally the 
residence of the Bishops of Lausanne, but is now thecouncil- 
house of the canton. 

Lausanne possesses a College, founded 1587, and aCanfo- 
nal Museum, in which are some objects of interest— such as 
a collection of minerals from Bex and a model of the salt- 
mines there. It is not deficient in the other branches of 
natural history. A specimen of the silurusglanis, one of the 
largest fresh-water fishes, came fttmi the Lake of Bforat. 
Many antiquities discovered within the canton, at Aventt- 
cum and on the borders of the Lake Leman* are preserved 

The house of Gibfxm the historian is in the lower part of 
the town, behmd the church of St. Francis, and on the right 
of the road leading down to Ouehy. It is said not to be 
changed. It has a garden , a terrace overlooking the lake , a 
summer-house, and a few acacias : but another summer-house, 
in which he is said to have finished his history, and bis her- 
ceau-walk, have been removed. He aUiides to them in the 
following remarkable passage: — 

"It was on the day or rather the night of the 27th of /one, 
1787, between the hours of eleven and twelve, that 1 wrote 
tiie last line of the last page in a summer-house in my garden. 
After laying down my pen I took several tuma in a berceau, 
•r covered walk of acacias , which eommaiidii a prospect of 

MouiB 5^'^LeusanM — House of Gibbon, 203 

•the country, the lake, and the mountains. The air was tein> 
perate, the sky was serene, the silver orb of the moon was 
reflected from the waves, and all nature was silent/' 

** Much has been done.or late years by the Canton of Vaud 
to improve the institution's of this little state. The Peniten- 
tiary , Prison^ and Normal School ^ may interest some tra- 
vellers and may bear witness to all of the munificent and en- 
lightened spirit of the councils of one of the smallest and most 
democratic communities in Europe/'—ff. jR. 

There is an eioelleot reading^oom here CfCassino), to 
which strangers are admitted by a member's introduction. 
Doy and Rouiller keep a good supply or maps, views, and 
costumes of Switzerland, etc. "Richard's Itinerary." 

The English church service is performed every Sunday in 
the Chapelle du Culte. The Lutheran service is also perform- 
ed in the same building in the course of the day. 

The Post and IHUgence-office is in the Place St. Francois, 
near the church. The office for post-horses is in the Itue 
Marlheray, N^ 57. 

Steam-boats touch at Oudiy.'the suburb of Lausanne, at 
the waterside , twice a-day, on their way to either extremity 
of the lake. 

The neighbourhood of Lausanne is unrivalled for the num- 
ber and beauty of the walks which it presents. Partial and 
pleasing glimpses of the lake are obtained from the terraces 
within the town , and from that of Montbenon , just outside 
the walls, on the way to Geneva; but far more extensive and 
beautiful prospects are presented from the heights above it. 
The best spot for an extensive survey is the elevated platform 
called the Signal^ but the ascent to it is very fatiguing. Near 
it is the extensive forest of Sauvablin (Silva Belini), in 
which it is said the Druids once worshipped the god Bel , and 
theni;e its name. There are a great number of country-seats 
in the vicinity; that of Vernnes is highly praised; its grounds 
have the character of an English pari£, with the Alps and the 
lake in addition. Cooper, the American novelist, thus des- 
cribes the view from the heights above Lausanne : — " The 
form of the lake prevents an entire view of it firom any single 
spot. One is as well placed at Lausanne as at any other spot 
perhaps for such a purpose ; but even there the W . end of the 
sheet is quite concealed by the curvature. If the foot of the 
lake is hid from the eye, its head , on the contrary , 1ie& open 
before the spectator, and it offers one of the grandest land^ 
scapes of this the noblest of all earthly regions. In that direc-* ^ 
iion the mountains of Savoy rise like ramparts, and the valley 
of ihe Rhone retires in the distance, until it Is lost in the su^ 
blimity of mystery (?). Whichever way the eye wanders over 
the wide range ofhill-sidea, xiilages^ vineyanla, meantaint. 

20&> Route Qld.'^LaManne^FeTey. 

and bloe vater, it never fails to retarn to this one spot, nvtairk 
on the whole offers one of the nicest combinations of th« great 
and the eRChanting in scenerf of any place within my know-* 
ledge.*' Mont Blanc is not visible from the Signal, but may 
be seen from the top of the Jorat, on the road to Berne. 

About a miles oat of-Lansanne, beyond the Calvaire. on 
the Berne road, is the Cometery ofPiirre de Plain. John 
Philip Kemble, the tragedian, is baried within it. 

N.B. Postina (§ 5) begins at Laasanne, and continues 
over the Simpfon into Italy, and by Geneva into France. 
IHligenees ran daily in summer from Lausanne to Tevey 
and Bex, to Berne, to Geneva, to Neuch&tel, and to Blfle. 

The road to Vevey is very narrow , and partly enclosed 
between the high walls of vineyards, rendering it very tire- 
some, and in summer dreadfully hot, being unsheltered by 
trees. (? A new road has, it is said, been lately made.) It 
improves near Vevey, as the gorge of the Rhone appears in 
signt, overlooked by the snowy peaks of the Dent de Midi. 

at/2 Vevey * {inns: Trois Couronnes, the best, and 
good; Yille de Londres; Croix Blanche). 

Vevey (Germ. Yi vis,. the Ronian Vibiscum) is (he second 
town in Canton Vaud, and has ii86 inhabitants. It is prin- 
cipally distinguished for the exceeding beauty of its situation, 
on the margin of the Lake Leman, at a point where the sce- 
nery of its banks is perhaps most beautiful. The writings of 
Rousseau have contributed not a little to its celebrity in this 
respect. He says in his Confessions— "J'aUai a Vevey loger 
h la Clef, et pendant deux jours que j*y restai sans voir per- 
sonne, je pris pour cette ville un amour qui m'a suividans 
tons mes voyages, et qui m*y a fait ^tablir enfin les h^ros de 
mon roman. Je dirai volon tiers a ceux qui ont du goQt et qui 
sont sensibles, AUez a Vevey, visitez le pays, eiaminez les 
sites, promenez-vous sur le lac, et dites si la nature n'a pas 
fait ce beau pays pour une Julie, pour une Claire, et pour uu 
Saint-Preux ; mais ne les y cberchez pas.*' 

From the little terrace at the end of the market-place (be 
eye surveys the scenery of the Nouvelle H^lolse. On the 
£. the village of Clarens, Montreux, Chillon; beyond it Ville- 
neuve and the gorge of the Rhone, backed by the gigantic 
Alps of the Vallais, the Dent de Midi, and Pain de Sucre 
(neighbours of the Great St. Bernard); while on the oppo- 
si tesnore of the lake rise the rocks of Meillerie, surmounted 
by the peaks of the Dent d'Oche , and the village of St. Gin- 
gough, at the foot of the mountains. 

* De Lausanne k Vevey 4 U-^Liyre tie pastt. 

Route 56. - Fevey — Abbaye des Vigmrons. 205 

' |n Ibe Church of St. Martin^ a little abov« tbe town, LuU* 
tow tbe regicide is buried, as well as Brou^bton, wbo read the 
sentenee of deatb to Charles I. They died here in exile, a 
priee haying been set upon their heads ; and repeated appli- 
cations were made to the canton of Berne to deliver them up, 
which the government very properly refused to accede to. 
Ludlou>*8 hotise still exists; he placed over his doorway this 
inscription^*' Omne solum forti patria." 

The ii7tn«5of the neighbourhood of Yevey, especially of the 
suniiy district extendins hence to Lausanne, and called La 
Yaux, enjoy a consideraole reputation. The Romans are be- 
lieved to have first planted the vine on these hills ; and the 
discovery of a stone inscribed '* Libero Patri Colliensi*' 
proves that they had erected a temple to Father Bacchus at 
€k>Uiam, a little village now called Cully, on the margin of the 
lake, between Yevev and Lausanne. 

A s-ociety or guild of very high antiquity, called VAbbaye 
des VianeroM, having for its motto the words '* Ora et labo- 
ra,*' exists at Yevey. Its object is to promote the cultivation 
of the vine ; and for this purpose it aespatches every spring 
and autumn ** experts," qualified persons, to survey «ll the 
vineyards of the district, and upon their refiort and testimony 
it rewards the most skilful and indnstrioiis vinedressers with 
medals and prnning-hooks (serpes d'honneiir) as prizes. 

In accordance with a custom handed down from very an- 
cient times, which is possibly a relic of pagan superstition, 
this society celebrates once in 15 or iO years a festival called 
la Fitedet Vignerona. It commences with the ceremony of 
crowning the most successful cultivator of the vine, which is 
followed and accompanied by dances and processions formed 
of the lads and biases of the neighbourhood attired as Fauns 
bearing the thyr$us, and nymphs. Father Baocfaus in his car, 
and Ceres throned, on a waggon filled with wheatsbeaves , 
appear in the most classical costume in the midst of their 
followers. But the procession includes a singuhir mixture of 
scriptural characters along with these heathen Bacchanals. 
Thus Silenus riding on his ass is followed by Noah in his ark, 
and Fomona is succeeded by the spies from Canaan bearing, 
between them the bunch of grapes. A vine-press, and a forge 
at work are also' eihibited, drawn by fine horses. On other 
days of the f^te (for it lasts for several) the spectators are 
entertained with the native dances and songs of Switzerland, 
performed by the herdsmen and shepherdesses of the neigh- 
bouring Alps ; and the concluding and perhaps the most 
interesting part of the festivities consists in the bestowing 
upon a young maiden, the fairest in fame and form in the 
vicinity, a dower, and in the celebration of her marriage with 
a partner of her choice. As many as 700 persons took part 


206 Roui4 ^.—Abbaye des Vignerons-^Chrens. 

in the last festival, and one of the ballet-masters of die 
French opera repaired hither from Paris, several iree*k» 
beforehand, to drill and instruct the rustics in dancing. The 
ground was kept hy 100 young men m the picturesque an- 
cient Swiss costume, which has been delineated by Holbein. 
The a last anniversaries were in 18i9 and 18a3, and multi- 
tudes of spectators flocked from all parts to witness them. 

The road from Vevey to Freyburg by Bulle is described 
Route 41. 

The path from Vevey over the Dent de Jaman, and the 
road thence to Tbun, form Route 41. 

" The gardens of M. de Hauteville are situated about 1 
mile from Vevey, and deserve to be visited as much for their 
fine horticulture as for the superb view they coBmiand.''->ir. 

About 2 miles off, on.a swelling eminence everlool^iog the 
lake, stands the ancient Castle ofBlonayy built in the 10th 
eentury, which belonged to the same family for 700 years. 
Further on, by the lake-side, is Chatelard, another castle. 

About a mile out of Vevey the hamlet of La Tour de PeiU 
with a castle built at the water-side in the 13th century, i& 
passed. A mile farther lies 

Clatmiy so sentimemally described by Rousseau in the 
Nouvelle H^lolse. It is a poor, dirty village, far less attrac- 
tive than many of its neighbours, and it probably owes its 
celebrity to a well-sounding name, which fitted it for the 
pages of a romance. Rousseau's admirers have puzzled them- 
selves with endeavouring to identify the localities, (hough he 
has himself stated that they are '' grosst^rement alt^r6es." 
The spot on which the beautiful '' bosquet de Julie*' is sought 
for is now a potato-field. Byron says that the trees were cut 
down by the monks of St. Bernard,, and lavishes some un- 
worthy and undeserved abuse upon those hospitable eccle- 
siastics; bothehas forgotten to ask whether the bosquet really 
ever had any existence except in Rousseau's imagination. 
Byron indeed viewed the spot with a poet's eye, and the 
exquisite beauty of the surrounding scenery, which h«s been 
accurately described by Rousseau, called up all the poet's 
enthusiasm and inspiration. 

Clareiiftl sweet Clarens, birthplace of deep Love I 
Thine air is the young breath of passionate thought; 
Thy trees take root in Love; the snows above 
The very glaciers have his colours caught. 
And sunset into rose-hues sees them wrought 
By rays which sleep there lovingly : the rocks^ 
The permiinent crags, tell here of Lo«e, who sought 
In Ihem a refuge from the worldly shocks 
Whichslir^andslingthesoulwithhopethatwoos, then mock* ^ 

Route 56. — Clarens. 207 

CSsrens! by heaFenly Teel thy paths are irotl — 
Undying liOve's,. who here ascends a throne 
To which the steps are mountains; where the god 
h a^pervading life and light, — so shown 
Not on those summits solely, nor alone 
In the still cave and forest : o'er the flower 
Hi» eye it sparkling, and his breath hath blown, 
His soft and summer breath, whose tender power 
Passes th^ strength of storms in their most desolate hour. 

AH things aire here of him;^ from the black pines, 
Which, are his shade on high, and the loud roar 
Of torrenis, where he listeneth, to the vines 
Which slope his green path downward to the shore, 
Where the bow'd waters meet him, and adore, 
Kissing his feet with murmurs; and the wood, 
The covert of old trees, with trunks all hoar, 
But light leaves, young as joy, sUnds where it stood, 
QiTering to him and his a populous solitude. 

A populous solitude of bees and birds. 
And fairy-form'd and maQy-colour'd thijigs. 
Who worship him with not^s.qior^ sweet than words^ 
And innocently open their glad wings. 
Fearless and fall of life : the gush of springs. 
And fall of lofty fountains, Ami the bend 
Of stirring branches, and th^ bud which brings 
The swiftest thought of beauty, here extend, 
Mingling, and jiiade hy Love unto one mighty end. 

Twas not for fiction chose Rousseau this spot, '^ 

Peopling it with affections; but he found ' 
tt was tike scene which passion must allot 
To the mind's purified beings; 'twas the ground 
Where ejirly Love bis Psyche'a rone unlyoulid. 
And hallow'd it with loveliness : 'tis lone, 
And wonderful, and deep, and hath a soiind, 
And sense, and sight of sweetness ; here the Rhone 
'Hath spread himself a couch, the Alps have rear'd a.ihi'one.** 

"In July, 1816, Imadea Yoyageroand the Lake of Geneva; 
and, as far a« my own observations have led me in a not 
uninterested nor inattentive survey of all the scenes most 
celebrated by Rousseau in his ' H^lolse,' I can safely say that 
in this there is no exaggeration. It would be difficult to see 
Clarens (with the scenes arotipd it—Vevey, Chillon, Bdveret, 
St. Gingo, Meillerie, Evian, and the entrances of the Rhone) 
without being forcibly struck with its peculiar adaptation to 
ah^peraoDS and -events with which it has been peopled. But 

208 Route 56. — Clarem — Monireux. 

ihi& is not all; the feeling with which all aronnd Clarens, and 
the opposite rocks of Meillerie, is invested, is of a still higher 
and more comprehensive order than the mere sympathy with 
individual passion; it is a seme of the existence of (ove in its 
most extended and sublime capacity, and of our own parti- 
cipation of its good and of its glory; it is the grei^t principle 
or the universe, which is there more condensed, but not less 
manifested, and of which, though knowing ourselves.a part, 
we lose our individuality, and mingle in the beauty of the 
whole. If Rousseau had never written nor lived, the same 
associations would not less have belonged to such scenes. 
He has added to the interest of his works by their adoption ; 
he has shown his sense of their beauty by the selection ; but 
they have done (hat for him which no human being could do 
for them. 1 had the fortune (good or evil as it might be) to 
sail from MeiUerie (where we landed for some time) to St. 
Gingo during a lake storm, which added to the magnificence 
ofall around, allhough occasionally accompanied by-danger to 
the boat, which was small and overloaded. It was over (his 
very part of the lake that Rousseau has driven the boat of 
St. Preux and Madame Wolmar to Meillerie for shelter du- 
ring a tempest. On gaining the shore at St. Gingo I found 
that the wind had been sufficiently strong to blow down 
some fine old chestnut-trees on the low^r part of the moun- 
tains." -^Byron. 

Ghailly, the residence of Rousseau's friend Madame de 
Wai ens, lies above Glarens, at some distance from the road. 
The house still exists. 

The swelling hills and vine-clad slopes which form the 
banks of the lake nearly all the way from Geneva here give 
place to beetling crags and lofty precipices rising abruptly 
from the water's edge. The road sweeps in curves round 
the retired bays at their feet. 

The village of Montrettx is prettier in itself and in its 
situation than even Clarens. It lies at the foot of the Dent 
(ie Jaman, across which runs a path into the Simmenthai 
(Route 41). 

''It is celebrated as the most sheltered spot on the banks 
of the Lake of Geneva, and the remarkable salubrity of its 
climate renders it desirable winter-quarters for invalids 
who cannot cross the Alps. Very good accommodation may 
be had in the village inn. Boarding and lodging houses are 
also to be met with there. The traveller who turns aside 
from the high-road to the church-yard of Montreux will 
carry away from that enchanting spot one of the sweetest 
impressions of his life. The statistical researches of Sir F. 
d'lvernojs have shown that Montreux is the place in the 
world where (here is the smallest proportion of deaths and of 

Route bS.^Montreax-^CasiU ofChUlon. 209^ 

impradent marriages. The old pastor Bridel, the head of this 
hai>py community, is a hale mountaineer, Tull of the legends 
and beauties of the country he has wandered over for nearly 
80 years, and will give a hearty wel<^ome to the traveller. "—A. 
About S miles Trom Montreux stands the picturesque and 
renowned Castle ofChillon, on an isolated rock surrounded 
by deep water, but within a stone's throw of the shore and 
of the road, with which it communicates by a wooden bridge. 
It was built in 123H by Amadeus IV. of Savoy, and was long 
used as a state prison, where, among other victims, many of 
the early reformers were immured. When Byron, in the 
Prisoner ofChillon, described the sufTerings of an imaginary 
captive, he was not acquainted with the history of the real 
prisoner, Bonnivard, prior of St. Victor, who having rendered 
himself obnoxious to the Duke of Savoy by his exertions to 
free the Genevese from the Savoyard yoke, was seized by the 
duke's emissaries, and secretlv carried off to this castle. 
For 6 long years he was buried in its deepest dungeon, on a 
level with the surface of the lake. The ring by which be 
was attached to one of the pillars still remain's, and the stone 
floor at its base is worn by his constant pacing to and fro. 
Byron afterwards wrote the sonnet on Bonnivard, t^om which 
the following lines are taken : 

''ChillonI thy prison. is a holy place, 
And thy sad floor an altai;; for 'twas trod 

Until his very steps have lel^ a trace 

Wern, as if thy cold pavement were a sod, 

By Bonnivard ! May none those marks efface ! 
For they appeal from tyranny to Cod." 

At length, in 1536, the Swiss wrested the Pays de Vaud 
flrom the hands of Charles V. of Savoy. Chillon was the last 
plaice which held out for him; but an army of 7000 Bernese 
besieging it by land, whi(e the gallles of the Genevese assault- 
ed it by water, soon compelled it to surrender, and Bonnivard, 
with other captives, was set free. The changes which had 
ocennred durhig the years of his emprisonment almost rea^ 
lised the legend of the Seven Sleepers. He had left Geneva 
a Catholic state, and dependent on the Duke of Savoy; he 
found here firee, and a republic, publicly professing the reform*^ 
ed fliith. 

The eastle is now converted into a magazine for miUtary 
stores. A curions old chapel serves as a powder-magazine, 
and is not shown. Strangers are readily conducted over 
other parts of it, and (independent of the associations con- 
nected with the building) may find something to interest 
them in its ''potenceet caohots." The former is a beam, 
black with age, extended across one of the vaults, to which 


210 Route 66,--ChUlon—y Uleneuve. 

the condemned were formerly bung. The cachot is an- 
•ubliette, K^hose only entrance was by a trap-door in the floor 
above. The dungeon of Bonnivard is airy and spacious, 
consisting of two aisles, almost like a church; its floor and- 
one side are formed h^ the IWing rock, and it is lighted by 
a solitary window. Byron inscribed his name on one of the- 
pillars, but it is far more lastingly associated with the spot 

"Lake Leman lies by ChlUon's waits; 

A thousand teet ia depth helow 

Us massy waters meet and flow; 

Thus much ihe fathom-line was sent 

From Chillon's.snow-wb'ite battlement (? ?),. 

Which round about the wave enthrals : 

A double dungeon-wall and wave 

Have made— and like a living grave. 

Below the surfiice of the lake 

The dark vault lies wherein we lay. 

We heard it ripple night and day. 

In Chillon's dungeons deep and old , 

There are seven columns massy and grey. 

Dim wilh a dull, imprisoned ray, 

A sunbeam which hath lost its way, 
-And through the crevice and the cleft 

Of the thick wall is fallen and left. 

Creeping o'er the floor so damp, 

Like a marsh's meteor lamp.*' 
Byron has exaggerated the depth oT the lake, which near 
Ihe castle does not exceed 280 ft. "It is by this castle that 
Rousseau has fixed the catastrophe of his H^ioKse, in the 
rescue of one of her children by Julie firom the water ; the 
shock of which, and the illness produced by the immersion, 
is the cause of her deatb." 

y i 1 1 e n e u v e— (/hn« ; Croix Blanche; Lion d'O, both indif- 
ferent)— is a smalland ancient wailed town of 1 480 inhabitants 
(Penniculus of the Romans), situated at the £, exti'emity of 
the lake, where the road quits its borders to enter the valley 
of the Rhone. A diligence awaits the arrival of the steamers 
to convey passengers on to B^x, where there are good sleep- 

About a mile from Villeneuve lies a small island, the only 
one in the lake : it is thus nientioned by Byron in the Pri- 
soner of Ghillon :— 

"And then there was a liltte isle, 

Which in my very face did smile. 
The only one in view; 

A sniall green isle, it se.eniM no more, 

Scarce. broader than my dungeon-floor. 

Bouie 56.^Bex—Salt Mines. 21 1 

fiut in it there w<*re three tall trees, 
And o'er it blew the moiint«in~breexe, 
And by it there were waters flowing, 
And on it there were young flowers growing, 
Of gentle breath and hue.*' 

The commencement of tbe valley of the Rhone is dreary 
and uninteresting. The low ground is a flat alluvial deposit, 
formed by mud broagbt down by the river, and ^till remain- 
ing in the state of a barren and unwholesome morass. The 
encroachments of the land upon the lake even within the 
period of historical record have been very great. Port Vallais, 
Portus Yallesias of the Romans, in their time stood on the 
margin of the lake, but is now more than a mile and a 
half inland ; the intervening tract has been gained since. 
The Rhone itself creeps slowly along, impeded by its wind- 
ings, and as it were burdened with mud very unlike the 
. torrent of azure and crystal which bursts out of the lake at 
Geneva. Upon this plain, at the mouth of the valley of the 
Rhone, Bivico, the first Helvetian chief mentioned in history, 
defeated, b.c. 107 (the 6iBth year of Rome), the Roman 
Torces under Lucius Cassius, slaying their general and com- 
pelling his army to pass under the yoke. 

The top of the mountain above Yvjorne was thrown down 
by an earthquake, 1584. A. good wine now grows on the 

S 3/i L' Aigle — (Inn : La Croix Blanche) — a village of 
1650 inhabitants {Aquileia), Black marble is quarried near 
* this. 

1 Bew-^ (Inns : L'Union, good. It comprises a boarding- 
bouse and an establishment of baths, supplied from a sul- 
phureous spring rising in the vicinity, which causes Bex to be 
resorted to as a watering-place in summer. Guides, horses^ 
and chars-^banc for excursions among the mountains may 
be hired here.— L'Ours.) 

Bex, a Tillage of 3000 inhabitants, situated on the high 
road to the Simplon, is chiefly remarlrable for its Salt-Mines 
and S<auWorks. Salt has been obtained from brine-springs 
here since the middle of the 16th century. For a long time 
they belonged to a merchant family of Augsburg named 
Zobel, but they are now property of the government of the 
canton. Bown to 1823 the brine-springs alone furnished 
the salt, and tl^ey were gfadually (filing, when M. Gharpen- 
tier suggested the plan of driving shafts and gaUeries into 
the mountain in search of rock-salt. The result was the 
discovery of a large and rich vein of the mineral, which has 
been traced for a distance of 4000 ft. and for a height of 600 

212. Route b6. <- Bex - Salt Mines. 

feet, varying in thickness from S ft. to 50 ft.; and the annual 
produce of salt is now augmented to 20,000 or 30,000 quin- 
tals. Strangers visiting Bex commonly pay a visit to the 
mines, which are situated about 9 miles off, in the valley of 
La Gryonne. A steep road, but practicable for chars^a-banc, 
leads through most beautiful «cenery to the entrance of the 
mines. The salt is obtained either from the brine-springs, 
six or seven of which, of various degrees of strength, burst 
forth in different parts of the interior of the mountain, or 
from the rock-salt, which, after being extracted by the help 
of gunpowder, is broken into pieces, thrown into large re- 
servoirs, called dessaloirs, cut in the anhydrite rock (sul- 
phate of lime without water) in the interior of the mountain, 
and there dissolved in water. Each reservoir is usually filled 
with water 3 times. The 2 first solutions ( lessivages) fur- 
nish a liquor with 25 or 26 per cent, of salt ; the 3rd is much 
weaker, having only 5 or 6 per cent. The brine, either 
from the sources or from these reservoirs, containing above 
SO per cent, of salt, is conveyed in pipes made of fir-wood 
at once to the boiling-house (maison de cuile); that which 
is less strong must be subjected to the process of graduation 
in the long buildings or sheds, open at the sides, which are 
passed at fiexvieux and Devins, between Bex and the mines. 
These evaporating-houses, or maisons de graduation, are 
filled up to the roof with stacks of fagots of thorn-wood, 
over which the salt water, after being raised to the roof by 
pumps, is allowed to trickle drop by drop. The separation 
of the water in passing through colanders, and it^ exposure 
to the atmosphere as it falls, produce rapid and considerable 
evaporation of the watery particles, while the gypsum dis- 
solved in it adheres, in passing, to the twigs^ and crystal - 
izes around them. The water is thus made to ascend and 
descend several times; it becomes stronger each time, and 
at length is brought to the condition of saturated brine, fit 
for boiling in the salt-pans. It will easily be perceived how 
much fbel is thus spared by not subjecting the weak solution 
to the fire at first. 

This short explanation may enable the visitor to under •> 
stand the process pursued in the mines. The principal mines 
are those called Du Fandement and DuBouiUet; the latter 
contains a gallery driven horizontally into the bowels of the 
mountain for a distance of 6636 ft., 7 1/2 ft. high and 5 ft. 
wide. At 400 ft. from its entrance is the round reservoir, 
80 ft. in diameter and 10 ft. deep, excavated in the rock, 
without any support to its roof. In it the weak w«ter is 
collected, which requires to undergo the process of gradua- 
tion. A little farther on is another irregular reservoir, 7933 
feet in extent, supported by pillars, and destined to hold the 

Routv 56.'- St. Mawriee. 213 

stronger brine fit for the sali-fMns without unclergoiBg any 
inierinediate process. 

Many beautiful mhierals are obtained from the salt-mines^ 
of Bexr-such as very clear crystals of selenite, muriacite, 
anhydrite, etc. 

There is a short but difficult path (Route 58) from Bex to 
Sioii by the Bergfall of L,es Diablerets. A guide would b« 
required for this journey. 

A little way above Bex a curious discovery was made, a 
few years ago, of a warm sulphureous spring in the very bed 
of I he Rhone. It has been enclosed, and employed in sup- 
plying medicinal baths, the healing properties of which are 
attributed to the quantity of azote gas contained in the 
water. ' < 

*' Journeying upward by the Rhone, 
That there came down a torrent from the Alps, 
1 enter*dwhere a key nnioeks a kingdom : 
The monnlains closing, and the road, the river 
Filling the narrow space."— K^^er^. 

Such is the scene presented to the traveller at the JBridge 
of St. Maurice, which spans the rapid river with one bold 
arch, 70 ft. wide, leaning for support (appuyt^) on the rt. side 
upon the Dent de Morcies and on the 1. upon the Dent de 
Midi^ whose bases are pushed so far forward as barely to leave 
room for the river. 

The bridge, erroneously attributed to the Romans, is not 
older than the 15th century, but may possibly rest on Roman 
fQiradations. It unites the canton Vaud with the cantpnVal- 
lais ; and a gate at one end, now removed, formerly served to 
close the passage up and down : a circumstance alluded to in 
the lines of Rogers. A small fort was erected by the Swiss 
in i832, above the road, to defend the pass. Here our route 
is joined by the road from Geneva along the S. shore of the 
lake, through St. Gingolph. (Route 57.) 

No one can cross the bridge of St. Maurice without being 
struck with the^changc in the condition of the inhabitants of 
the two cantons. The neatness and industry of the Yaudois 
are exchanged within the space of a few hundred yards for 
filth and beggary^ equally apparent in the persons and habi- 
tations of (he vallaisans. xbeir physical condition is la- 
mentable ; no patt of Switzerland is afflicted 4o a greater ex- 
tent with the maladies of gottre and cretinism (S19)> dnd 
the victims of them shock the traveller's sight at every 

Immediately beyond the bridge, squeezed in between the 
mountain and the 1. bank of the Rhone, stands 

.3/^ St. Maurice— (/nn : L'Union, iolerably good) — a 

91 % Route 56. ^Tke Salienche. 

town of 1050 hihabitants, occupying (he site of the Roman 
Agaunum. It owes its present name to the tradition thai 
Che Theban Legion, under the command of St. Maurice, suf-* 
fered martyrdom here by order of Maiimian, a.d. 302, be- 
cause they refujsed 4o abjure Christianity. 

The Abbey, founded in honour of S%, 'Maurice by Sigis- 
roond King of Burgundy, contains in its Treasury a museum 
of ancient art. Here are preserved a vase of Saracenic work- 
manship, presented by Charlemagne ; a croiier of gold, in 
ihe shape of a spire, the niches of it filled with figures an 
inch high, most elaborately worked ; a chalice of agate, pre-^ 
sen led by Charlemagne; another, given by Bertha Queen of 
Burgundy, and several besides, of.a very early date. 

"The Church was much damaged by fire in the 17th cen^ 
tury, but the tower Js unaltered, and several Roman inscrip- 
tions are built into its walls.**— P. 

On quitting the town we perceive on tb.e right, upon a 
projectmg platform of rock considerably above the road, the 
Hermitage of Ndtrje Dame des Sex, Lower down on the 
road is the chapel of Yeriolez, raised on the precise spot of 
the Theban massacre (I), and covered with rude frescoes. 
In the autunm of 1835 a torrent of mud descended from the 
summit of the Dent^de Midi into the Vallats near Evionaz. 
It covered the high road for a length of 900 ft., and* over- 
whelmed many fields, and orchards, and some few houses; but 
no lives were lost, as the slow progress of the current allow- 
ed every one time to remove out of its way. It is conjec- 
tured to have been caused by a glacier bursting and sweep- 
ing along with it the debris of the Moraine, which it con- 
verted into mud. Blocks of stone, many tons in weight, 
were carried down with it, and floated Uke corks on the sui^ 

This part oflhe valley has a dreary and barren aspect from 
the quantity of bare gravel and broken rock strewed over it. 

About 1/2 miles from St. Maurice, 4 from Martigny, is 
the famous Waterfall of the Salienche, which here descends 
into the valley of the Rhone out of a narrow ravine, appa- 
rently excavated by its waters. The perpendicular descent 
of the stream is about 280 feet, but the final leap of the 
cascade not more than 120 feet. It is a fine object, both 
from its volume and height, visible from a considerable dis- 
tance up and dowur It is best seen in a sunny morning 
before 12 o'clock, when the iris, formed in the cloud of spray, 
hovers over it. The neighbouring village of Mieville sends 
forth^ an importunate crowd of beggars and self-appointed 
guides to conduct travellers from tie road to the fall, a dis- 
tance of a few hundred yards. Before reaching Martigny wo 
cross another stream, the Trlent, descending from the ct\e^ 

Route b7,-*-GeHef>a to Martigny, 215 

bralecl pass of the T<He Noire. On tlie outskirts of Affartigny, 
upon a commanding rock, rises the casi'le or La Balie, for- 
inerty a stronghold of the archbishops of Sion. The deep 
dangeon beneath its ull tower is only accessible by a trap- 
door in the floor of the chamber above. The river Dranse 
passes out into the Rhone, between La Batie aad 
S 1/4 Martigny (Route 59). 

ROUTE 67. 


14 3/4 posts « 68 English miles. 

The. greater part of this road lies through the Sardinian 
territory, but for the convenience of reference it is placed 

After quitting Geneva by the Porte de Rive, a fine view 
opens out on the right; beyond the daleve rises the Mdle, 
and the vista of the valley of the Arve is terminated by the 
Buet, by Mont Blanc and its glaciers. The shore of the lake 
is dotted over with villas of the Genevese. One of these near 
the village of Cologny, the Campagna Diodati, is interesting 
as having been the residence of Lord Byron in 1816. He wrote 
here a great part of the 3rd canto of Childe Harold and the 
tragedy of Manfred. 

Beyond the village of Corsier the Genevan territory is left, 
and we enter the kingdom of Sardinia aiid the ancient pro- 
vince of Chabtais, which extends along the lake as far as St. 
Gingolph. A monotonous plain is traversed in order to 

21/2 Douvaine *, the first Sardinian post-station, where 
passports and basgage are examined. 

8 T h n n— (inn : Les Balances, improved of late )->an 
ancient town of 3740 Inhabitants, originaUy capital of the 

' On quitting Thonon we pass on the left, between the road 
and the lake, Bipaille, anciently an Augustine convent, 
founded byAmadeus VIll. of Savoy, in which he ended his 
days, having assumed the cowl of an Augustine monk. He 
abdicated, in succession, the dukedom of Savoy, the Papacy 
(into which he had been installed with the title of Felix Y .) 
and the bishop's see of Geneva. He resided here after his second 
abdication, passing his time, not in the austere penance of 
an anchorite, but in weaving political intrigues and laying 

* Douvaines 3 1. Tlionon 6 I. 1/8. Evian 8. Lc Boveret 12. 
•^Livre de potU. 

818 Route bd.'—Tfu Simpton-^Marlignj. 
enlen Ibc v«|ley of the Rhone and the high road of ihc Sim- 
plon« within 2 1/a miles of 
6 2/3 Sion (Route 59). 

ROUTE 5». 


36 1/2 nosts» 176 English miles. 

This grand and excellent road is tolerably veil suppJicdf 
▼ith post-horses, but travellers i^ho require more than two- 
to their carriage must bespeak them by avant-courier, if they 
wish to avoid delays. WilU post-horses the journey may 
barely be accomplished in 3, of easily in 3 1/3 days^ resting 
1st night at Brieg, 2d at Bavcno, 3rd at Milan; or, 1st at 
Turtman, 2nd at Domo d'Ossola, 3rd at Arona. There is a 
tolerably comfortable inn at Simplon, near the summit of the 

Diligences go 4 times a-week from Milan, making hiimerou9 
halls, and performing the distance to Milan in iiot less thait 
3 days and nights. , ^ , « . 

The picturesque round tower of the castle of La Batie,. 
rising on a rock, with a village at Us foot, is seen some tirtte 
before the town of Marligny is reached. It was destroyed by 
George Superax in 1516. ^ « , * 

Martigny (German Marlinach ).—innj,: Post, good, the 
best; Cygne, tolerably good and moderate; daily *la We 
d*h6te, 3 1'r., wine included.— La Tour- 

Martigny (Octodums of ihe Romans ) consists of two 
parts— the one sitnated on the Simplon road, the other, Bourj; 
de Marligny, more than a mile distant up the valley of the 
Dranse. lis position on the high road of the Simplon, at the 
termination of the char-road from the St. Bernard, and the 
mule-path from Cbamouni, renders it the constant resort of 
travellers. It is a small town of no prepossessing appearance, 
1480 Fr. ft. above the sea, placed near the spot where the 
Rhone receives the Dranse, a torrent by which Martigny itself 
' and the village of Bourg do Martigny have been twice nearly 
destroyed, in 1545 and in 1618. Marks of the last inundation 
(described in Route 109) are still visible on the walls of many 
ofthe houses, and the massive construction of the lower walb 
of the post-house is designed to protect it from the eflPects of 
similar caUstrophes. The monks of St. Bernard have (heir 
head-quarters in a Convent within the town, from which the 
members stationed on Oie G^eat St., Bernard are relieved at 
intervals. The Monastery of the Great St. Bernard is ql 
kiurney of 10 hours, from hence. ( See Route 108. ) 

The valley of Chamounl may be reached in ^ hours by rlhe 

Route 59. ' Pass of the Simphn^Sion. 219 

pdFses or tbe Tdle Noire (R 116), or Col de Aalmc (Roule 

The Waterfall of the Sallenche is 4 miles f^om Martigny, 
lower down the valley. (See p. 214.) 

At Marttgny the Rhone makes an abrupt bend, forming 
nearly a right angle. For ibany miles above the town the 
bottom of the valley through which it flows is a flat swamp, 
rendered desolate and unwholesome by the overflowings of 
the jfthine and its tributaries, which, not being carried ofl* by 
a suflicient declivity in their beds, stagnate, and eihalea most 
injurious malaria under the rays of a buVning sun. From this 
eause and the absence of pure drinking-waier, the valley is a 
hotbed of disease; its inhabitants are dreadfully aflDictedwith 
goitre (S 19), cretinism, and agties; and the appearance of 
decrepitude, deformity , and misery, arrests the traveller's 
attention at every step. A lolerabie wine, called Coquempiii, 
is grown upon the hills; the low flats- produce little except 
rushes, rank grass, and alders. The mountains which here 
bound the valley have a bare and desolate aspect. 

3 1/i Riddes. After crossing the Rhone the road|>a8ses 
fhe foot-^path leading to the Diablerets ( Route 58), and soon 
^fler the twin castles of Sion appear in sight. 
. 2 1/* iSi6n (German Sitten ). — inns: Poste; Croix 
Blanche, dirty. This town, anciently the capitalof the Seduni, 
is the see of a bishop, whose predecessors were at one time 
among the most powerful and wealthy seigneurs in Switzer- 
land, and who still convoke and preside over the General 
Assemblies of this democratic canton* It is the chief town 
of the Yallais, and has 2450 inhabitants. It has no less than :t 
extensive castles, which give the town a picturesque, and 
feudal aspect from a distance. Tourbillon, the castle seen on 
the 1. In advancing from Martigny, built 1492, and long the 
bishop's residence, is now a complete ruin. That on the left, 
or S. peak, called Valerta, contains a very ancient chureh; 
and serves now as a Catholic seminary. Beneath there is a 
third castle, called Majoria, from the majors»or ancient 
governors of the Yallais, its first occupants; it was burnt in 
1788 by a conflagration which destroyed the greater part oC 
the town. The Jesuits have a Convent in the town ; they 
have formed a collection of the natural history of the Vallais. 

The Bospital, under the care of the Sceurs de la Charity, 
contains many victims of goitre and cretinism, the prevailing 
maladies of the district. 

There is a mule-path from this over the mountains to Bex, 
pas»i08 tbe Diablerets (Route 58). 

.Above Sion German is the prevailing language of the 

220 Route b9. — Tonrtemagne — Pass of the Simplon, 

a 1/i Sicrre (Germ. Siders )— /nn :Soleil, a homble 

Mules may be hired here for the ascent of the remarkable 
Pass of the Gemmi (Rome 38). The path leading to it by the 
Baths of Loeche turns out of the post-road a litlle way beyond 
the town, before reaching the bridge. It is steep but highly 

The posl-road, after crossing the Rhone, and winding for 
some distance among irregular hillocks, passes, on (he rt. 
bank of the river, at the mouth of the gorge of the Dala, the 
picturesque village of Louche. The Baths are situated about 
9 miles above the village; a char-road leads to them. Tra- 
vellers coming from the Simplon turn aside here to visit 
them, and ascend the Gemmi. (Rnute 38). 

« 1/i Tourtemagne (Germ. Turlmau)— (/nn : Poste, 
Lion or Sun (?) tolerably good, but dear). 20 minutes' walk 
behind the inn is a Cascade of some repute among tourists. 
The volume of water is considerable. It is on the whole 
inferior to the fall of the Sallenche near Martigny, but the 
scene is interesting on account of its entire seclusion. The 
neighbourhood is overspread with marshes and stagnant 

2 1/i Yisp (Viege), a miserable village, with no. good 
inn, but Gnely situated at the junction of the Yisp with the 
Rhone. The valley divides at some distance above Visp into 
two branches ; the I leads to the foot of Monte Rosa by the 
pass of the Moro, one of the finest in Switzerland (Route 105); 
that on the rt. ascends the vale of St. Nicholas to the Mont 
Cervin (Route 106). 

The Gamsen and other torrents which fall into the upper 
end of the Vallais are most dangerous neighbours to the vil- 
lages and cottages on their banks. The bed of the torrent 
Yisp is 4 metres above a part of the village, and^he Saltine 
is 3 metres higher than Brieg. The miserable and poverty- 
stricken inhabitants are in consequence obliged to construct 
very considerable dykes to restrain them, but evep these de- 
fences are liable to destruction every 2 or 3 years. 

The desolation which the torrents spread over the fields, by 
their debris, will attract the rei^ark of every traveller; and 
the evil is constantly increasing, as the beds of the torrents 
rise as fast as the dykes arc raised to restrain them, till they 
flow along the top of a colossal aqueduct or wall of loose rocks, 
which the road ascends and descends like a hill. 

The ascent of the Simplon properly begins at Glys, a vil- 
lage distinguished by its large church; but, as the post-house 
and inn arc both situated atBrieg, a detour of about 3 miles is 
made to pass through it. 

1 1/2 Brieg. (The Inn^ Hdtel d'Angleterre (post), is tiic 

Route 59 -Pasf of the Simplon^-^Brieg, 2'2t 

tt^oal halting-place of travellers before or after crossing the 
Simplon : it contains 50 beds, but is not very comrortabic ) 
Bi'jeg is a small town or 650 inhabitants^ situated on a sunny 
slope by (he side or the Saltine, and overlool^iog the course or 
t()e Rhone, which here naalies a sharp bend. The most con- 
spicuous building is the Jesuits' College, The number of bro* 
thers at present (1837) does not eiceed 10, and their pupils 
amount to only 30. Ttiere is also an Vrsuline Convent. 

The upper valley of the Rhone above Brieg, and the 
Ifoute to the Grimsel and Gries, are described in Routes 88 
and 29. 

At Brieg the Simplon road quits the vale of the Rhone, 
beginning lo^iscend immediately from ihe post-house. The 
(listance from Brieg toDomo d'Ossola is 15 leagues==:about 4<X 
English miles; and the journey usually occupies 10 hours — 
1 to reach Simplon, and 3 1/2 thence to Donio d Ossola. On 
foot it will take full 10 hours' good walkiug to go from Brieg 
to Domo d*OssoU. 

The construciion of a route over the Simplon was decided 
I^pon by Napoleon immediately after the battleofMarongo,while 
the recollection of his own diflicult passage of the Alps by 
the Great St. Bernard (at that time one of the easiest Alpine 
passes) was fresh in his memory. The plans and surveys by 
^hich the direction of the road was determined, were made by 
M. Cdard, and a large port,ion of the works was executed un-. 
derthesuperinlendence of that able engineer. Itwascornmen- 
^cd on the Italian side in 1800 and ontheSwis&in 1801. It took 
^ years to complele,.lhougb it was barely passable in 1805, and 
{nore than 30,000 men were employed on it atone time. To give 
a notion of the colossal nature of the undertaking, it may be 
nienlicned that th^e number of bridges, great and small, con- 
structed for the passage of the road between Brieg ai^d Sesto 
amounts to 611, in addition to the far more vast and costly 
constructions, such as terraces of massive masonry miles in 
length; of 10 galleries, either cut out Qflhe living rock or 
built of solid stone; and of 20 houses of refuge to shelter tra- 
vellers, and lodge the lal^ourers constantly employed in taking 
care of the i^oad. Its breadth is throughout at least 25 ft., 
in some places 30 ft., and the a\erage slope qo^here exceeds 
inches/in 6. 1/2 feet. 

To use the eloquent words of Sir James Mackintosh, *' the 
$implon may be safely said to be the most wonderful of useful 
works, because our canals and docks surpass it ii} utility, 
acience, and magnitude, but they have no grandeur to the eye. 
its peculiar character is, to be the greatest of all those monu- 
ments that at once dazzle the imagination by their splendour 
and are subservient to general convenience." It may be 
observed in addition that (exc($pt tl)e Cenis) the Simplon wa%. 

222 Route 59. —The Simj^en^The Camlii€r. 

the first of iheipvat carriage-r<MMlst>peiied acroMthe W- Alp&; 
mid, tboitgh oibers ^ince constructed surpass it in some res* 
pects, especially in tlie elevation attained (0. g. the Stelvio), 
yet this bas tbe merit of originality, and the others are mere 
(*o(Hes. This is the first eiample of the triumph of human 
power and Intellect over nature, apparently invincible. 

The cost of this road averaged aboiHt t6,0002. per league 
(f . 0. 400,000 fr.) The object of Napoleon in its formation i^ 
well marked by the question which, on two diflPerent ocra- 
Fions, he first asked of he engineer sent to him to report 
progress—" Le canon, quand pourra-t-il ffasser au Simplon?'* 

The postmasters on both sides of the mountain have th^ 
right to attach one extra horse to light carriages and 2 or more 
to heavy ones in ascending (he mountain : indeed, as many 
as eight horses are sometimes required io drag up a heavy 
hindau. Berisol, the first posthouse above Brieg, is some- 
times without horses, in which case those from Brieg are taken 
on for two stages. By following the old char-road the pedes- 
trian may abridge the distance to the summit by several 
Trifles ; but it is rough, and more fatiguing than the carriage- 

The ascent of the Simplon begins at once from the post- 
house in Brieg. About 1/2 a mile above the town the road 
passes, on the rt., the lofty covered bridge over the Saltine^ 
now little used, since most vehicles make the detour by Brieg 
Instead of going direct to or from Glys, whither this bridge 
conducts. I'he road then makes a wide sweep, turning away 
from the Glylzhorn, the mountain which bounds the valley 
on the rt., towards the Breilhorn, oh the opposite side, skirl* 
ing a little hill dotted with white chapels and crowned by a 
cnlvery. It then again approaches the sorge of the Saltine, 
skirling the verge of a precipice, at the bottom of which the 
torrent is seen at a vast depth, forcing its way among black 
and bristling slatc-rocks, which seem still shattered by the 
convulsion which first gave a passage to its waters. It is a 
scene of grandeur, almost of terror. At the upper end of the 
ravine, high above his head, the traveller may discern the gla- 
ciers under which the road is carried, but which he will 
require at least 3 good hours to reach, on account of the .si- 
nuosities of the route. Looking back, he will perceive the 
valley ( f the Rhone, as far as Tourtemagne, spread out as a 
map at his feet; Brieg and Naters remain long in sight. It 
is a corstint pull against the collar from Brieg to the second 
refuge. Here the road, carried for some distance nearly on 
a level, is compelled to bend round the valley of the Ganther 
until it can cross the torrent which traverses it by another 

lofty bridge, called Pcni de Gonther, The upfier end of I his 
fwild ravine is subject to avalanches almost every winter, Mkb 
€now of which nearly (IHs it up, and reaches sometimes to the 
€rown of the arch. This bridge is loft uncovered, from the 
fear justly entertained by the engineers that the terrific gusts 
or currents of air which accompany the fall of an avalanche 
might blow the arch entirely off, were much resistance of flat 
timber-woik presented to it. The road originally traversed 
a eatlery cut in the rock near this, but it has been removed. 
Alter crossing the bridge the road turns down the opiMMite 
«ide, and then ascends by several zigzags to ihe third refuge, 

2 1/S Ber esa I, or Persal, a homely tavern, consisting of i 
buildings connected by a roof across the road, where a few 
posthorses are kept, and brandy, cheese, milk, and such-like 
refreshments may be procured. It may be reached in 2 1/9 
liniirs from Brieg. 

The first gallery which the road traverses is that of Schalbet, 
93 feet Jong— 1195 metres above Glys. Near this, and hence 
Co the summit, should the sky be clear, the traveller's attention 
will be riveted by the glorious view of the Bermse Alps, 
which bound the Vallais and form Uie rt.-hand wall of the 
valley of the Rhone. The glittering white peaks of the 
Breithorn, Jungfrau,and Mdiich are magnificent objects in 
ibis scene, while below them is spread out the glacier of 
Alctsch, one of tiie most extensive in the Al|)s. 

Fifth Refuge, called Schalliet. ** Here a picture of desoialion 
surrounds the traveller. Tlie pine has no loi^ger the scanty 
pittance of soil which it requires for nourishment; the hardy 
but beautiful Alpine flower ceases to embellish ifae sterile 
solitude; and the eye wanders over snow and glacier, frav- 
tnred rock and roaring cataraci, relieved only by that stupen- 
dous monument of human labour the road itself, winding 
along the edges of precipices, penetrating the primeval gra* 
n i I e. striding over thefurions torrent, and burrowing through 
<Jark and dripping grottoes beneath accumulated masses of 
ice and snow.'*— Johnson. 

The portion of the road between the fifth refuge and the 
tiimmit is the most dangerous of all, at the season when 
avalanches fall, and tourmentes arise, on which account it is 
provided withe places of shelter, viz. 3 galleries, a refuges, 
and a hospice, within a distance of not more than 3000 n»etres. 
The head of the ^rge of Schalbet, a wild recess in the ilanks 
of the mount Simplon. or Monte Leone, is filled up with 
glaciers, beneath which, along the edge of a yawning abyss, 
f^e road is necessarily conducted. 'These fields of everlasting 
ice. forming the Kallwasser glacier, in the hrat of summer 
feed 4 er ft furious terrcnts, the sources of tbc Sattiiic, and in 

£24k loaU 59. "^The Simpton^HosfHcr. 
V inter discharge freqiienl avalanches inio ihe gulf below. 
To protecl this portion of the road 3 galleries, called, from 
their vitiiiiiy to the glacier«, Glacier Galleries, partly exca- 
vated, portly built of masonry strongly arched, have been 
«onstructed. By an ing(>nious contrivance of the engineer 
they serve in places as bridges and aqueducts at the same 
lime, the torrents being conducted over and beneaih Ihera; 
iiud the traveller is surprised to find his carriage suddenly 
«!riven in perfect safety underneath a considerable /Waterfall. 
Ihese galleries have been recently extended far beyond their 
original leugth, for greater security. In the spring the avalan- 
< hcs slide over their roofs. ' 

The Sixth Hel'uge is also a barrier, at which a toll of 2 fr. 
is pai;l for each horse, to defray the cost oi' keeping the road 
ill repiiir. A simple cross of wood, a few yards further, marks 
the highest summit or culminating point of the road, 2018 
iiielres, or about 6562 ft., a!)ove the level of the sea. About 
1/2 a mile beyond it stands the New Hospice, founded by 
Aupoleon for Ihe reception of travellers, but long left unfi- 
nished for want of funds, and even now not entirely furnish-* 
«d within. Externally it is a plain. solid edifice, conUining 
scvcr.'.l very neat bedrooms for masters , a drawing-room 
|)rovided with a piano, a refectory, a chapel, and about 30 beds 
for travellers of the common sort. It is much more comfor- 
table than the hospice on the Great SU Bernard, and is even 
^var^rled with a beating-apparatus. It is occupied by 3 or i 
brothers of the Augustine order, members of the same coni- 
luuniiy as those on the Great St. Bernard The prior is the 
amiable Father Bjrras, wht)se civility must be remembered 
by all who have visited the Great St. Bernard within the 
last 25 years, during which he resided there. Several of the 
<elcbrated dogs of St. Bernard are kept here, but they are 
rafely employed in active service. The nmnks are very happy 
tr» show the mansion to travellers, and to receive, lodge, and 
entertain thom in stormy weather and during winter; but at 
other times strangers have no excuse for availing themselves 
of Ihe hospitality of the house, since the inn at Simplon is 
fiood, and not far distant. The establishment is similar to 
that on the Great St. Bernard, except thiU it is more limite* 
in extent and funds. (For further particulars «ce Route t08. ) 
, A large open valley of considerable extent, bwmded by 
snow-c!ad heights, having the appearance of a drained lake, 
oi'cupics the summilof the Simplon. It is devoid ofpirturesque 
interest, all around is barrenness, and nothing but lichens and 
coarse herbage grow on the bare rocks. Below the road, on 
the rt., stands a tall tower, the original hospice before the new 
« je was built. A gradual but continued descent leads past 
IbeSeventhfttfuge (ruined), in about 3 miles, to Ihe village of 

PouH ^d.-^Simplon-^Gorge ofGondo. 223^ 

3^ \p Simplon (Ital. Sempione). (fnn :Poste; affords. 
•lean oeds, and a good dinner at 3 Tr. ) The belated traveller 
may easily content himself with such quarters — indeed, no. 
other are to be found i^^arcr than Domo^ d'Ossola, a drive oC 
3 1/3 hours at the least. I'he traveller should here supply 
himself >rith a wooden sabot to save the iron drag of his. 
carriage, as the descent now becomes rapid, in spite of the- 
ynXAt circuit which Ihe road< makes in order to diminish the 

By a well-constructed bend the traveller reaches the Gal^ 
lerie d'Algaby, the first excavation, on the Italian side, about 
9 leagues from Brieg and 5 from Domo d'Ossola, on the banks 
of the torrent Do veria. The lower orifice of this tunnel is 
half blocked up by a wall with loopholes, constructed, 181 i, 
lio defend the passage and convert it intua military post. The 
road dives into, this gallery, and then, by a. more gradual 
slope, enters the Gorge of Gondo, one of the grandest and* 
most savage in the Alps, which narrows and deepens at every 
step, until its. precipices in some places actually overhang the 
road, which is squeezed in between them on one side and tho 
Tretting torrent on the other. It is bounded by slate rocks, 
whose smooth vertical sides deny support to any vegetation; 
only now and then a tuft of grass lodged in a cleft, or a fringe 
of Or-trees growing above the gorge, and visible at a great 
height on the verge of the precipice, contrast agreeably with, 
the unvaried surface of black rock. The base of these clifTs 
and the bed of the stream are in places heaped up with vast 
shattered fragments , ruins of the mountains above ; while 
loosened masses still hanging on the slope seem to threaten 
the passenger below. 

The Doveria is now crossed by a wooden bridge called. 
Ponte Alto, an approach to which has been formed by scarp- 
ing the rock with gunpowder. Some way further a vast pro-. 
Jecting buttress of rock juts out from the mountain on the I., 
and seems to block up all further passage. It indeed formed 
a serious impediment to the construction of the road, over- 
come, however, by the skill of the engineer, who has bored it 
through, with another of those artiflcial caverns. This Gallery. 
ofGondo is the longest cat through solid rock in the whole 
line of the Simplon, as it, measures 596 ft.; it was also the 
most diflBcult and costly to make, on account of the extreme 
hardness of the rock (granite?) : for it required the incessant 
labour of more than 100 workmen, in gangs of 8, relieving 
each other day and night, to pierce a passage in 18 months. 
The progress of the work would have been stiU more tedious 
liad the labourers confined themselves to the two ends; but. 
the engineer caused two lateral openings to be made, by which 
s.lhojrock was attacked in i places at once. The miners. 


228 Route b9.—EiiirdHce into Ilaly. 

were suspended by ropes to ibe race of the rock oniil a lodge- 
nieiit was efTected, to commence these side openings, which 
DOW serve as windows to light the interior. Opposite one 
of them is seen the inscription '* jEre Halo, 1805/' 

Close to the very mouth of this remarkable grilery the 
roaring waterfall of the Frasoinodi leaps down from the rocks, 
close to theroady which is carried over it on a beautifiil bridge. 
Mr. Brockedon, an artist of skill, as well as a traveller of 
experience, remarks, in hia Excursions among the Alps, thai 
the scenery of this portion of the Yal Doveria, in coming 
from Switzerland, bursting suddenly upon the traveller as he 
issues from the gallery, ** offers perhaps the finest assem* 
blage of obiects to excite an emotion of the soblime, that is 
to be found in the Alps.'* The traveller should pause and 
look back after proceeding about 40 yards. The rocks rise 
on both sides as straight as walls, attaining the samnit of 
wild sublimity. The little strip of sky above, the torrent 
roaring in the dark gulf below, the white foam of the water- 
fall, the graceful arch, and the black mouth of the cavern, 
form a picture which has been spread over the world by the 
pencils of all our first landscape-painters. A number of 
zigzags now conduct to a bridge which was carried away by 
an avalanche during a dreadful storm which ruined a great 

EBft of the Simplon road, on the 24th of August, 1834, and 
as only recently been replaced. 

Gondo, the last village in the Yallais, consists of a few 
miserable huts, grouped round a singular, tall building, 7 
stories high. An hour's walk by the side of the torrent, 
which falls in a cascade down tbert.-hand wall of the valley, 
leads to a gold-mine, which, though it barely produces a 
few particles of the precious metal, is still worked in the hope 
of gain. The traveller enters Italy a short while before 
reaching the Sardinian village of 

8 1/2 Isella» where the custom-house and passport-office 
are situated. 

The tempest of 183i fell with all its violence upon this pari 
of the road, which it destroyed for a space of nearly 8 miles » 
that is to say, for this distance the portion which it carried off 
was greater than that which It left. Every bridge of stone 
was swept away ; in some instances, even the materials of 
which the bridge was built disappeared, and the very place 
where it stood was not to be recognised. Every torrent fall^ 
ing into this part of the valley brought down with it aa 
avaUinche of stones; the damage done to the road is eve» 
now (1837) scarcely repaired, but the air of desolation caused 
hy it will never be effaced. The Gallery of Isella,a narrow, 
arch of rock a little below the village, was fiooded by the 
torrent pouring through It, so high Were the wttecs swettaUi 

Ixnvite 59.— Tft# Skt^ion^Doma d'Oisi^ia. i2T 
At the mouth of the Val Qovedro, a handsome new bridge 
supplies the place of the one demolished by the torrent over 
"^^hich ii pa^es. 

Het-eabouts a change comes over the valley, from nakedness 
to the rich green foliage of the chestnut, which shades the 
road and to that of the dark Or which clothes the summits 
of the hitherto bare mountains atovc* The last gallery is 
traversed a little before reaching Crevola, where the Doveria 
IS crossed for ihe last time by a flne lofty bridge of 2 arches, 
nearly 00 ft. high, previous to it^ flowing into the river Toc- 
€ia, or Tosa, which here issues out oftheYal Formazza, 
and the Val Yedro terminates in the Val d'Ossola. The 
niule-roads from the Gries and Grimsel, passing the (ails of 
4he Tosa (Route 29>, fall into the Simplon route at Crevola. 
• It is now that the traveller really finds himself in a diffe- 
rent region and in an altered climate : the softer hues of earth 
and sky, the balmy air< the trellised vines, the rich, juicy 
stalks of the maize, the almost deaf^ng chirp of the grass- 
hoppers, and, at night, the equally loud croakings of the 
frogs— the white villages, with their tall, square bell towers, 
also white, not only scattered thickly along the valley, but 
|>erGhed on every little jutting platform on the hill-side-ali 
these proclaim the entrance to ttaly, Eustace has remarked 
that ''the valley which now opens out to view is one of the 
most delightful thai Alpine solitudes enclose, or the foot of 
the wanderer ever traversed;** a remark which, though true, 
will bear much modification, in the opinion of those who 
quit Italy by this route instead of entering it. It is only by 
those who approach it from the «orth that its charms can be 
fully appreciated. 

2 1/ {. D o m d'Os s o I ^^(Inn : La Posta— tolerably good, 
and as clean as Italian inns usually are). This is a small and 
unimportant town, with few objects of interest, save that it 
is Italian— in very stone. Houses with colonnades, streets 
with awnings, shops teeming with sausages, macaroni, and 
garlic, lazy-looking, loitering lazzaroni, in red nightcaps, and 
bare, mahogany-coloured legs, intermixed with mules, bur- 
ley priests, and females veiled with the mantilla, fill up the 
picture of an Italian town. 

The ascent from this to Simplon occupies 7 hours. From 
Domo to Milan takes up 12 hours* postings exdiusive of" stop- 
pages. The bridge over the Tosa , about 6 miles below Domo, 
was carried off by the tempest of lS3i, and has not yet been 
replaced (1837). Carriages are ferried across to 

9 Vofgogna^The Tosa, in spite of its rapidity, is naviga- 
ble a short distance above this place; the barges are towed 
up by double teems of 6 or S horses on each bank. The in- 
Hrestiiig valley of Anzasca (Route lOd), leading up to Monte 

223 Uouie^'^.^-Tke S'mtplon—Borromean J stands. 

ftosa, opens out opposite Vogogna. Near Ornavasca are ibe 
marble quarries (or magiiesian limestone) vhieh have supplied 
the stone for Milan Cathedral. 

At Gravellona a small stream is crossed which drains the 
Lago d'Orta, and a road, running up its 1. bank, leads, in ^jl 
of an hour, lo the lake of Orta, one of the most picturesque 
on the Italian border. (See Routes 101, 102.) -^t Fariolo 
the Lago Miiffgiore bursts into view, with the Isola Madre, 
tlieiioriherniiiostortheBorromean Islands, in the distance. 
A little rurthor are quarries of a beautifut pink granite, which 
ilcFivcs its colour Trom the prevalence of pink felspar in it. 
'Ihitt mineral is obtained 4iere in beautiful flesh-coloured 

3 Bavcno~(rnn: La Posta, near the lake, but the roa^ 
nuis between it and the water; tolerably good cuisine, but 
wnnt of cleanliness.) 

The Monte Monterone, rising behind the village, com-* 
inands one of (he Gnest panoramic views of the Alps — ba- 
vin;; at its feet ihe Lago d'Orta on one side, and Lago Mag- 
gore on the other. It ti kcs 3 hours to reach the top. Its 
slope.s are said to be infested with snakes. 

The W. ^horeof the lake, as far as Sesto, being the Sar-- 
dinian frontier, is lined with custom-house ofTiciers, who 
.'carch all who land from the states of Austria or Switzer- 

The Borromean Islands may be conveniently visited from 
ISaveno; and the" traveller on his way to Milan may send 
rounci his carriage to nscet him at the Count's Stables (I'Escu^ 
«ieria), the nearest point, or at Stresa. A boat from Baveno, 
with 2 rowers, to go and return, costs 5 fr. if not kept more 
than 2 hours ,* beyond that, 10 sobs per rower is charged for 
vvery hour. The steam-boat which navigates the Lago 
Alaggiore passes near the islands every morning, about 9, 
on Us way to Sesto. and again, on its way back, at 3; so that, 
by setting off early froniBaveno, a traveller (having no car- 
vi'af^e) might see them, and avail himself of this rapid con^ 
veyance to reach Setito. 

It takes 25 minutes to row from Baveno to the IsolaBella, 
passing, on the way,' the Isola Pesca tori, so celled because 
lis inhabitants are poor fishermen, whose rude semi-plastered 
hovels contrast abruptly with the stately structures on the 
neighbouring island. , The /sola l^eHa belongs to the Count 
Morromeo, who resides a part of the year in the vast, unfi- 
nished Palace which occupies one end of it. An ancestor of 
the family, in 1671, converted this mass of bare and barren 
jtlate-rock, which lifted itself a few feet above the surface of 
the lake, into a beautiful garden, teeming with (he vegetation 
«f the tropics. It consists of 10 terraees, the lowest founded 

Route i9. — Isoia Belia. 22* 

^n piers Ihrnwn into the lake, rising in a pyramidal form one 
above another, and lined v/iih statues, vases, obelisks, and 
bKicli cypresses^ Upon tlicse, ns upon the hanging gardens of 
Babylon, flourish in the open air, not merely the orange,, 
citron, myrtle, and pomegranate, but aloes, cactuses, the 
camphor-tree ( of ^hich there is a specimen 20 ft. high ), 
iiugnr-cane,8nd colTee-pianl— ail inhabitants of tropical cobn- 
tries— and this within a day*s journey of thcLapiand climate 
of the Simplon, and within view of the Alpine snows. 

The proverbial disagreement of doctors is nothing in com-* 
parison with the discord of travellers on the merits of this 
island. To SimMid the sight of the island at a distance 
suggests the idea of "a huge Perigord pie," stuck round with 
the neads of woodcocks and partridges 4" Matthews exioH Mas 
** the magic creation of labour and taste ... a fairy-land, 
which might serve as a model for the gardens of Calypso ;*' 
Sausstire calls it ** une magniflqne caprice, une pens^e gran- 
diose, line esp^cc de creation;" while Brockedon sternly 
pronounces it as " worthy only of a rich man's misplaced ex^ 
travagance, and of the taste of a confectioner.'" To taste, it 
may have little pretension; but, for a traveller fresh from the 
rigid climate of the north, this singidar creation of art, with 
its aromatic groves, its aloes and cactuses starting out of the 
rocks— and, above all, its glorious situation, bathed by the 
dark-blue waters of the lako^ reflecting the sparkling white 
villages on its banks, and the distant snows of the Alps, 
cannot fail to afford pleasure, and a visit to the Isola Bella 
will certainly not be repented of. 

Every handrul of mould on the island was originally brought 
from a distance, and requires to be constantly renewed. It 
is probable that its foundation of slate-rock favours the growth 
of tender plants by long retaining the heat of a noon-day sun; 
but few persons are aware that, in addition to this, the ter- 
races are boarded over during winter, and the plants pro^ 
iccled from the frost by stoves heated beneath : thus convert- 
ing the terraces into a sort of hothouse. The garden is let 
out to a nurseryman from Genoa, who keeps it in order, 
shows: It to strangers, and receives their douceurs. 

A laurel (bay) of gigantic size is pointed out, as well for its 
remarkable growth as for a scaron its bark, where Napoleon, 
it i« said, cut with a knife the word *' battaglia," a short while 
before the battle of Marengo. Rousseau once thought of 
making the Isola Bella the residence of his Julie, but changed 
his mind on reflecting that so artiflcial an abode would not 
be consistent with the simplicity of her character. 

The Palace, standing cheek-by-jowl with a group of ruinous 
and very humble cottages, is shown to strangers, but is on 
tbewholC; scarcely worth entering, unless the visitor haa 


230 Rouii 59.—Jrona-^StatM of St. Certo^. 

plenty of time on bis hands. The most remarkable among 
ibe pictures it contains are those by Jampesfa— an artist who 
murdered his wife to marry another, and .took refuge here 
afier the deed, being sheltered by the ownrr of the mansion. 
The lower story is a suite of grottoes, intended as a cool re- 
treat from the heat of summer. 

The isola Madre, the largest of \he islands^ also contains 
abeiiutiful garden, and has more natural beauty .than the Isolm 
Bella, The upper end of the Lago Maggiore is described 
in KouteOl. 

The Simplon road, where it skirts the lake, is as almost 
uninterrupted terrace of masonry, studded with granite posis 
at intervals of a few feet. Travellers coming from Milan 
may embark on the lake to visit the Borromean islands at 
Stresa, where boats are kept. 

Beyond Belgirate, a pretty village, remarkable for thenane 
ber of villas with terraces and gardens in front : the colossal 
statue of St. Catio Borromto appears on the hill above the 

21/2 Arena— (Inn : Posta, close to the water; tolerably 

An ancient town, of 4000 inhab., with a small castellated 
harbour. It is built on the very margin of the lake ; the prin- 
cipal street, in which the inn is situated, is so narrow that 
only one carriage can pass. I'hc Simplon road runs through 
the upper part of the town. The steamer touches here twice 
Q-day ; carriages can be embarked here. 

The principal Ch, (Sania Maria) contains a beauUfifl 
picture by Gaudenzio Ferrari— a Holy Family, with shut* 
ters, bearing figures of saints, and the portrait of a Countess 
Borromeo, by whom it was presented to the church. St. 
Carlo Borromeo was born at Arena, 153S, in the old castle, 
now nearly destroyed. 

On the summit of a hill, about half an hour*s walk from 
the town, sUnds the Colossal Statue of Si. CharUs Borro- 
meo, 66 ft. high, and placed on a pedestal 40 ft. high. The 
head, hands, and feet, alone, are cast in bronze, the rest of 
the figure is formed of sheets of beaten copper, arranged 
round a pillar of rough masonry which forms the support of 
it* The saint is represented extending his hand towards the 
lake, and over his birth-place, Arena, bestowing on them bis 
benediction. There is grace in the attitude, in spHe of the 
gigantic proportions of the figure, and benevolence beams 
from thecountenance;— altogether the effect of it is good and 
very impressive. It was erected, 1697, by subfcriptions, 
principaUy contributed by the Borromean fomily. it is pos- 

RoiiU 59.—Sesio to Milan. 23i 

Bible (0 enter the stalue and to mount up into the head, but 
(be ascent is difllciiU and futiguiiig, and not to be attempted 
by the nervous. H is elfected by means of two ladders, lied 
together (provided by a man who lives hard by), resting on 
the pedestal, and reaching up to the skirt of the saint*s robe. 
Between the folds of the upper and lower drapery the adven- 
turous climber squeezes himself through^a task of some 
difficulty, if he be of corpulent dimensions; and he then 
clambers up the stone pillar which supports the head, by 
plaping his feet upon the iron bars or cramps by which tbo 
copper drapery is attached to it. To cfTecl this, he must as- 
sume a straddling attitude, and proceed in the dark till he 
reaches the head, which he will find capable of holding 3: 
persons at once. Here he may rest himself by sitting down 
in the recess of the nose, which forms no bad substitute for 
an arm-H;hair. In the neighbouring church several relics of 
St. Carlo are preserved. 

The view of the peaked snowy ridge of the Monte Rosa, 
from the lower part of the Lago Maggiore, is magnificent. 
A ferry-boat conveys the traveller across the Ticino, which 
forms the outlet of the lake, into the territory of Austrian 
I^ombardy, and the small town of 

i 1/9 Sesto Calende.— No good inn. Passports are 
strictly examined, and no traveller is allowed to pa$$ the 
frontier 'unless he be provided with the signature of an Aus* 
trian mtntsfer— in default of which he is sent back to Turin 
or Berne to procure it. Sesto is said to have been a Roman 
station, and to have received its name from a market held 
here on the 1st of the monih—Sexto Calendarum. It stands 
upon the left bank of the Ticino, just below the spot where it 
quits the Lago Maggiore. The Ch. of St. Donato is a struc- 
ture of the middle ages. . 

A Steamer starts at one o'clock every day, but Sunday, for 
the head of the lake, stopping at Arona and calling off the 
Borromean Islands. It corresponds with the velocifera (om- 
nibus) to Mikin, which sets out within half an hour of the 
arrival of the steamer. For fares, and other particulars res- 
pecting the Lago Maggiore, see Route 91. 

The road to Milan lies over a monotonous flat, the begin** 
niog of the greai plain of Lombardy, between avenues of cab- 
bage-headed rouiberry-trees, hedges of acacia, and row« o( 
yinps tjrained betwieen fruit-trees, so as completely to hide 
all view on either side. The country is excessively fertile* 
but void of interest, and the road usually most disagreeably 
from the dust. The posting is not on a good footing, and 
lii« r«te ol driving it very slow— even the prospeet of douUe 

Route eQ. — Constitfice to Si. Gall. 

biirno-mano has liltle elTect in accelerating the postilions. 
The name of every village is written on the wall at the en- 
trance. The first which we pass is Soma, containing an an- 
cient castle or the Vlsconii, fringed with swallow-tailed bat- 
tlements, and a remarkable cypress-tree of great age, one of 
the largest known. It is stated to have been a tree in the 
days of Julius Cssar; it is 121 ft. high and 23 ft. in girth. 
Napoleon respected it at the time ^f the construction of the 
route of the Simplon, causing the road to diverge from the 
straight line on account of It. 

Near this was fought the first great battle between Scipio 
and Hannibal, commonly called the Battle of the Ticinus, in 
which Scipio was worsted. 

i 1/4 Gallerati.— Beyond this is Cascina delleCorde (of 
the ropes), also called Cascina del bon Jesu. At Busto, a 
mile to the W. of this, is a church designed by Bramante, and 
con ta i n i ng frescoes by Gaudenxio Ferrari. 

1 Legnanello. 

1 R h 0. — Outside the town is a very handsome church, 
designed bv Pellegrini ; the facade, recently finished, is by 
Pollack. Near this are extensive rice-g;round8, the vicinity 
of which is very unhealthy. 

The road terminates and enters Milan by the Arco del 
Sempiofie (della Pace), commenced by Napoleon, and finish- 
ed by the Austrian goveniment 1838. 

1 1/i MihAV — {inns : Gran Bretagna; Albergo Realer 
Croce di Malta— good and quiet.) For a description of Mi- 
lan , see Starke*s Travels, or The Hand-Book for Tbatel- 


ROUTE 66. 


8 1/2 stunden » 27 3/i Eng. miles. 
Constance is fully described in Route 7. 

The Lake of Constance. 

Three steam-boats navigate the take of Constance, mak- 
ing voyages 2 or 3 limes a-week between Constance and 
SchafThausen ; Constance and Ueberlingen ; Ludwigshafen, 
Friedrlchshafen, Rorschach, Lindau, and Bregenz. The 
time and place of starting are promulgated in a printed tarif, 
which will be found hung lip in all the inns near the lake. 
It takes 5 hours tid go from Constance to Bregenz, and 3 to 
Rorschach or Friedrichshafen. 

The lake of Constance, called by the Germans Boden See, 
and anciently knoi^n to the Romans under the naitte Laouw 

IloiJie 66 - Co?t.siance io St Cull, 233 

lirigavUnxis (from Briganlia, Ihc modern Bregcnz), is Iwi- 
ilrietl by the terriiories of 5 different slates— Baden, TViirl- 
oinberg, Bavaria, Austria, and Switzerland, and a portion of 
its coasts belongs to each of them. It is about 4i miles )ong» 
fiojn Bregenz to Ueberlingen, and 30 from Bregenz to Con- 
M^ince; about 9 miles inride 4u the broadest part; 964 ft. is 
lis greatest depth; and it lies 1255 feet above the sea. 

Its main tributary is the Rhine, which enters at its E. 
extremity, and floin^s out under the walls of Constance. Its 
cccumulated deposits hav« formed an extensive delta at the 
i)t)|)Cr end of the lake, and arc annually encroaching fur*- 

Its banks, either flat or gently undulating, present little 
l)eaiity of scenery compared with other Swiss lakes; but they 
are eminently distinguished for their fertility, and its Sl 
shore is studded milh.a picturesque line of ruined castles or 
hill-forts of the middle ages. 

Jt is only at its £. extremity, in distant glimpses of the 
.^now-topped mountains of Yorailberg, that it displays any 
alpine featuies. 

Its waters, on an average, are lowest in the month of Fe- 
bruary, an^ highest in July, when the snows are melting : i( 
sometimes swells a foot in 34 hours at that season. 

Post-horses may be obtained on the route from Constance 
fo St. Gall, nearly on the same terms as in Buden. From 
Co' stance to Hub is reckoned as t post. 

Diligences go daily .in 5 hours from Constance to St« 

On quitting Constance the road passes the Augustine con- 
Ycnt of Krcuzlingen, which still maintains 10 brothers of 
the order. Though the foundntion is very ancient, the exist- 
ing edifice dates from the end of the 30 years* war, in the 
course of which the preceding building was destroyed. 

The canton of Thurgovia, which oc( ut)ies the S. shore of 
the lake from Constance to Arbon, is distinguished for its 
surpassing fertility. Instead of rocks and mountains, and 
alpine pastures, the characteristics of other parts of Switzer- 
land, this canton presents richly -cultivated arable land, 
Wiiving with corn and hemp : the place of forests is supplied 
■ hy orchards : it is indeed the garden and granary of Hel- 
vetia. The country is at the same time thickly peopled, 
cbounding in villages and cheerful cottages. 

1 1/4 The nunnery of Mi>nsterlingen, about4miles on 
the road, was suppressed in 1838, apd converted into an 
hospital. The surviving sisters are allowed to occupy one 
wi( g of the building during their lifc^tlme. 

2 Uttwyl. 

Ar^er parsing Romanshom, a village built on the point of 

23i R0uieeif^.'~St.GalL 

tongue of Uiih), the E. end of the lake, with the disf anc 
Alps lowering above it, comes into view. On the op|>osite 
shore of the lake is Friedrich'shafen and the Villa of the King 
of WQrtemberg, in which he usually passes a part of the 
summer. See Hand-Book for Sootebbii OBttVAicT. 

At Huh relays of post-horses may be obtained. Hence to 
St. Gall the distance is reckoned 1 1/S post, and the charge 
for two horses is 4 fr. 3 kr. From Hub to Constance is 1 post, 
and to Rorschach 1 1/4 post. 

2 Arbon, a walled town of 660 inhabitants, close upon 
the lake. The Romans, under Augustus, built a fort here, 
upon the high road from Atigst and Windisch to Bregenz, 
which they called Arbor Felix. It was abandoned by them 
to the Aliemanni in the 5th century. The Ccutle, on an 
eminence overlooking^ the lake, was built 1510, but its tower 
is said to rest on Roman foundations. The belfry, detached 
from the church, is boarded, not walled, on the side nearest 
the castle, in order that no force hostile to the lords of the 
castle should be enabled to shelter themieives in it, or an- 
noy the castle from thence. The monk St. Gall is said to 
have died at Arbon (6i0), and the place was a favourite resi- 
dence of Gonradin of Hobenstaufen. 

Travellers bound direct for Coire will proceed at once on 
to Rorschach, 1 1/4 post from Hub (Route 67), while the road 
to St. Gall turns S. 

A gradual but long ascent leads up-hill the whole way 
from the borders of the lake along a pleasing valley, near the 
upper end of which, lOUO feet above the lake of Constance, 
is situated 

2 3/i St. Gall — Inns: Hecht (Brochet), ycrv good; 
BOssii (Cheval). 

St. Gall, capital of the canton, is situated in an elevated val- 
ley on ihe banks of a small stream called the Steinach, and 
has a population of 10,333 souls. It is one of the principal 
seats of manufacturing industry in Switzerland. The manu- 
facture of muslins, known as Swiss muslins all over Europe^ 
is the most flourishing; but the spinning of cotton is also 
rapidly increasing. There are estensive bleacheries in the 
town, and the neighbouring slopes are white with linen. 

The antique walls, however, which still surround the town, 
and the ditch, now converted into gardens, tell of a totally 
different period and state of s(H:iety, and recall to mind the 
ancient history of St. Gall. If we may believe the legend, it 
it was in the early part of the 7th century tbii^t St. Gallus, a 
Scotch monk Ct Irish), left his convent in the island of lona, 
one of the Hebrides, and, after travelling over ajarge part of 
Europe converting the heathens, finally settled on the banks 
of the Steinach, then a wilderness buried in primieval woods^ 

Roaie m.—St GalL 236 

of which bears and ivolvc8 seemed the righirul tenants rather 
than men He taugbt the wild people around the arts of 
agriculture, as well as the doctrines of true religion. The 
Ji4^mi)le c«ll which the Scotch missionary bad rounded be- 
came ihe nucleus of civilization ; and 50 years after his death, 
when the fame of his sanctity, and the miracles reported to 
have been wrought at his tomb, drew thousands of pilgrims 
Xo the spot, it was replaced by a more magnificent edifice, 
founded under the auspices of Pepin THeristal. This Abbey 
was one or the oldest ecclesiastical establishments in Germa- 
ny. It became the asylum or learning during the dark ages, 
and was the most celebrated school in Europe between the 
8th and 10th centuries. Here the works or the authors of 
Home and Greece were not only read but copied, and we owe 
io the labour of these obscure monks many of the most va- 
luable classical authors, which have been preserved to mo- 
dern times in IMSS., treasured up in the Abbey of St. Gall; 
among them Quintilian, Silius Italicus, Ammian Marcellinus, 
and part of Cicero, may be mentioned. 

About the beginning of the 13th century St. Gall lost its 
reputation for learning, as its abbots exchanged a love of 
piety and knowledge Tor worldly ambition, and the thirst for 
political influence and territorial rule. The desire of security, 
in those insecure times, first induced the abbot to surround 
bis convent and the adjoining building with a wall and ditch, 
with 13 towers at intervals; and from that moment (the end 
of the 10th century) maybe dated the foundation of the town.. 
He and his 100 monks of the Benedictine order thought it no 
dis^grace to sally forth, sword in hand and helmet on head, 
backed by their SOO serfs, in the hour of danger, when the 
conyent was threatened by ungodlv laymen. The donations 
of pious, pilgrims from all papts or Europe soon augmented 
enormously the revenues or the abbots. They became the 
most considerable territorial sovereigns in N. Switzerland; 
their influence was increased by their elevation to the rank 
of princes of the empire; they were engaged in constant wars 
with their neighbours, and were latterly entangled in perpe- 
tual' feuds with their subjects at home. These bold burghers, 
who, in the first Jnstance, owed their existence and prospe- 
rity to the convent, became, Jn the end, restive under its rule. 
In the beginning of the 15th century the land of Appentell 
threw off the yoke of the abbot ; at the Reformation St. Gall 
itself became independent of him ; and in 1712 the ecclesias- 
tical prince was obliged to place the convent under the pro- 
tection of those very citizens whose ancestors had been his 

The French revolution caused the secularization of the 
abbey, and the sequestration of iti revenues foUowcd in 1805. 


Route m.-- St Gall. 

The last abbot, Paiuratitis Forster, died in 1829, a pensioner 
oil the bounty of others, in the convent of Muri. 

The Abbeif Church, now cathedral, was so completely 
modernised in the last century, that it possesses little to in-r 
terrst the stranger. 

The deserted Monastery is now converted into a pablrc 
(School, and the part of it which formed the abbot's Palace 
(Die Pfalz) now serves for the public olDces of the Govern-^ 
nient of the canton. 

The Convent Library (Slifls Bibliolheck) still exists in the 
town, and contains many curiosities, such as various ancient 
jMSS. either from Ireland, or transcribed by Irish monks; 
also a MS. of the Niebelungen Lied. 

At Ihc Cassino Hub will be found an excellent reading-, 

The Freudenberg, the neighbouring mountain on the W. 
of the town, commands from its summit, about 2 miles ulT. q 
fine' panorama, including the lake uf Constance and the 
moumains of St. Gall and Appenzell, with the Sentis at their 
head. A carriage-TOad leac^ up to the lop, where an inn i^ 

Diligences go from St. Gall daily to Constance, Winlcr- 
tliur, and Zurith; 4 times a-week to Wesen and Rappcrsch- 
w>l; twice a-week to Lindau ; once a-weeh to llregenz and 
Innsbruck; 3 ^f'mes a-week to Donaueschingep and Carlsr uhe; 
:i times a-week to Coire, by Rorschach, Allstlitteu, and thenc^ 
to Milan by the Splugen and Bernardin. 

Extra Post in Canton St. GalK 
Tax per PosI, I wo Horses. 


Fl. kr. Po»tK 

1 S(. GaM to RorscMch 2 42 

t 1/2 Rheineck 4 3 

I 1/2 Hub 4 3 

t 1/4 rFIawy'l 3 22 

1 l/4Fiawyl— MiiQJch- 
wpihT 3 22 

1/2 Rorscbacli — Rheir 
neck 1 40 

t 1/4 Hub 3 22 

1 l/8Rlieim>ck->Bregfnz3 2 


-Hobcuems 3 % 

1/4 Allslaeiten 3 2% 

I 1/4 Si-iinwald 3 22 
1 1/4 Sev<>len 3 22 
I 1/4Ragals 3 22 

1 1/2 Chiir 4 a 

3. horses per post 4 3 

4 6 2i 

Postilion's Trtnkgeld, 2 

horses 32 
-, 4 do, 4(H 

JRoute 67. —St. Gall to Cohe, 237 

ROUTE 67, 

St. gall to COIRE, by IIORSCHACH, nnElPrF.CK» ALTSliBT- 

. 8 Swiss posts ^^ 61 1/S Eng. miles. 

This road is supplied wilb posl horses (see above, and ^5). 
It is traversed by diligences 3 times a-week. Travellers 
should endeavour to reach PfeflTers in one day, as (he inter- 
mediatJe stations are not good sleeping-places. There is a cii- 
rect road from St. Gall to Altstatten, avoiding tbc detour by 
Rorschach and the Lake of Constance; but it is very sleep 
and bad, not fit for a heavy carriage. The pedestrian, wiih 
the aid of a guide, may reach Coire by Appenzell, crossing 
the mountains, to Wildhaus (Routes 68 and 71). 

1 Korschath— (/»«*: Post; Krone, dear and uncivil; 
Lowe). This little lake-^port and town of 1650 inhabitants is 
the principal corn-market in Switzerland The grain required 
to supply the greater part of the Alpine districts of N. Swit- 
zerland is imported from Suabia, in boats, across the lake, 
and is deposited temporarily in large warehouses here. Much 
muslin is made at Rorschach. 

A steamr-boat goes 5 times a-week between it and Fried- 
richshafen, in Wiirtemberg, and the steamers from Cons- 
tance and Lindau also touch here, regularly. The deposits of 
th6 Rhine are, itis^aid, forming themselves into shallows 
between- Rorschach and Lindau, which may soon impede 
the direct navigation of the lake between the two places. On 
the slope a little above the town in the large dilapidated buil- 
ding, called Siatthaltery, or Marienberg, a palace once of 
the proud abbots of St. Gall^ now a farm-house. Itcomn^ands 
a fine.Yiew from its terrace* Near it, perched on a projecting 
sandstone rock, is the desolate Cattle of St. Anne, wilb its 
square keep. 

: Skirting the foot of low hills clad with vineyards, beneath 
which the yellow-bellied pumpkins may be seen basking iq 
4he suD, the road passes along under the shadf of fruit-trees, 
1>ut soon quits the margin of the lake to cross the flat delta of 
the Rhine. The district around the mouth of the river 
abounds in marsh and is by no means healthy. 

i 1/2 Rhei neck— (inn: Krone) a village of 1370 inha- 
bitants, on the 1. bank of the Rhine, about i miles above its 
embouchure, situated under vine-clad hills, surmounted by 
a ruined castle, which was destroyed 1445 by theAppcnzellers. 
Jhere are several other castles on the neighbouring heights; 

St. Margarethen, a pretty village completely embowered 
Id a; grove, of walnut aod, fruit trees, is situated near the 

238 Eouie en.-^St. Gait to Coire. 

Austrian ferry, over the Bhine, which must be crossed in 
going to Bregenz or Liiidau (see Hand-book for S. Germany), 
but which our road leaves on the 1, It turns soon afterwards 
due S. up the valley of (he Bhine, through an untateres-^ 
ting district of flat and unhealthy marsh, interspersed with 
gravel-beds, which the traveller should get over as fast as 
possible, on account of malaria. The Bhine here is a wide, 
shallow, muddy, and unsteady stream, constantly changing 
its channel and overflowing its banks : it is not navigated 
except by wood rarts, which float down it. 

1 1/4 Altstitten~f/nn: Babe, Corbeau; just tolerable) 
—a village of 1815 inhabitants, in a fruitful neighbourhood; 
There is a road from this over (he hill of Stoss to St. Uall, by 
Gais (Boute 68); but it is very steep, only to be surmounted 
by the aid of extra horses, and barely practicable for English 
carriages. It takes two hours to reach the top. The view 
from it over the Alps of the Voralberg is fine. 

1 1/4 Sen nwa Id —(/nn: Post, by no meant first*rate; 
but tolerable). Down to the ITth century, the district whieh 
we now traverse belonged to the powerful barons of Hohen 
Sax, many of whose castles, reduced to ruins by the Ap-» 
penzellers, may still be discerned upon the heights on the 
W. of the Bhine valley. One of this family, a brave andnofaia 
soldier and a Protestant, escaped with difficulty from the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew at Paris, and on his retum 
home was murdered by his nephew. After this font deed, it 
is the popular belief that the blessing of G6d was withdrawn 
from the race : it is certain they never prospered. In i<ll6 
their vast domains were sold to Zurich, and the family became 
extinct soon after. The body 'Of the murdered tnan is still 
preserved in a perfect condition, in a coffin with a glass lid^ 
dried like a mummy, under the church- tower of ^nawald. 
This circumstance, and (he story connected with it, have 
given to the remains a reputation for sanctity; ^o that,thOBgh 
a Protestant, the Catholics have stolen some of the limbs as 
relics, and once actually carried off the bbdjf across the Bhine : 
it was, however, speedily reclaimed. 

Werdenber g— (/nrt; Post)— was the seat of a noble fe- 
mily of that name, who played an important part in eariy 
Swis shistory. The $<amm«cAIoM, the 'cradle of the race, stOl 
stands in good preservation above the town. A cro8s«road 
runs hence through the vale of Toggenburg, and past Wild* 
haus, to Schaffbausen (Boute 71). 

1 1/4 Sewelcn. 

Below Sargans (described in Boute 14), which we pass a 
little on the rt., the roads from the Grisons, and from Zurich, • 
meet that from St. Gall. 

1 1/9 Bag a tz —(/nn; Poster Hotal of Ihe Tamioa; not 

Route 61.— Baths ofFfeffers. 239 

Tery good) — a village situated at the mouth of the gorge 
(tobel) through which the torrent Tamina issues out into ihc 
Rhine. Moles and guides may be hired here (for 6 rr.)to k<> 
to PfefTers. The authorised charges may be seen in the tarif 
hung up, both at the inns here and at the baths. 

The Baths of Pfeffbiis, which no one .should omit to 
▼isit from Ragatz, are situated about 6 1/fi miles off, up the 
valley of Ihe Tamfna. The excursion to the baths and bark 
need not occupy more than 6 or 8 hours, which will be vvoll 
spent In exploring ims of the most extraordinary spots in 
Switzerland. There are two paths leading to them, practi- 
cable only on foot or on horseback— one, on the rt. bank of 
the Tamina, leads past the Convientof Pfeffers; beyond which 
a horse cannot go, and is 1 1/3 mile longer than that on the 
1. bank, the one commonly chosen, which is practicable Tor 
horses as Tar as the baths. The pedestrian may take one in 
going, the other in returning. 

The bridle-path on the I. bank of the Tamina, is carried at 
first np^ a very steep and fatiguing «scent, which it requires 
an hour to surmount, through beech-woods, and at times 
along the edge of the precipice, at whose Toot the Tamina is 
heard, chafing and roaring. After surmounting this portion 
the traveller emerges from the wood and crosses the sloping 
pastures which clothe the upper part of the valley. On the 
opposite side the Convent of Pfeffers is seen. At the hamiet 
of Yalens the path begins to descend by zigzags into the 
gloomy gorge of the Tamina, which is just like a crack 
traversing the valley lonsitudtnally, and at the bottom of this 
the traveller finds himself arrived at the Baths. 

The path along the right bank crosses the Tamina at Ra- 
gatz, and surmounts an equally steep ascent, on the top of 
which it reaches the Convent of Pfeffers^ finely placed on 
an elevated mountain-platform, commanding, on one side, 
the valley of the Rhine; backed by the tnajestic Falkniss; on 
the other, opening out towards the Lake of Wallenstadt and 
the peaks of the Sieben KurfQrsten. The Benedictine mon- 
astery of Pfeffers, founded 713, was suppressed, after an 
existence of 10 centuries, in 1838, by a decree of the Govern^ 
inent of the canton of St. Gall. " This suppression was effec- 
ted by the Radical party, in opposition to the Conservatives; 
and, being contrary to the act of Confederation and the gua-^ 
rantees of the Congress of Vienna, will probably, in due lime, 
be assigned as a reason for military interference.''— JP. The 
Convent once possessed a very extensive territory; its abbots 
were princes, but the French, as usual, appropriated their 
reveimes; and the little property that was restored to them 
at the termination of the French rule, including the baths, 
of whk'h ihey were proprietors, is now to be appropriated to 

240 route i}l.—BaUiS of l^ftfftrs, 

pious works, the educalion of the people, etc. The rcvcmsfSr 
of the convent were valued at 2t6;365 Swiss florins. The 
members of the fraternity are to be pensioned for their lives. 
The convent, a vast edifice, but not otherwise reinarkabie, 
was built 1665, in place of one destroyed by fire. It encloses 
a church in the centre, like all the convents of the Reno- 
dictine order. Near ibe convent stands the ruined caslle of 
Wartenstein. , 

After leaving behind the convent and hamlet, the path 
lies over the pastures of the upland valley, here carpeted 
wilh bright green, while its sides arc clothed in woods, out 
of which rise bare limestone peaks and cliffs. The ri\er 
Taniina flows, concealed from view, at the bottom of (he 
deep gash, or gorge, in the centre, which is so narrow that 
in places, ibe two sides appear united. The path, gradually 
descending, approaches this ^orge near a small wooden shed 
projecting over it, and containing a sort of crane or pulley, 
intended to lower down provisions and other things to the 
baths. This is, perhaps, the best point for viewing this sin- 
gular spot. On looking over the verge of the precipice you 
perceive, at the bottom of the ravine, at the vast depth of 
000 ft. below, ^he roofs of two large buildings, like cotton 
factories, in size and structure. So completely vertical are 
the walls of rock, that the rope from the pulley descends 
nearly straight into the roof of the bath-house. 

The only modQ of reaching the baths from this side is by 
a staircase (stiege) formed partly of trunks of trees, attached 
to the face of the clilT, and partly of steps cut in the rock, 
anfl situated about 100 yards higher up than the crane. At 
the bottom of the ladder the Tamina is crossed by a natural 
bridge of rock, beneath which the river forces its way out of 
sight and hearing. Ten minutes* walk below this point lie 

The Baths; two large piles of building connected together 
by a chapel. They are built on a narrow ledge of rock a fi-w 
feet above the roaring Tamina, and so deeply sur.kcii 
between the rocks that they may be said to be half buried ; 
so that in the height of summer, the sun appeais above thcni 
only from 10 to 4. They ar^ large gloomy buildings, damp 
and not over clean. There are rooms enough to receive 
between 200 and 300 persons, and^ in the season, they arc 
almost all occupied; but they are ill-furnished and not 
comfortable. The houses are traversed by vaulted coirldor>, 
400 ft. long. At one end is the pump-room, and on the 
ground-floor the baths, 12 or 14 shallow wooden pans, dc^ 
signed for the reception of several persons at once, in 
.chambers so filled wilh vapour that the patient is half blind- 
ed on entering them. There ^re also private baths ; both 
^rc supplied with a current oChot water, constantly running 


Roitle m— Gorge and Hot Spring ofPfeffm. 241 
«brou|h them. Since the disgolution of the convont i> ;. 
SStm """•"""" ""^ '"' "»«'«' -ewandTZm,'! 

iwi,"o e 'u.eM^^i?ifrhenrrsi^rL^ C^ 

There IS a atury that they were discovprVd h, . i?. . ?*• 
having ventured into the ab^ *of the Tamin/ L^"h",";' .l*"!; 
of game, remarked (he column of v«Dou?^ri.1'n„ r '^* ''T"" 

For many ,ear^nothing*«Td"on1rXii^e:?ce«"ihe;::- 
and patients desirous ofproQting by their healing vh-...^ "• 
Ipt down to the«,urce fJom thTcKtovefbyfoDes aUT 
order to reap as much beneflt as possib^ wire aSnm ''l " 
pass a week together, both day and nicht in th^ L„. '^'' " 
«ating and drinkine butsleeoina undir hAt wl. ' ""' ""'y 
under blankets, fhe ^uT^^iiZt^tolZV^^l "I 
very evident, as a pint contains scarcely 8 erai^nf if i""' 
particles; it has a terojMjnitnre of about eWhrenheft"" 

The situation of the baths is both gloomy and mhnn L-> 
hemmed in between dripping walls of nik Iw i."'?"*""- 
dank foliage, with only TiZw slrin oT«kv«?/^''f'' ^^ 
without even space o/facHftiisTor l^olfc,?"!^^ «'"* 
unless the patient will scale ihe sides of the vaHov .h^"""^!'"' 
To one fresh arrived from the unoer wnHH ?,.^ •^''* ••"" 
sunshine, a visit to Pfelfcrs K tr&t o?h^,''"''' *"'' 
bottom of a well or a mine T it- aimo!^«L ■ ?*'"« «' ">c 
regular temperature of .*aii„ s'^yThe* w^^Sii^^'U^ 
brought down by Ihe torrent and ihc .nii!.,.. . P?'"*' •'"'^ 
ray of sunshlneVhich aCt iir„.V„d "^^ 
afterwards, finds its way into iCVtcessis is jn^^,m *?'" '*''» 
impart warmth or cheerfulness A small ilvL. '"'"^cent t., 
wide.close to the bates, is the" only TJi ,'^'"<*' « <": » feet 
the sojourner wi«he8 ti walk he has nn?hnP"*''Y '''«'". 'f 
begin to ascend. It is to be presumed Jh^r' ""^ '""« 
travellers would be disposed "o make a^v ««v L ^."S"*'* 
ing visit ofafewhours.orat most aSWhT- ^ P"""- 
will saUs^ the curiosi y of most iersi^ i?i*« spent here, 
should depart without visiting tee " ""*' '»«»'cver 

Source of the hot spring. 

Most, of the guide-books describe teis i. , 
d.nger:thewriteroflhlscannoi help thinki„f.h'^,1!.";'«« of 
have been eiaggerated. The sprina is coik «».•■• '*'''"0'* 
b, ladies. At the same Ume'. KrH^rn^eVaZ 

242 Route 6T. - Gorgt and Hot Spring of Pfeffers. 

wbjcrHo girtdines* in thchead, stouWon no wcount att^^ 

il If the stranger have any fears, ihey will be consideiably 

allo/od bv the sight of the guide *ho shows Ihe way, aii.1 

Mhosc quiliflcaiioM fw Ibis lask of danger appear to cons isi 

Si MsSg a wooden leg! A few yards above the simt 

where "he baib-house stands, the sidrs of the ravine of the 

Tani' iiaVontract in an exl raordinary manner, so as to approach 

wilhto a few feet of each other; a little farther ihcy even i osc 

«ver and rover up the ri»er. which is seen issums out of 

a cave?noi« rhasm, A bridge of planks across Ihe TaWMna. 

kads toThe eiilranre. which ?» closed by a door. The bridKO 

U nroloi aed nio the gorge, in (he shape of a scallolding or 

,be7 luSed bT iron stinchions to the rocks, and partly 

laid in a niche cut' out of the side. It is never more ban 3. 

bii genera" ly is only 1 plank. wide; and is carried all alons? 

ihe E al far as the hot spring, affording the only means 

nf anorowh to it, as Ihe sides of the rent arc quile verliral, 

MdXre is not i inch of room betweenlhen. and the to. rem. 

for (he"le of a foot lo rest. A few yards from the cnlrance 

the passage is darkened by the overhanjiing rock. Ihe suddcr. 

chill of an atmosphere never visited by ihe son s ravs the 

fearful ribbing and^rearing ofthe torrent. 30 or 40 feel bjlow. 

the threatening position of the rocks above, and the tre.n- 

bUngind quivering of the narrow planks on which you tread, 

prollrtedV no railing, or balustrade are enough lo cause a 

Ktshurierevenlo one possessed of strong nerves. In 

wis IS almost dark, where the sides of he ravnie overlap 

one aiolher, and actiiMly meet over-head, so as to form a 

natural arch Therotks in many places f how evident ma. ks 

of hav ng been grornid away, and scooped out by the rushing 

?ive? and bv the stones biought down with it For several 

hundred yards ihe river pursues an almost subterranean 

course the roof of the chas.n being the «oor, as it were, ..f 

?be tallev In some places the roots of the trees are seen 

dang iiig through the crevice above your head and at o.>e 

naracular spot you find yourself under the arch oflhena- 

tura brUe leading to the staircase mentioned before 

Jo SlOV Had Virgil or Dante been aware of this spot they 

would certainly have conducted their heroes through it to the 

laws of Ihe infernal regions. .» „t . „:.. 

The shelf of planks extends nearly a quarter of a raile 

from the baths. At its extremity, at the bottom of a cavern 

In the rocfo, rises Ihe hot spring: 'i* t«'"P«'"?"";«.^';«»'S''i 
100» Fahrenbeits; it is received into a rescrvow nearly t5 feet 
decu from which it is conducted m pipes lo the baths 
Tbe'^'f.rsrbalhs were miserable hovels, bu. t over the 
fpring. and suspended, like swallows' "<;«»«."> ,^ef«^« 
of the lock: ihc only entrance lo Ihcm was by Ihe roof. 

Route &7.—Pff/f^rs - SL Gall to Coire. 243 

^TtjA Ibe sick were lei do:wn in^o ibeni by r<>p(*saiid pulle)s. 
The springs generally cease to flow in winter, but burst forlb 
Again in spring ; they are most copions when the snow has 
fallen ia abundance, aud conliuuc till autujnn, alier which 
ikcir fountains are again sealed. The water has little tasie 
or snieli ; il bears ^onie resemblance, in its mineral con- 
It'uis, to that or Eins ; and is used both for bathing and 

Mr. %ockedqii observes of th* walk up lothefiiwings, " It 
i^ one «if ifc»e very few spots ihat 1 have seeo where no disa|>* 
^oinlmcol can arise from previous description.'* 

Those who have arrived at the balhs by Yfity of Valcns 
ihould not quit the spot (if they Intend returning by the same 
road) without ascending the staircase and looking down upon 
the baths from the shed which contains the crane and pulley 
(p. 2i0). 

The Kalanda, or (raltmdaberg (the mountairr on the rt. 
iMiiik of the Tamina, above the baths, which separates the 
valley from that of the Rhine), is sometimes ascended on 
account of the view fiom its top— a 5-hours' walk. 

There is a path from Pfeffers direct to Reicheoau ii|> the 
Valley of t^e T^mina,. crossing nt Us head the pass La Foppa 
Ojn Eunkels, aS^alk of about 2i miles. Another foot-path 
loads up the Kalfauer-Thal to Glarus. (Route 76). 

The pedestrian traveller, going from 4hc baths to Coirc» 
fieed not return to Rfiga^z, but may proceed by the Convent 
of Pfeffers, whence? a palh strikes downdirectly'to the bridge 
jQver the Rhine, called untere Zoii Rrucke, a walk of about 2 

A char-a-banc, with 1 horse, may be hired froniRagatz to 
Coire for 10 ^^oa.nzigers. 

The high road from Ragatz rwis along the I. hank of the 
^hine as far as the untere Zullhrjicke (Lower Tolibridgc), 
' ijieonly bridge on the Rhine between the Lake of Constance 
<).ud Rcichenau. It was entirely swept aWay by the Iremen- 
<Ious flood in the autumn of t8;u, which did immense injury 
10 the valley. In crossing this bridge, the trav4^4ler passes out 
of Canton St. Gall into t^Grisons. The valley of^he Khiuc 
iias a grand appearance from this point. The |>eak of the 
Falkoisberg is a conspicuous and striking object in the view 
to the N.E. The Rhine alone is nnpictnrcsq4io, rrom the width 
of its bed and the large space of unsightly sand and gravel left 
bare in summer. Its bed is constantly rising;, so as tu threaten 
more fearful inundations ; and a plan has been proposed of 
culling a new channel for its unruly stream, from this point 
i\& far as the Lake of Constance. A short way above the 
l^'id^e, the Landquarl, an iuijietupus torrcnt^dcsccnding from 

2W RouU^&l.-Coire. 

I he valley of Prettigao, enlers the Rhine. The road up it is 
described in Route 81. 

Rejond this, the Convent of Pfetrcrs is visible from the 
road; the snowy heights of theGalanda rise into sight on the 
opposite bank of the Rhine; and the ruins of feudal castles, 
IHM'cbed upon rocky knolls, overlooking the valley, give a 
highly picturesque character to the scene. One of the most 
conspicuous is Haldenstein, nearly opposite Coire. 

1 1/i Cof're, Germ. Chur— (/nns: Weisses Kreulz (While 
Cross), good and cheap, the best; Post, or Freyerk, tolerable ; 
Capricorn, outside the town, very civil people, and a mode- 
rate and good house). The wine of the \alteline is gene- 
rally consumed in the Grisons, and may be had tolerably 
good here. 

The Capital of the Grisons, the Curia Uhatorum of the 
Romans, is an ancient walled town, of i78(> inhab., about a 
niiie Trom the Rhine. Its prosperity arises almost entirely 
from the high roads upon which it stands, which form the 
channel of communication from Italy into Switzerland and 
Western Germany, and unite the great commercial towns of 
Milan and Genoa, south of the Alps, with Zurich and St. Gall 
un the north. Coirc is the staple place of the goods transported 
over the two great Alpine carriage roads of the SplOgen and 
Reniardin. It is the place of meeting of the Council of the 
Grisons; a member of which claims the title of " Your Wis- 
dom" (•* Euer Weisheit"). 

The town has narrow streets, and stands on uneven ground; 
much curious domestic architecture will be found in it. The 
DishoD's PalaeCj and the quarter around it, inhabited by 
Catholics, occupy the summit of an eminence, and are sepa- 
rated from the Tost by walls and battlements, closed by twa 
fortified gates. Here is situated the Church of St, Lucius, 
or the l>om— the oldest parts of which, in the circular or Ro- 
manesque style, date from the eighth century. The de^ 
tached portal, its sculptures, and the monsters which support 
its pillars and form the capitals, are very curious—** they are 
the prototypes of those existing in the Lombard churches.** 
Within, there are one or two singular old paintings— one 
attributed to A, DUrer {?). In the sacristy are preserved 
the bones of St. Lucius, ** a Rritish king, according to the 
* English Martyrologie,* and (he founder of St. Petcr*s Ch., 
Cornhill,"— P., and one or two specimens of church plate. 
The crypt is supported by a single pillar, the base being a 

The Episeopal Palace, near (he church, is an antique 
building; the staircase and halls are singularly decorated 
wiih stucco-work; and the chnpol, within a tower, is said to 
be one of the earliest specimens of Christian architecture. 

RouU 67. — Romansch Language. 24& 

Coire is the oldest bishopric in Switzerland. Behind the 
Palace is a kind of ravine, lined mih vineyards, across whieh 
a path leads to the Catholic Seminary, from which is a re- 
markably picturesque view of the town. 

Besides the roads fromCoire to Italy by theSplOgen (Route 
88) and Bernardin (Route 00). and those lo Zurich andSt.Gall> 
and along the rt. bank of the Rhine to Feldkirch and Bre^enz, 
several new lines are in progress, leading in different direc- 
tions through the Grisons. A carriage road, commenced 
some years ago, between Coire and the Engadine, over the 
Julier Pass, is already finished as far as Tiefenkasten, and 
will probably be completed the -whole way in 1838. See 
Route 82. 

Diligences go 4 times a-week to Zurich (Route 14),comrnu- 
nicaiing with steamers on iheLakes of Wallenstadtand Zurich; 
4 times a-week lo St. Gall; 4 times to Milan ; once a-week to 

Post Jwrses are kept on all the great high-roads leading 
from Coire through the Grisons and canton of St. Gall. The 
postmaster at Coire wjll furnish travellers with a printed tariff 
of the charges and distances. (See also p. 23f>.) 

Money.'-The canton of the Grisons has a coinage of lis 
own; though, since napoleons and francs, Austrian florins, 
and Brabant dollars, are current on all the high roads, the 
traveller need not perplei himself with the intricacies of this 
currency, but may desire his bills to be made out in francs 
or florins. It will probably suflice tp remember that 1 Grison 
flor.~2 zwanzigers, or 1 French fr. 7i centimes. 

1 Fr. fr.s=3i Grison kreutzers. 

1 Brabant dollars«3 Gris. flor. 20 kr. 

The Grison florin , or gulden , is composed of 60 kr., or 70 

1 batz.B5 bliitzgers. ' , 

The Bomanseh Language, 

A newspaper is printed at Coire in the Lingua Romanscha, 
a dialect peculiar to the Grisons and neighbouring alpine 
country of Tyrol , derived , like the Italian , Spanish , and 
French, from the Latin, but corrupted by the admixture of 
other languages. In this remote part of Europe it has kept its 

ground since the destruction of the Roman empire. It Is said, 
owever, to be gradually disappearing before tne German Ian* 

It may be divided into at least three distinct dialects i^ l.< 
The Lad in, spoken in the Lower Engadine, abd vale of Mun- 
ster: it comes nearest to the Latin, and i8> perhaps, not very 
dissimilar from the vulgar tongue, apoken by the Rorotti | 


246 RottU 67. — Goternment of the Grise^s, 

«aiilry, as described by Livy. 2. The Roinansfh of Ibe Upprr^ 
Knpadiiic, the valleys of Brega^li*!, Oberhalbslcin«Schams, etc. 
S. Tbe patois of the Grison highlanders in the vale of the 
Vorder and Hinter Rbine. 

The difference between the three may be shown in I he 
following translation of the first sentence in the 'Lord's. 
Prayer: — 

Pator noster qui es in (tBiis. 

1. Jtob noss, qufll ca ti cis entschiel, etc* 

S. Pap noss, quel tii est en c^l, etc. 

3. Pap noss, quel chi esch in in'ls c^ls, etc. 

According to a very obscure tradition, the inhabitants of- 
this part of the chain of Rhaitian Alps are the descendants of 
some Tuscan fugitives , driven out of Elruria by inroads of 
ttje Gauls. Many curious resemblances have been traced be- 
tween (he existing names of obscure villages of these remote 
valleys and those of places in ancient Etruria and Lattum — 
as Laviii, fMvinium; Thusis, 7i(5cm;. Ardez, Ardea; Ro- 
Oiein, Roma; Falisc, or FlSsch, f'aiwci ;.Madullein, Medulli- 
num; Peist, PcBstum; Umbrien and Mount Umbrail, Umbria._ 

Owing to the scanty lilerature, there being but few printed 
books , except a translation of ihe Bible, one or two of the 
New Testament , and a few o(her books, the Romansch lan- 
guage is not rich in words. From the circumstance, however, 
of its having been mad6 the language of the pulpit at the Re- 
formation , when the greater part of the population of the 
Grisons became Protestant, it has kept its giound till the pre- 
sent day. 

The whole of Romansch lilerature may be comprised in 
about 30 books, mostly Peligious works, including the Bible, 
liturgy, and catechisms. The first grammar and dictionary 
of the Roniansch language was published by a clergyman nain^. 
ed Gonradi at Zurich, in 1830 and 1823. In 1830 a newspaper, 
called llGrtschun Romansch, was printed in the Romansch 
dialect at Coire. 

History and Government of the Grisons, 

Tbe government of the Grisons deserves some consideration 
from the traveller. 

It must not be supposed that the conspiracy on the GrulH, 
In 1307, hnd the exploits of Tell, gave freedom to the whole 
country now called Switzerland , or even influenced more 
than a very small part of it— the forest cantons— except in as 
far as such a spirit-stirring example is capable of influencing 
the minds of a neighbouring people. For more than a century 
after the first Swiss union, the country of Rhastia, now called 
Gfisynft^ groaned, under .the tyranny, of almost numberless 


RauUGl. — Goternmeniofihi Giisons. 2VT 

^yetty lords, who, though they possessed but a Hiw acres of 
land, or even no more ihnu the number of square feel on 
which their castle stood , yet assumed the rights or iiide^ii-^ 
dent sovereignty, waging perpctiml petty war wilh their neigh- 
bours—oppressing their own subjects, and pillaging all tra- 
vellers—the ancient Torm or levying duties and customs. The 
bes^ notion of the state of society which existed dining this 
period of ihe Fauslrecht(club law), may be formed from Ihc 
quantity of feudal ruins which stud not only the main valleys 
of Ihc Rhine, but even thc> lateral valleys and gorges of the 
Khaelinn Alps At last a day of retribution came. The pea- 
sants rose in revolt, and threw off the yoke of the nobles — 
with less violence -than might be expected, chiefly because the 
great ecclesiastical potcnidtes, the Rishop of Coire, (he Abbois 
of St-. Gall and Dissentis, and some of the more influential 
barons sided with the peasants, directing, instead of opposing, 
tbe popular feeling. 

The result of this was a Bhaelian Confederacy, quite dis^ 
tinct from the Swiss Confederacy , composed of Three Lea- 
ifues (BQnden )— the Upj)er, or Grey League (Obcr, or Graue 
llund), li2i (named from the simple grey home-spun coats of. 
those by whom it was formed); the League of God's House 
(Cadde in Romansch, in Germ, Goltesha^s Bund), so called 
from the church of Coire, the head of this league, and its ca> 
pital, 1396; and the League of the Ten Jurisdictions (Zcbn- 
uerichie), of which Mayenfeld is^ chief towji (1428). 

The government produced by this' revolution presents, per- 
baps, the most remarkable example the world bas yet seen of 
the sovereignly of tlie people and of universal suffrage. Not. 
only every valley, but, in some cases, every parish, or even 
hamlet, in a valley, became an indepemlcnt commonwealth, 
with a governmenCof its owo, with peculiar local administra- 
tive rights and privileges, in many instances existing at the 
present day. Sometimes one of these free states, somelime's 
^veral together, form a cominune or schnitze, literally slice 
(gemeinde or gericht); each commune has its own general 
assembly, in which every citizen of the age of 18, sometimes 
younger, has a vote, and by which the magistrates and autho- 
rities, down to the parson and school-master, are elected. A 
number of communes forms a Hoch-Gertcht , under a magis- 
trate, styled Landamman, Podesta, orLandvoght. Abu've this, 
comes the Diet of the League; and, above all, the Diet of the. 
Three Leagues. There still are 26 lloch-Gerichts; the number 
of communes was 49; that of the smaller communities is not 
known. Amidst such a labyrinth of government— a compli- 
cation of machinery, wheel within wheel— It is difllcult to> 
understand how any government could have been carricui on ; 
and we accocdiugly find tbe hj«tory of the Grisoiis little better 


2^8 Route iiS.—CaHton jippentrll. 

thati a long series of bickerings, feuds, rdvolts, conspiracies^ 
massacres, intrigues, ami peculalioiis. The wisest decisions 
of ihe diet of the canton were annulled or frustrated by the 
\oles of the general assemblies, according as the interest or 
(uiprices of ihc most influential popular leader might sway 
these meetings at the moment. Two great families, those of 
Planla and Dc SaliSt in the end, long monopolised the chief 
influem*e , as well as the patronage and offices of the federal 

Such , then , was the practical result of this democracy of 
th« purest form in theory/. 

The Grisons were united with the Swiss Conrederation 
in 1803, and are represented by a deputy in the diet. The 
Three Leagues are still composed of 26 high jurisdictions 
( Hoch-Gerichte), each possessing its own constitution, which 
often differ entirely from one another. The supreme federal 
government of the canton is vested in the great council of t& 
members, which meets at Col re. 

ROUT£ 68. 


The canton Appenzell lies out of the beat of travellers, 
completely surrounded (enc1av(^) by the territory of canton 
!>t. Gall, and shut in, at its south extremity, by the Alps; no 
great high-roads pass through it; and Appenzell itself lies in 
a cul de sac of the mountams, except for such as will tak« 
the difficult paths over the high Alps and glaciers. On this 
occount, it is but little visited by Knglish travellers. The 
canton is divided into 2 parts or districts, called Rhoden, 
quite independent of each other, but enjoying only one vote 
»t the diet. Outer Rhoden is a very thickly peopled district, 
having 8781 inhabitants to the German sq. mile. These are 
iilmost exclusively engaged in manufactures, chiefly of cotton, 
muslin, tambouring, etc. Inner Rhoden, on the contrary, is 
a land of herdsmen : its high and bleak mountains produca 
nothing but rich pasturage and sweet grass, upOn which vast 
herds of cattle are fed. The government, in both states, is 
a pure democracy— the General Assembly, or Landesge- 
meindc, is composed of every male born in the canton. 

ToAppenzell,31/2stunden=li3/4 English miles. (35/12^ 
To Gais, 2 1/3 stundcn=8 English miles. 
Travellers going from St. Gall to Coirc may, instead of 

Ronie 68. —Canton Appenzell— Gais, 2&d 

Follow ing the beaten track by Rorschach (Route 67), proi'eed 
to Altstettcn by way of Gais, and make an excursion tbeure 
to Appenzell. 

The road quits ihe canton of St. Gall and enters that of 
Af>penzeU(Au88er-Rhoden) a little before reaching 

1 1/6 Xe u (Te n— (/nns : Hecht ; B&r). The inhabitants of 
ihis Ykllage are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of muslin, 
(iriibenman, the carpenter, vho built the celebrated bridge of 
uiic nrch at Schaffhausen, was born here. 

1 1/6 G a i 8~(/nnf : Ochs (Roeuf) ; Krone (Couronne) ; the 
two best, and both said to be good. Rooms cost from 4 fl. to 
10 n. w<%ekiy; table d*bdte, 1 11.; whey, SO kr. dnily—it is 
Ill-ought from the high Alps every morning. The bread is 
very good here.. This little village of ii houses, mostly con- 
verted into lodging-houses by the peasants their owners, irfe- 
gularly scattered over lawn-like meadows, is situated in a 
bare, bleak country, with scarce a tree or shrub: nothing but 
pastures around, at an elevation of SQOO ft. above the sea 
level. Yet the reputation of its pure and bracing air, and of 
its cure of goat's whey (molken-kur ; cure de petit lait), an* 
iiually attract hither many hundred invalids from all parts 
uf l£urope ; and during the season, in July and August, the 
principal inns are generally crammed full. 

The peasants' houses are particularly neat and clean, trimly 
painted outside, as though they bad just issued from a 

Gais lies at the S. side of the Gabris, and the view from 
the top of that mountain is said to be very fine. 

The native son^s of the cow-herds and dairy-maids of 
AppenzcU are highly melodious. 

Jt is a walk of about five hours from Gais to Herisaii (see 
Route 69). 

3 miles to the E. of Gais, on the roafl to Altstcetten, is the 
Chapel ofSto$$y erected on -the summit of the steep pass lead- 
ing down to the Rhine Thai, to commemorate the almost 
incredible victory gained by iOO men of Appenzell over 3060 
Austrians in U05. The Archduke of Austria and the Abbot 
of St. Gall bad hoped to take the Swiss by surprise with this 
preponderating force. But a handful of the mountaineers, 
under the conduct of Count Rudolph or Werdenberg, as- 
sembled in haste, gave them battle, and defeated the invaders, 
with a loss of 900 men, losing only 20 of their own party. 
The blood of the slain discoloured the mountain torrent which 
flowed past the battle-field as far as its influx into the Rhine. 
The view from the Stoss over the valley of the Rhine, 3000 ft. 
below, and of the snowy mountains of Tyrol and Voralherg 
beyond, is of great beauty. 
A very sleep descents leads from the Stoss to Altstfleiten in 

S5e Eouie 68.^ JppenziU—PVeisflfad. 

the valley of Ihe Rhine (Route 67), a disfance of 6 1/2 miles. 

Jt is a (lisUiice oriiearty 6 1/3 miles 8.W. rvom Gais to 

2 A ppenzcl I— (Inns: Heclil (Pike); Weisses Krcutz; 
respectable alehouses). 

Though the chief place of the dislrictof Inner-Roden. thi& 
is but a dull and dirty village of liOO inhabitants, consisting 
of old and ill-rbuilt houses, with two convents, and a modern 
Church, hung with several flags; and contains nothing re- 
niaikable in it. 

The Landesgemeinde, or Assembly of the canton, meets 
on a square, near a lime-tree, every y«nr. In the Record 
OlDce, Archiv^ are preserved a number of banners, conquered 
by Ihe Appenzeilers of old, and the only surviving trophies 
of their valour. Here are the flags of Constance, Winterlbur, 
Feldkirch; the T)rolcse banner and free ensign, with the 
motto ''Hundert Teufet,** conquered at Landek, 1407; the 
iienoese banner of St. George, and two captured from the 
Venetians, 1516, in the battle of Agnadel. 

it is stated on all hands that a remarkable change greets 
the traveller, on enterinff Catholic Inner-Rhoden, from Pro-* 
testani Outer-Rhoden. He exchanges cleanliness and indus- 
4ry for filth and beggary. What may be the cause of this, is 
not a subject suitable for discussion here. The Appenzcllers 
arc passionately foud of gymnastic exercises; and a part of 
every holiday is devoted to wrestling and boxing matches. 
Hurling the stone is another frequent exercise. A mass of; 
cock, varying in weight froui a half to a whole cwt., is poised 
on the shoulder, and then cast forward a distance of severni 
feet. In 1805 a man of LlrnSsch hurled a stone, wciehiiig 
18i lbs., 10 ft. The Appenzellers are also capital shots: 
ri/le-matches are held almost every summer on the Sundays, 
and the cracking reports resound on all sides. The laws of the 
canton (especially of Outer-Rhoden) restrict dancing to 3 or 
4 days of the year ; but, as the people are much addicted to 
this amusement, the law is frequently infiinged, and the 
peasants will often cross the frontier of Ihe canton in order to 
enjoy unmolested their favourite amusement.. 

There is a road from Appenzell to Ucrisau. (See Route 69.)' 

About 2 1/2 miles S. £. of Appenzell is Weissbad, **au 
excellent boarding house and bathing establishment, situated 
in a beautiful and retired spot, at the foot of theSentis, pur-< 
rounded by pleasure-grounds, from which run walks leading; 
up the mountains. The house is capable of accommodating 
SOO visitors. I have seen few places in the r4)urse of my 
travels where a pi*rson fond of exploring and desirous of tran- 
quillity, combined with accommodation on a superior scale (to 
be procured without trouble or cflort on his part), could spemi^ 
^Jew^ days in greater enjoyment."— Da/es and.Distances^ 

Route SS. — jVUdkircUein-^Stniis, 251 

In addition to the cure of goals* whey, there are also mi- 
neral springs at Weissbpd, and the bath-houses contain 8^) 

Three small torrents, issuing out or 3 Alpine valleys deeply 
furrowed iii the sides of the Seiitis, in whose glaciers they 
take (heir rise, uniie at Weissbad, and form the river Sitter. 
About 5 miles up the middle valley is the singular hermitage 
and chapel of the Wildkirchlein, It is reached by crossing 
tlie Alpine pasture of the Ebenalp, which, in spite ofiis 
elevation of 5094 ft. above the sea, is in summer a perfect 
garden, unfolding a treasure to the botanist, and affording 
!hc sweetest herbage to the cows. 

In a recess scooped out of the facc^f a precipice, 170 ft. 
above these pastures, a little chapel has been perched. It was 
built 1756 by a pious inhabitant of Appenzell, and dedicated 
to St. Michael, and on that saint's day mass is celebrated hero 
annually. A bearded Capuchin occupies the hermitage adjoin- 
ing, and will conduct strangers through the long caverns 
hung with stalactites, which perforate the mountain behin(f 
his dwelling. The pilgrimage will be repaid by the charming 
prospect from the window which he opens. 

The Sentis (frorii Latin Senlis, a thorn?), the highest 
mountain in Appenzell, 7700 ft. above the sea level, may be 
ascended from Weissbad. The view from the top is much ex- 
tolled, and a panorama of ithas been engraved. Various paths 
lead up toil; the best and easiest, which is also perfectly safe 
in the company of a guide, Ifeads by way of the Meggisalp 
(3 stunden); Wagen1uckej(2 stunden); to the summit, (1 stun- 
den), a walk of nearly 20 miles. 

In 1832, an engineer named Buchmtiller, while making tri- 
gonometrical observations on the simimit, accompanied by a 
servant, was struck by lightning. The shock took away his 
senses, and he remained in that state nearly an hour; when 
he came to himself lie found his servant dead beside him, 
and himself so severely injured in one of his legs, that it was 
with the utmost difficulty and danger that he could crawt 
down to the nearest huntan habitation. 

A steep and difficult path leads S. over the ridge of the 
Sentis from Weissbad toWildhaus, thehirthplaceof Zwingli, 
in Toggenburg (Route 71), a distance of 20 miles. 

Another path leads in about i hours from Weissbad to 
Sennwald in the valley on the Rhine. It passes overthe shoul- 
der of the K amor J on the right hand of that mountain, 
whose top commands a remarkable panorama. Even from 
the road to Sennwald, the traveller has a delightful prospect 
over the Sentis and Canton Appenzell, on one side, and over 
the lake of Constance; Tyrol, and the Rhine on the other* 

852 Routs 69. — 5t. GaU to Rapperschwyl. 
ROUTE 69. 


13 StUDden « 43 1/S Eng. miles (13 1/6 Lutz). 

About iiniiles Troin St. Gail, a little beyond the village or 
firuggen, the road crosses (he Gorge of the Sitter, by (he 
magnificent Kr&(zeren Brucke, a bridge 590 ft. long, and 85 
feet above the stream. A liltle after wc enter Canton Ap|>eii- 

ajfleruau.— InM .* L6we (Lion) the best; — Hecht (Bro- 

Herisau^ the flourishing and industrious chief village of (he 
Protestant district of Appenzell, called Ausser-Bhoden, 
contains SSOO inhabitants, and is advantageously situated at 
the junction of two streams, the Glatt and Briihlbach, which 
turn the wheels of its numerous manufactories. '' It is a 
very singular place from its extraordinary irregularity of 
construction, and is quite unlike any other town in Switz- 
erland.*' There are beautiful walkson the surrounding heights; 
two of them are topped by ruined castles, the Boseiibeig 
and Rosenburg, which, according to the story, were once 
connected together by a leathern bridge. The lower pan of 
the Church tower, in which the Archives are deposited, is 
(he oldest building in|the Canton, datiiig probably from the 
7th century. 

The articles chiefly manufactured here are muslins, cottons 
and silk, the last, a recent iptroduction : 10,200 persons are 
employed in Ausser-Rhoden, in weaving muslins, and a 
very large number in embroidering them. 

There is a direct road from Hen's lu to Appenzell (Route 
68), by Watdstadt, (i 3/4 stunden); Urnasch, (1 1/t), and 
Gonten, (l)in all 5 stunden » 16 1/i miles. 

About a mile to the £. of Herisau is the watering-place 
called Heinrichsbad, The Badhaus is the most elegant 
establishment of the sort in Switzerland, after Scbintznatb, 
surrounded by agreeable pleasure grounds, the creation of 
one Heinrich Steiger, a rich manufacturer. Two springs rising 
out of gravel, and variously impregnated with iron, carbonic 
acid, etc., are used for drinking, and to supply (he baths. 
Goats* whey and asses' milk are also furnished to (hose in- 
valids for whom they are prescribed. Accommodation in a 
cowhouse is provided for invalids suffering from diseases of 
the chest. The neighbourhood is exceedingly picturesque. 

Through an undulating country, we reach the frontier of 

Rotite 71. — Schaffhaiisen to Coire. • 258 

Appcnzpll, and re-enter that of its grasping neigliboor, St. 
Gall, before arriving at 

2 Peterzell : 3 miles beyond tbe ruined Castle ofNeu- 
Toggenburg, lies 

2 Lichtensteig, (Inn: Krone,) a town of 700 inha- 
bitants on the right bank of theXhur, in the ancient county 
of Toggenburg. 

Opposite Wattweil, a pretty manufacturing Tillage about 
11/2 mile farther, stand the convent of Santa Maria and the 
Castle of Iberg.— (/niw : ROssli; LOwe) 

The road soon after surmounts the steep ascent of the ridge 
of Himmelwald. From its top a beautiful prospect expands 
to view ; in front the lake of Zurich, with the castle, town, 
and bridge of Rapperschwyl, in full relief on its margin; 
behind it the pine-clad and snow-topped Alps of Schwyti 
and Glarns; on the E. the remarkable peaks of the Sieben 
Kuhfirsten, and behind the fertile vale of Toggenburg. The 
road divides on the opposite side of the hill ; those bound for 
Glarus or Wallenstadt, take its ]. branch, leading to Utz- 
nach:— we follow the rt. to Eschenbacb, and 

7 Rapperschwyl. Route 14. 

ROUTE 71. 


A good carriage-road leads through Schlatt and Neufiom to 
5 Frauenfeld, in Route 9. 

3 1/4 Wyl, a little town of 1064 inhabitants in the valley 
of the Thur, distant about a mile fcom its 1. bank. We here 
leave on the 1. the road to St. Gall, and continue up the I. ' 
bank of the Thur, as far as Dietfurth, where we cross to 

3 3/4 Lichtensteig (inRoute 69). 

1 1/2 Ebn at.— Toggenburg, as the long and ferUle valley 
of the Thur is called, extends for nearly 40 miles. Irom Wyl 
up to the source of that river. It is bounded by hi^ moun- 
tains; on the N. by the Sentis, and on the S bj^^^he peaks 
of the Kuhfirsten. It was anciently governed by c*otJi>it3 of its 
own. When their line became extinct, 1436, the dif/trif't was, 
claimed by canton Zurich. In the feud which ensued, thq 
Zurichers were worsted ; it fell to the Abbot of St. Gall ; 
and, since 1IB05, forms part of canton St. Gall. It is thickly 
peopled ; its inhabitants, an industrious race, are chiefly 
occupied with tbe manufacture of muslin and cotton. 

3 1/3 Alt. St. Johann.— The inn is said to be good here. 

Upon the high ground, dividing tbe valley of the Thur from 
that of the Rhine, stands the remote village, Wif^dkaus, 
3450 ft. above the lev«t of the sea^ and at Xh». S. }Km^ tbe 


Sentii. It is remarkable as the birth-place of the Swiss reform 
mer, Ulrich Zwingli. The house in which he flrst saw the 
light (Jan. 1,14S4) still exists: it is a humble cottage of wood; 
its walls formed of the stems of trees— its roof weighed down 
by stones to protect it from the wind. It has resisted the 
inroads of time for more than 350 years; and the beams and 
trunks which compose it are black with age. Zwingli's fainilx 
were humble peasants; he quitted home when 10 years old, 
to go to school at BJile. 

The road descends into the Valley of the Rhine, near Grabs, 
and soon after reaches 

31/2Werdenberg, which^ with the following stations , 
U described in Route 67. 



1 1/4 Coire, in page $44. 

ROUTE 7«. 


A diligence goes 4 times a-week from Zurich to Glarus. It 
Is a drive of S nours from Wesen thither— 2 hours more to 
Lintthal— and again S hours on foot to the Pantenbrucke. 

The canton of Glarus consists of one great Alpine valley » 
and of several secondary or tributary valleys, branching off 
from it, and penetrating deep into the high Alps. There is 
but one carriage road into it, which terminates, after a di- 
stance of 26 miles, at the baths of Stachelberg; and, except 
for pedestrians, there is no egress save the portal which has 
admitted the traveller. It is a truly Alpine district, abound* 
ing in very wild scenery. 

The road from Wesen crosses the Linth canal (Route 14, 
p. 43) by the Ziegelbrlicke, and passes the jaws of the valley 
of Glarus, flanked by precipices almost perpendicular, and 
backed by the vast mass and snowy head of the GlSrniscb 

The road from Zurich and Rapperschwyl to Glarus passes 
through Lachen on the S. side of the Lake of Zurich, and 
along the 1. bank of the Linth canal to Neider-Urnen, where 
that from Wesen Joins it. 

1 1/2 NcdfeU, in the gorge of the valley, a village of 1700 
inhabitants, and the chief place in the Catholic division oX 
the canton, is a Swiss battle- field of some celebrity. 11 sim- 
ple stones, set up on the meadow of Reuti, hard by, mark the 
spot where, in 1388, 1300 men of Glarus met a force of 600O 
Austrians, who, having taken Wesen by treachery, bad burst 

Route l±--^fVe$en to. Olarus. 255 

iDto Ihe CftDton, ravaging and plundering the country as they 
advanced. TVhen tidings of this reached the ears of Matthias 
am Buhl, the lands-captain, he hastily collected a handful of 
shepherds, and not only checked the career of the forayers, 
in spile of the disproportion of numfcNers, but, after 11 distinct 
ebarges, aided by volleys of {itones and rocks discharged from 
the precipices above, which threw the Auslrian cavalry into 
confusion, finally repulsed the invaders, with a loss of S500 
of their number left dead on the field. 

The anniversary of the fight of NHfels is still celebrated 
through the canton by an annual festival. An engagement 
took place at Niifels, in 1799, between the Austrians and 

From Mollis, the village opposite Nllfels, the river Linth is 
eonducted into the lake of Wallenstadt by the artificial canal 
constructed by Escher (see p. 43). In the churchyard of 
Mollis the heroes of NAfels are buried. 

The valley of the Linth is subject to much danger and in- 
jury from its sudden rises, and the swelling of its tributary 
torrents: The broad fringe of unsightly sand and gravel visible 
on both sides of the Linth, the common drain of the district, 
will show what mischief it occasions after storms of rain, and 
during the melting of the snows. The whole of the lower 
part of the valley is at times converted into a lake ; and the 
little pitches of ground, which have cost the peasant much 
hard labour and care to cultivate, are at once overwhelmed 
and ruinpd. The limestone mountains of this district abound 
n caverns, which serve as reservoirs for the melting glaciers. 
In the spring and early summer, the rocks appear to stream 
from every pore, while every gorge and hollow sends forth a 
raging torrent. 

1 i/S Glarutf or Claris— (/nm; Aigle d'Or, not large, but 
comfortable; Rabe). This little village, the capital of the 
canton, is chiefly remarkable for its secluded situation at the 
base of the GlUrnisch an^ Schilt, encompassed by the Alps, 
wliose bare and bleak precipices and tops contrast remarkably 
with the milder verdure about their base. The inhabitants, 
4320 in number, are distinguished by their industry and en- 
terprise, which has converted Glarus into a place of manufac- 
tures, especially of cotton, printing of muslins, etc. They are 
reported to retain that simplicity of manners which their, 
seclusion from the rest of the world would lead one to 

They possess a Club (Cassino), and a Free School for 700 
children, erected by private subscriptions, and reflecting 
mueh credit on the public spirit of the citizens. The houses, 
chiefly of stone, and many of them ancient, are frequently or- 
MmcAted outside with fresco palntijigs; ode of them bears 

256 Route 72. — Baths of Siackelberg. 

the figure of a knight in armour and a Turk fighting, the cn-i- 
gin of which is not satisractorily accounted for. The Gothic 
church is open to Protestant and Catholic alike. The Unth 
is crossed by two bridges. 

The name Glarui is said to be a corruption of Hilariiis, a 
saint to whom a shrine was built aUiong these mountains at 
a very early period. 

There is one manufacture peculiar to the canton Glaras, 
that of the green cheese^ Schabsieger. It owes its peculiar 
appearance, smell, and flavour, to an herb (TrifoKam meli- 
lotus csruleum; blue pansy; Germ, kle), which is partly 
cultivated for this purpose in gardens within the canton, and 
partly imported from others. To fit it for use, it is dried, 
ground to powder, and, in that state, mixed with the curds, 
in the proportion of 3 lbs. of the herb to 100 lbs. of cards. 
The cheese is said to be made of cows' milk, like any common 
cheese, and not of goats*. The curds are brought down 
from the high pastures into the valley in sacks, and, after 
having a due proportion of herb incorporated with them, 
are ground in a mill resembling that used for making cyder. 
After being thoroughly kneaded by this process for an hour 
or two, it is fit for pressing. The cheese is ripe for use after 
a twelvemonth's keeping. A large quantity of it is exported . 
to America; and the manufacture'of it is considered a lucra- 
tive trade. The natives attribute its peculiar character to 
some virtue in the pastures on which the cbws are fed. 

Many mountain paths, practicable only on foot, ramify 
in various directions ft-om Glarus— 

1. The pass of the Pragel to Schwyiz, by the Muotta-thal 
and theKldn-thal; the latter, a most beautiful pastoral valley, 
a tributary of the Linth ; the finest part of it is not more ibau 
8 miles from Glarus.— Route 75. 

2 The pass of the Klausen to Altdorf.— (Described below.) 

* Passes into the Valley of the Vorder Rhine :— 

a To Dissentis, over the Sandfirn (8999 ft.), 13 stttuden. 

b to Brigels, by the Kistengrat (8650 ft.), 8 st. 

c To Panix, by the Panixer pass, 9, st. 

d To Films, by the Segues pass, 8 1/3 st. 

The most interesting excursion is that up the valley of the 
Linth. A good road leads along the rt. bank of the river, 
about 13 miles, to the village of 

4 Li n th thai, where, in a remote spot, surrounded by tor- 
rents, rocks, and glaciers, a handsome hotel and bathing es- 
tablishment , called the Baths of Stachelberg , have been 
built. It has greatly risen in repute as a watering-place 
within a few years, and on account of the exquisite beauty of 
its situation , and the virtues of its concentrated alkaline sul- 
pliureous spring, which distils, drop by drop, from a f*-'--^- 

Routel%'-Bath^ ofStachelberg'-Pantenbrucke. 257 

in the Braunberg, is much resorted to. The period of the 
*'cure" is between 20 and S4 days. The hotel stands 
on the I. bank of the Linth , here crossed by a wooden bridge, 
and is surrounded by wallas and pleasure-grounds. 

Above the baths the vale of the Linth becomes wilder and 
more savage, and at length contracts into a chasm, low in the 
depths of which the river worms its way, while a narrow and 
steep path alone leads along the edge of the precipice. 5 miles 
up, at a spot where the gorge is deepest, a singularly bold 
bridge of a single arch of sione, 20 ft. long, and 200 ft. above 
the torrent y has been thrown across it. This is the Panten- 
brOcket an object of considerable romantic beauty, from the 
boldness of this work of man in such a scene of wild nature, 
and from the depth of the guK below. It is often visited by 
ladies; but the excursion, though not dangerous, is fatiguing. 

A waterfall considerably higher up on the Linth, above the 
bridge, is said to be peculiarly grand, and superior to the. fall 
of the FStsch, yet but little yisited. 

The valley of the Linth terminates in a group of magnifl-- 
^nt mountains, whose tops are occupied by vast fields of 
ne«ffr-trodden glaciers. The Dddi , or Tddiberg (12,800) i» 
the giaiit of this portion of the chain of Alps. A difficult and 
dangerous path , practicable only in the height of summer, 
leads across these glaciers to Dissentls. 

The Klausen pass^Stackelberg to Altdorf.^Jhe distance 
is about 26 miles; the path is practicable for horses. It turns 
out of the valley of the Linth to the W., about a mile above 
the bftths, and asceAds the yalley of the. F&tsch, or Urner 
Boden, keeping, along its 1. bank. Within a mile above the 
junction of the Fatsch and Linth the valley belongs to canton 
Uri. It abounds in fine mountain pastures, and many of the 
inhabitants of the SchSchen - thai pass their summer here 
among their cows. About 8 miles up, the culminating point, 
or Klausen pass, is reached. It is a ridge 6150 ft. high , con- 
necting the snowy chain of the Gladden Alps on the N. with 
the shattered Zingel, Glatten, and Kamli. On the top stands 
a little chapel. 

,The path descends by lon^ and steep zigzags into the Sqhaf- 
then tfud; on the I. hand is seen the very pretty cascade of 
the Stiiubi. Opposite tlie chapel of St. Anne a bergfall oo 
curred in 1833, which arrested for some time the course of 
the Schfichen, and produced a small lake. At the village of 
Unter Schachen another branch of the valley opens S. , and 
sends forth the main streaifi of the Schachen. The Spitze, 
the mountain on the 1. bank of the torrent , discharges dan* 
gerous avalanches in spring. At Spiringen and a little lower 
down, near the chapel of St. Anthony, there are inns, tolera- 
bly good for this country. 

238 Route 74 . — Rappertchwyl to EiAsiedetn. 

It was over the steep and barety accessible ridge of the 
Kinzig Culm, which walls in this portion of the valley to the 
N.» that Suwarrow's memorable retreat was condacted, 1799. 
Having pounced down, as it were, upon the French from the 
heights of the St. Gotthard, and driven them before him to AU- 
dorf, he there found his progress barred by the lake of Lucerne, 
without a boat to cross it, his troops exhausted by fatigue and 
famine, and the country so completely drained by war as to 
he quite incapable of supporting them. The only alteraalive 
that remained to him, was to attempt to join the forces of the 
allies , through the horrible defile of the Schacben ; and to 
cross the rarely-trodden summit of the high Alps. The only 
passage up this valley was by a mere path ; so that his army 
was obliged to advance in single file, abandoning much of 
their artillery and baggage. Their march lasted 14 hours; 
and before the rear^guard had left Altdorf the van had reached 
Muotta Many of the Russians sank from fatigue by the way- 
side, and perished; others fell into the hands of the French, 
who hovered in their rear; the valley was strewn with dead 
bodies of men and horses, with arms and equipments. The 
remainder of this memorable march is described in Route 75. 

Rttrglen , the birthplace of Tell, stands al the Qiojujlh of the 
Sch&chen thai. Route 3i. 

Altdorf, p. 131. 

ROUTE 74. 


8 1/4 stundenaST Eng. miles. 

The road is practicable for carriages of the country, but it is 
by no means good. 

The Abbey of Einsiedeln, though one of the finest build-^ 
ings in Switzerland, will bear no comparison with the churches 
of Italy, and, except on account of (he pilgrims and during the 
season of the pilgrimage, is not worth going out of one's way 
to visit. 

After crossing the long bridge of Rapperschwyl (Route 14) 
the road enters canton Schwytz, and soon commences the 
steep ascent of Mount Etzel, which commands from its top 
a delightful view over the lake of Zurich, and a glimpse of the 
Mythen mountains in the S. The holy hermit Meinrad, the 
founder of Einsiedeln , originally fixed himself on the top of 
the Eizel, but the concourse of people attracted to the spot by 
his reputation for holiness drove him in search of solitude 
deeper into the wilderness. A little chapel st^mds on the spot 
supposed to have beert occupied by his cell. Near it is an inik 

Moute 74. —Abbey of Einsiedeln. 259 

The road is studded at intervals with chapels called sta- 
tions, each containing a representation Of some event In the 
Passion or our Lord, according to the Romish tradition, at 
ivhich the pilgrims may stop and tell their beads. 

The river Sihl is crossed by a covered bridge, called (Teu- 
ffels brucke) the Devil's bridge, before reaching 

3 3/4 EmsiBDELN (French Notre Dame des Erroites ; Lat. 
Monasterium Eremitaram). Inns : there are 55 inns and 
"SO alehouses here, mostly designed for the reception of poor 
pilgrims, and distinguished by a singular variety of signs. 
The best is the Ox, celebrated for its extortionate charges, es- 
pecially during the pilgrimage; Pfau (Paon); Adam and 

The Abbey ofEinsfedeln, ^hich forms (he nucleus of a vil- 
lage of a few hundred inhabitants, is situated on a naked un- 
♦it^atiDg plain 3000 ft. above the sea, producing little but 
pasture. It is partly sheltered by a range of wooded hills 
on the S. E. 

The Monastery itself, an extensive building in the mo- 
dern Italian style, is imposing, less from its architecture than 
its size and its situation in so remote and naked a soHtude. 
'fhe existing edifice dates from the 18th century (1719), and 
is the 6th or 7th raised on this spot since the first foundation 
of the abbey, the others having been destroyed by fire. It 
occupies a stately site upon the hill-side, separated from the 
humbler buildings of the village by a wide square. 

The origin of the abbey is thus accounted for in the histo- 
ries published under the authority of the monks.— In the 
days of Charlemagne a holy anchorite named Meinrad, of the 
noble house of Hohenzollern, repaired to this remote wilder- 
ness (then called the Finsterwald) to end his days in solitude 
and prayer, devoting himself to tend a little brack image of 
Ihe Virgin which had been given to him by St. Hildegarde, 
abbess of Zurich. This holy man was murdered by two rob- 
bers in 861; but their foul deed, which they had hoped would 
escape detection, on a spot so remote from the haunts of 
. uien, was brought to light by two pet ravens reared b^ Mein- 
rad, which pursued the murderers with croaking cries, and 
flapping wings, over hill and dale, as far as Zurich, where 
their guilt w;as detected, and they sulTered for it on the place 
now occupied by the Raven inn. The reputatton of sanc- 
tity, however, surrounding the spot where the saint had 
lived, increased so much after his death, that his cell was 
rebuilt, and a church founded by a community of Benedic- 
tine hermits (Einsiedlern). The first abbot was Eberard ; 
and it is affirmed by the monkish legend, and perpetuated 
in the bull of Pope Pius VIII., that vrhen the Bishop of 
€oD«taDce was about to consecrate the church on the IHh of 

260 RouU Ik,— Abbey ofEinsiedetn. 

September, 948, he was aroused at midnight by the sounds 
of angelic minstrelsy^ and was informed next day, by a voice 
from heaven, that there was no need for him to proceed 
with the sacred rite, as the church had been already .conse- 
crated by the powers of heaven and by the presence of the 
Saviour! The pope pronounced this a true miracle, and, in 
consideration of it, granted plenary indulgence to all piigriras 
who should repair to the shrine of Our Lady of the Hermits, 
in the words inscribed upon the church, '* Hie est plena re- 
missio peccatorum a culpA et a poenA." The consequence of 
this has been that during 9 centuries there has been. an al- 
most uninterrupted influx of pilgrims from the surrounding 
countries to this shrine, and of wealth to the monastery. In 
process of time these pious benefactions increased its reve- 
nues and domains to an enormous extent ; it ranked second 
.to St. Gall alone of all the monasteries in Switzerland. Its 
abbot became a prince of the holy Roman empire, with a 
seat in the diet. He had his hereditary officers, his chamber- 
lains, marchal, and cupbearer; and these posts were filled by 
personages of noble or princely rank. He also enjoyed the 
right of criminal jurisdiction and the power of life and death 
in several parishes and circles. I>owu to the 16th century the 
abbots themselves were of noble families. 

The French revolutionary invaders of 1798 stripped 
£insiedeln of its resources and treasures, and carried off 
the figure of the Virgin to Paris; but the monks, on aban- 
doning the convent, transported with them into Tyrol a du- 
plicate figure, which they assert to be the authentic original. 
Notwithstanding these untoward circumstances, the abbey 
remains at the present day the richest in Switzerland, and 
the Black Virgin, whether an original or a copy, has lost 
none of her reputation. The average annualnumber of 
pilgrims who receive the sacrament in the church is 150,000. 
In the course of the year 1700 there were 202,000; in 1834, 
36,000 pilgrims repaired to the shrine within a fortnight. 
Every parish of Canton Schwytz, and most of the other Bo- 
man Catholic Cantons, send an annual deputation hither, 
headed by the Landamman and the authorities. The Bo- 
man Catholics of Switzerland, indeed, for the most part, 
make 2 or 3 journeys hither, in the course of their lives. 
Many of the pilgrims are deputies paid by others, wealthier 
sinners, to do penance for their principals, who remain at 
home, and a pilgrimage thus performed by proxy is ren- 
dered equally efficacious with one made ill person. 

In 1835, the convent contained 77 monks of the Benedictine 
order, including lay-brothers, novices, etc. 

In tile square in front of the convent stands a fountain, 
y/lih li jets of water, from all of which the pilgrims drink. 

Route Ik.— Abbey ofEinsiedeln. 261 

as it is traditionally reporied, that our Saviour drank from 
one, but Trom which or them is not known. In the centre 
of the pile of conventual buildings stands, as is usual in Be- 
Bedictine monasteries, the Church, which has been compar<> 
ed with that of St. John Lateran at Rome. The interior is 
somewhat gaudily ornamented with inferior paintings; mar- 
ble and gilding. A few feet from the entrance stands the 
Shrine- OT Chapel of the Virgin^of black marble, with a gra* 
ting in front, through which, by the glare of an ever-burning 
lamp, the spectator perceives the palladium of the temple, a 
HItle black figure of the Yirgin and Child, attired in gold bro- 
cade, glittering with jewels, and bearing crowns of gold on 
their heads. The space in front of the shrine is rarely free 
ef worshippers, and commonly hundreds, nay, at times^ 
thousands of devotees may by seen prostrate before it. The 
w«^ of this part of the church are literally covered with vo- 
tive tablets, rude paintings in oil, on which no kind of ac-*. 
eident br misfortune is omitted, though they are diiefly de- 
T«ted to representations of escapes from fire and water, all: 
efEected by the supposed miraculous interference of the 
image. Its influence, however, is not limited to incidents 
of private life; many of the great events of history, such as 
Uie victory of the Roman Gatholie cantons at Kappel, are 
<jassed among the triumphant interpositions of our Lady of 
the Hermits. S50 new votive tablets were hung up in i83&>, 
older 6ne& being removed to make way for them. 

In the Chapel of the Magdalene , a church of itself in 
size, on the 1. of the choir, are 28 confessionals, over each 
df which is written the language in which confessions will 
be received in it, either German, Italian, French, or Ro- 

The Treasury J once so rich in churc^ plate, was plun- 
dered by the French in 1798, and one.splendid monstrance alone 
remains, but it is not readily shown. The monastery in- 
cludes, besides the lodgings for the Abbot, and the brethren, a 
handsome refectory, a kitchen, an hospital, a library y con-r 
taihing 2'6 ,000. vols., a museum, containing some fossils and 
minerals, a free school, and boarding-school, the pupils of 
which are taught by the mgnks, and a large cellar running 
linder the greater part of the edifice. During meals, passa-^ 

fes of some approved author, such as lingard's History of 
Ingland, Cobbett's History of the Reformation, etc. are read 
, aloud to the assembled brotherhood, and even at times por- 
tions of newspapers, r 

Zwinglj, Ihe reformer, was curate of EinsiedelnfiiOBi 1516 
to 1519. Theophrastus Paraselsus vOn Hohenheink was bora 
here, or in the neighbourhood, in ii98. 


262 RouU Ik.— Abb^y ofEinsisdeln. 

The following description relates to the last jiiibilee cde- 
brated at Einsiedeln, in September 1834. 

** The place is annually visited by many thousand pilgrims 
espectaHy on the 14th September, and whenever Uie litb 
falls on a Sunday, the festivities are greater than usual, 

**For the last ten days, even before we left Baden, ana 
while in the French territory, we have met at almost every 
step troops of pilgrims plodding on their way to this Swiss 
Loretto. The parties seemed generally members of one fa- 
mily, or of one village, from the similarity of their dress, 
and they were invariably repeating their aves and pater-nos- 
ters aloud as they passed along, or uniting together in singing 
a hymn. They consisted almost entirely of the lower class 
of peasants, who repair to this spot from far and wide. Ai- 
satia and Lorraine, the Black Forest, Suabia, the Grisons, 
Bavaria,— and the whole of Switzerland, all contribute their 
quota to augment the throng; thousands nsually issue out of 
Tyrol, but the Austrians this year have refused to let any 
persons go into Switzerland without passports, which has 
served as a complete preventive to their underUking the 
journey. ... 

" It was growing dusk as we entered the valliey m which 
Einsiedeln lies. Just as we began to descend our attention 
was roused by the repeated reports of cannon, which, thou^ 
loud in themselves, awakened echoes in the adjacent hills, 
which made it appear as though a whole broadside had been 
fired. Soon after, the deep-toned bells of the convent began 
to sound,. the firing ceased, and the long and loudlynrepeated 
prayers of tie pilgrims whom we passed on the road pro- 
claimed that It was the hour of vespers. 

** As we drew nearer the bells had ceased, and we heard 
the sound of a drum and band of music. This odd jumble of 
noises, profane intermixed with sacred, which gave me no 
very distinct idea of whal«was going forward, was a\fterwards 
explained by the intelligence that the pilgrimage is not con- 
sidered a religious matter only, but is mixed up with some- 
what of festivity— which induces the brotherhood of the 
convent to pay for salvos and" feux dejoie, while they en- 
courage the forming of a band of music composed of the 
towns-people. Their performance is pretty much on a par 
with that which is found in the booths of a fair in En^land,^ 
but under its escort we entered the town. The musicians had 
just paraded to the end of the street of which Einsiedeln cook 
aists, and were returning, followed by a crowd large enough 
to stop our progress till it had passed. The one street which 
I have.mentioned is, with scarcely an exception, composed 
entirely of inns and pothouses, principally for the reception 
of the poorer pllgriiiis. As the baud passed by, every window 

Route ^ti.-^Piigrimags to Einsiedetn. 363 

uras crowded with projecting h«ads, which had a curious 
effect, lighted up by the solitary lantern which dangles in 
front or each house. 

*' The inn. where I was lucky enough to find lodging (with 
the threat of having two other persons put into the same 
room, in case more visitors should arrive), is directly in Tront 
of the convent and church, and as soon as I had finished my 
supper I issued out to explore it. 1 found it already crowded 
with pilgrims, partly met to keep the eve of the festival, 
partly to take up their night's lodging in the church. For 
though a bed may be had in the town for (he value or a half- 
penny, and a supper for as little, many of these people are 
so po^r that they cannot afford to pa v for a bed; their only 
food is a crust of bread and a bit of cheese, which they bring 
with them, and they must pass the vigil in the open air if 
the church be not opened to receive them. 

*' As I elbowed my way into the church I found it dark 
except one solitary lamp before the akar, and a few candles, 
brought in by the people themselves and laid on the pavement, 
or placed on their laps to enable them to read their prayer- 
books. The crowd was very great, for, though the gloom 
prevented my seeing the extent of it, the sounds which burst 
en my ears as I entered the door were such as could only arise 
from thousands. It was a confused mixture of sounds, singing 
in all tones and tunes, many very shrill, and as a bass to this, 
a low long-continued murmur or buzzing. I Tound that the 
singing proceeded from many distinct parties in different 
parts of the church, each composed of the members of one 
family or parish, who were now practising here the hymns 
they were accustomed to sing together in concert at home, 
but without any attention to the tune which their next neighr 
hours were chanting. The partial but vivid light thrown upon 
visages hard and soft, though mostly of the former character, 
and the total blackness of the back-ground, would have fur- 
nished a painter with many a novel effect. The low and un- 
interrupted buzzing came I found from a vast and dense crowd 
stationed near the entrance of the church, in front of the 
chapel which contains the miraculous black image of the 
Yirgin, the ostensible object of this pilgrimage, which shines 
in silk and jewels, lighted up by a great number of lamps. 
The little chapel stands in the middle of the church, and is 
open only on one side, on which the image can he seen 
through an iron grille. Fortunate were those among the 
crowd of devotees who could manage to place themselves in 
a position where a view was to be obtained of it. By far the 
greater part were quite out of sight of it, but stIU all perse- 
vered with the same devout mumbling of prayers, with ex- 

26<^ Route lk» ^Pitgrimage to Einsiidetn. 
pressions of extreme devotioD, intent upon their books or 


♦ ♦ ♦ *. 

" Next morning I was suddenly, awakened by a great con- 
cussion which shook the house and mpde me start. It was 
attain the discharge of cannon and rockets to oppi the festival. 
Daylight had not yet dawned, but I heard th^ sound of nu- 
merous foot-steps pacing across the s<}uare to the church. 
About half past nine I repaired again to the church. I knew 
bow thronged it would be, and therefore took the precaution 
of securing admission to the gallery, from which I looked 
down upon a sea of heads, into which the bases of the pillars 
of the church appeared to be sunk. Every aisle and angle was 
crammed, and whenever a movement was made by those en- 
deavouring to enter or depart, the space was instantly filled 
up as though a drop of water had been displaced. I know 
no mode of giving an idea of the numbers; the exact number 
cannot be ascertained till to-morrow, when a census is 
made of the persons to whom wafers have been distributed by 
the priests in the communion. I placed myself immediately 
abov« the high altar, so as to see the whole ceremony of high 
mass performed in its greatest pomp. The legate sent by the 
Pope as resident in Switzerland, who officiated, was an arch- 
bishop; he was attended by two bishops. The splendour of 
his robes, which he put on one after the other — the mitre 
and crosier, assumed or laid down from time to time , as 
different parts of the ceremony were performed — the satin 
shoes — the purple train, borne up by attendants as he moved 
to and fro between his throne and the altar— had a very im- 
posing effect. 

^ To have an idea of the great solemnity of the whole cere- 
mony, you must take into consideration the host of fervent 
worshippers assembled before the altar, filling the whole 
body of the church as far as the eye could reach, aided by the 
effect of the most solemn music performed by a full band and 
two organs. The whole was worked up to a height at the mo- 
ment when the legate finally receives the cup, and afterwards 
bestows his benediction and absolution upon the congregated 
pilgrims. The thunder of drums, trumpets, and diapasons of 
the organs, was, as it appeared to me, assisted by some 
machinery by which the roof of the church was struck, in 
order to produce the effect of the building having been sha-. 
ken : at the same moment a signal is given on the outside, 
the bells begin to toll, and the cannons are fired off from the 
neigbouring hills. This over, the organs commence some 
popular overture, from Mozart or Rossini, and the people 
rush out to bargain for relics, at the booths erected round the 
church, which give the square in front the appearance of a 

Route lk.-*Pitgrimagtio BinsUdtln. 265 

fair. The commodities for sale were limited to the wants of 
the pilgrims, temporal and spiritual, and appeared to be 
cooGned to umbrellas, holy tapers to burn in the churches, 
rosaries, little medals with a figure of the Virgin of the 
Hermits, and bread and cheese. 

** The ceremonies of this festival did not terminate until 
the evening. As it began to grow dusk- the long and stately 
facade of the building was illuminated by rows of lamps; and 
a temporary altar, erected on one side of the square opposite 
the main entrance was entirely studded wjih lamps, till (t 
became one blaze of light. While this was preparing , the 
vast square gradually filled with people, until the assembled 
multitude amounted to not less than 30,000 persons, chieflv 
pilgrims. When all was ready the great doors of the church 
were thrown open, and out marched a venerable procession of 
ecclesiastics, their abbot at their head, preceded by banners 
nnd crucifixes, and followed by a long train of torch-bearers. 
Lifting up their melodious voices in a solemn chant, they 
conveyed the sacred elements towards the altar, as is usual, 
under a canopy, e&cbrted by soldiers, and accompanied by a 
band of music and a moveable organ on wheels. While the 
mass was being performed in the open air I sallied out among 
the throng : the view looking towards the ^Itar was as sin- 
gular as that in the opposite direction. The blazing altar, this 
long line of torches and tapers flaring and glittering in the 
night, had a most singular effect, increased by the illumina- 
tions of the town behind; every house was lighted up, and, 
as they are all built in the Swiss fashion, with gables outward, 
they looked like so many fiery pyramids. No sooner was mass 
finished than the procession retired again into the church, 
the crowd disappeared also into it, the exterior lights were 
extinguished — in half an hour the whole square was dark and 
empty : It seemed like a dream. The interior of the church, 
however, was still filled with people; the whole being studded 
with lamps, especially the chapel of the Virgin : the throng of 
worshippers before it seemed umliminished, and many lin- 
gered in front of it, on bended knees and with eyes fixed on 
the image, till late in the night. , 

" JJext morning I left Ginsiedeln on my way out of Switz- 
erland : I set out about 6, and all the way passed through one 
continued line of dirty, ragged, and brown-visagexl pilgrims, 
on their way home, chanting, without cessation, their paters 
and aves, etc., which their confessors had prescribed for them 
to repeat between the time of their departure from and return 
to their homes. I passed across the Lake of Zurich by the 
long bridge of Rapperschwyl; and in the evening crossed the 
Lake of Wallensladt. Still I had not got out of the line of 
pilgrims; 8 boats* full set sail along with that which couYeyed 

S66 Routs n.^Einsiedetn to Schwytt. 

me; and the wind which filled our broad and unwielHy Mi(» 
•nd carried us quickly along, wafted with it the same responses 
«nd chants which I had heard from the pilgrims on the road." 
^MS, Journal of a Traveller, 

There is a path the My thenberg , from Einsiedeln to 
Schwytz, shorter than the carriage-road. 

The carriage-road to Schwy tz, makes at first, a considerable 
detour : the foot-path is shorter, crossing the Katzenstrick, a 
considerable track of upland meadow or common, direct to 

S 1/4 Rothenthurm, a village of nearly 800 inhabitants^ 
is the place of meeting of the general assembly of the canton 
Schwytz, convened here every two years, in the open air, on 
the first Sunday in May, or, if the weather be bad on that day, 
on the first fine Sunday after. The landamman is president, 
and every citizen above the age of 18 has a vote. These meet- 
ings afford no favourable specimen of the working of universal 
suffrage, as they frequently terminate in rioting and violence. 
For example, in May, 1838, 9000 voters collected here; the 
show of hands was deciared to be in favour of the government ; 
but the Liberal party being dissatisfied with the result , a 
battle ensued, in which the hustings were broken and many 

Sersons much injured. The democrats, enraged at their 
efeat, published a manifesto, calling on the *' Liberals to 
meet in their districts, and expel the rich from their assemblies 
as their ancestors expelled Gessler, since the government of 
the rich has become a government of murderers,*' Rothen- 
thurm receives its name from a Red Tower still standing and 
forming part of the defences of a long wall or rampart(letze;, 
erected by the Schwytzers along their W. frontier, to ward 
off the inroads of their lordly and lawless neighbours. It extend- 
ed hence as far as Arth. 

About 2 miles W. of Rothenthurm, on the confines of the 
canton of Zug, and on the margin of the small lake of Egeri, 
is MoRGARTEN, mcmorabU in Swiss annals as the scene of 
their first struggle for independence, as the spot where the 
chivalry of Austria was worsted, and their lieader, Duke 
Leopold, compelled to fly with disgrace, on the 15th of No- 
vember, 1 315, 8 years after the expulsion of the Austrian bailiffi^. 
Fired with the hope of revenge and with feelings of hereditary 
hatred, the duke led on his mail-clad cavalry along the narrow 
strand between the lake and the hills. Just where the ascent 
into the upland country of Schwytz commences, running up 
a narrow defile, the Austrians were met by the confederates, 
a mere handful of men in comparison with their host, but of 
hardy fVaniie and resolute spirit, posted on the ridge of the 
Saltel, near Haselmatt. The first bold charge of the Swiss, 

Route 74 -^MoYgarten. 26T 

Irusfaing on vlth swords and clubs, was aided by a discborge 
of rocks Xrom the heights abov«, which quickly threw into 
courusionthe ranks orheavy-airmed knight». They attempted 
to Tall back, but their evolutions were prevented by the in- 
fantry pressing on in their rear. Without room to manoeuvre, 
or even to turn (for the naturally confined margin of the lake 
was at that time diminished by an unusual increase of its 
waters ), the proud knights were totally at the mercy of their 
light-armed foes. Many, in order to escape the sword, perished 
by plunging into the lake ; the rush of the cavalry, over- 
whelmed the infantry behind, and in a short while the whole 
army was thrown into panic and disorder. The Austrians 
lost the flower of their nobility, and Leopold with difficulty 
escaped. This astounding victory, the Marathon^ of Swiss 
history, was gained in an hour and a half, over a force of 20,000 
well-armed men, by 1300 mountaineers, who now for the first 
time met an army in the field. 

The appropriate memorial of their success ereetediby the 
Swiss was, according to custom, a Chapel; dedicated to St. 
James; and service is performed in it annually on the anni-* 
versary of the fight. It is still standing on an eminence above 
the liBike, at the foot of the hill of Morgarten, close to-the village 
of Schorno^ by the road-side as you descend from Rothen- 

The little village of Biberegg, on the opposite (£.) side of 
Rothenthurm, was the cradle of the family of Reeling, one of 
the oldest and noblest in the canton, and whose name appears 
oftener with credit than any other. There is scarcely a battle 
in which they are not mentioned, and they have 45 times filled 
the oflSce of londamman, the highest in the state. In 1798 
Aloys Reding, a hero worthy of such an ancestry, led on the 
brave inhabitants of these mountains to oppose, in defence of 
their liberties and constitution, a far out-numbering force of 
.French under General Schauenberg. The Swiss metthe in- 
vaders in the valley of Rothenthurm, and drove them back 
as far as the lake of Egeri and the field of their ancient 
victory of Morgarten. This proved but a temporary gleam 
jof success. Their victory had cost them so large a number of 
men that they were unable to renew the contest ; and an 
overwhelming force of French marching into the canton ren- 
dered all further resistance hopeless . 

A long descent, commanding a fine view of Schwylz, of 
the singular and picturesque Mythen and Hacken Mountains 
behind it, and of the lake of Lowertz, with part of the fall 
of the Rossberg (p. 57-63), leads through Sattel, past the 
ehapelofEcce Homo, to Steinen, a small village, memorable 
as the birthplace of Werner Stauffacher, one of the three 
.conspirators of the Grutli (p. 76). A small ehap^l, adorned 

268 Route 75.—Mu6tia Thdln 

iriiik ru<ie fresco of scenes from his life, and the balQe of 
Morgarten , is dedicated to his memory . It was built in 1400« 
The Bonehouie is as old as 1111, 
3. Schwj^x. (Route IT, p. 62.) 

ROUTE 75. 


10 stunden » 32 3/4 Eng. miles. 

A very rough char-road ascends the valley as far as Muotta. 
Some distance may be saved to the pedestrian by keeping 
to foot-paths known to the guides. The road crosses the 
plain to Ibach, a village of scattered houses at the mouth of 
the Muotta thai, which here assumes the character of a con- 
traeced gorge ; higher up it opens out, and exhibits conside- 
rabie capabilities for cultivation; it abounds with exquisite 
scenery. The road ascends the I. bank of the stream, tra- 
versing Ober SchOnenbach, down to which point the Rus- 
sians, under Suwarrow, drove (he French, commanded by 
Massena, M'ortier, and Soult, in his desperate attempt to 
force his way through them to join the Russian army at Zu- 
rich, in 1799. '^The bridge near this, which carries the road 
over to .the rt. bank, was taken and retaken many times; the 
mingled blood of the 2 nations crimsoned the stream which 
carried down their floating bodies.*' 

Beyond Ried there is another bridge, and a third brings 
the traveller to 

2 3/4 Muotta, or Motten, the principal village of the val- 
ley, on the rt. bank of the stream. The parish contains 1480 
inhabitants. In the neighbourhood is the Nunnery of St. 
Josephy a very ancient and primitive convent, founded 1S80. 
The sisters are poor, and their mode of living homely; they 
make their own clothes and their own hay ; the superior is 
called Frau Mutter. They receive visits from strangers witb- 
out the intervention of a grating, and will even give a lodg^ 
ing to a respectable traveller. Whoever avails himself of this 
must remember that the convent is too poor to afford gratui- 
tous hospitality. 

On the night of the 27th and 28th of September 1799, the inha^ 
bitants of the remote and peadeful valley of Muotta were surprise 
ed by the arrival of an army of an unknovm nation and tongue, 
whose very name many of them had never heard, which came 
pouring down upon their cottages and green fields from the 
heights of the Kinzig Culm, by pathless iA>ysses and precipi- 
ces which the very shepherds cross With difficulty and dread*. 
These were the ^4,000 Russians under Suwarrow, whose pre*- 
vious march out of Italy. has already been detailed in Routes 

Bouie 75. - The Muoita Thai 269 

34 and 72. Here Ihe eeneral ^rst heard the nevs of the de- 
feat of Korsakow and the main Russian army at Zurich. He 
at first gave no credence to the report, and would have hung 
the peasant i?ho communicated it as a spy and traitor, but 
for the intercession of the lady mojCher of St. Joseph's nun* 
nery. He was now beset on all sides; part of Lecourbe's di- 
vision followed his rear, Itolitor occupied the summit of the 
M uotta thai, and Mortier and Massena blocked up its mouth. 
The bold attempt td cut his way out, through the forces of 
the latter gen eral,was dereated, as«a1ready mentioned, chief- 
ly by the uneipected arrival of a fresh reinforcement under 
l^courbe in person, though with vast loss to the French. 
Tiie veteran conqueror was compelled for the first time in 
his career, to order a retreat, and to adopt the only alterna- 
tive of ascending the valley and crossing the Pragel into 
Glarus. The detachments of Molitor^s advanced guard were 
quickly driven in before him, and the greater portion made 
prisoners. SuwarroW's rear-guard, however, encumbered 
with sick and wounded, was greatly harassed by Massena; 
but the republicans were again repulsed with loss, and dri- 
ven back nearly to Schwytz. Suwarrow expected to be able 
to reach Zurich from Glarus, there to join and rally the bro- 
ken forces of Korsakow ; but Molitor in person, warned of 
bis approach, took possession of the position of N&fels; block- 
ing up the outlet of the Linth thai as Massena had intercept- 
ed his passage down the Muotta thai, and the Russian once 
more found his plans foiled and baffled. Fearing to be hem* 
med in on all sides by the French, he gave his troops a few 
days of rest at Glarus, rendered absolutely indispensable by 
the fatigues thiiy had undergone, after which he once more 
took to the mounUins, ascending the Sernft thai (Route 76) 
to the Gri sons. ^ 

The path ft-om Muotta to the pass of the Pragel (Suwar- 
row's line of march) is rather steep and stony, but is practi- 
cable for horses. The distance from Muotta to the lake of 
KI6 is calculated at about 90 miles; about 3 1/4 to the foot 
of the ascent, 4 to the cross, nearly 3 to the^ummit of the 
pass, 1 3/4 toKlO, and 6 to Auen, on the lake. 

3 1/4 The summit of the pass. 5200 ft. above the sea, is the 
boundary-line of cantons Schwytz and Glarus. It is rarely 
free fr6m snow before the month of June. 

The Kldnthftl, into which the traveller now descends, ig 
exceedingly beautiful. On the rt. hand it Is walled in by the 
Gldrnisch rising in an abrupt and sheer precipice, terminat- a sharp edge of ice, and on the I. bv the Wiggis, scarce- 
ly less abrupt. Deep in the recesses of this charming val- 
ley lies a beautiful lake about 2 miles long, embedded deeply 
at the foot of the Glarnisch, whose vast grey precipices des- 

S70 Roufg 76 -^Glarus to Coire. 

eend at this point almost perpendicularly into the water. 
^It is surrounded by meadows of the most verdant green, 
covered until the end of autumn with flowers. The precipi- 
tous tracks along the side of tb^ valley, along which, some 
adventurous French pushed forward in pursuit of the Bos- 
tiians, are pointed out. Ebel deservedly calls the Kidnthal 
"une des vall^s les plus gracieuses qu'il 7 ait dans> les Al- 
pes." Two Swiss have inscribed on a rock at the foot of the 
GIdrnisch, by the side of a waterfall, ad epitaph in memory 
of Salomon Gessner, the pastoral poet, author of the Dteathof 
Abel, who used to repair hither from Zurich, and spend the 
summer in a chalet. This spot is about 8 miles from Gla- 
Fus. After passing through Riedem the traveller soon reacb^ 
ei the high rdad, and turnihg to the rt. ascends the Linth- 
thai about a mile to 
4 Glarm, in Route 7Sk 

RODTE 76. 



13 1/4 stunden=43 1/2 Eng. miles. A char-road as Tar 
as Elm; beyond that a footpath, difficult and fatiguing. 

About 3 miles above Glarusthe valley of theLinth divides 
into two branches. Out of the 1. or E. branch issues the 
Sernft : it is sometimes called Kleinthal, to distinguish it 
from the larger W. branch, or Lintblbal. 

At Enghi, the first village, there is no inn. Matt, ano- 
ther village^ stands on the rt. bank of the Sernft and at the 
mouth of the minor vale of the Krauchthal, up which runs 
a path to Sargans, over the Reiseten pass^ stunden^ 

The quarries in the Plattenberg, a moimtain of grauwacka 
and clay-slate on the 1. side of the valley, opposite Matt, 
furnish excellent slates for roofing or for writing. Most of 
the schools in Switzerland are supplied from hence ; and the 
slate was formerly exported down the Rhine to Holland and 
the Indies. This slate is well known to geologists, for ibe^ 
beautiful and perfect cast& of fossil fish, in which it abounds. 
The lower portion of the valley is unhealthy, as may be 
learned from the occurrence of goitre and cretinism (those 
afflicted with the latter ace here called Tdlpel, $ 19); but the 
inhabitants of- the upper extremity are a fine and hardy 

4 1/2 Elm (where the inn is better than lower down) Is^ 
the highest village in the valley. 

There is a way from Elm to the Raths of Pfeffcrs— a fa- 
tiguing walk of 13 hours. The path ascends the Uotor-thal; 
«roj^ the ridge of the Ramin into the Weistanoen Thai. 


Route 76.-— The Sernfl Thai, 27t 

There is a tolerable path as far as a clialet on the K. slope oF 
the pass; beyond this there is scarcely any trace ot one, and 
the ps^ssage is not practicable for mules. From this chalet 
you turn to the S. of £., and cross 2 rapines into the 
Kalfeuser Thai, a mile or two below the source of the Tamina, 
which rises at the head of that valley, in the glacier ofSardona. 
The scenery of the Gorge of the Tamina is magnificently 
grand. The Kalfeuser Thai terminates atYattis, at the foot 
of theCalanda-berg, where the river suddenly alters its course, 
and bends to the N. There is no village where refreshment 
or accommodation can be obtained between Elm and Yattis. 

At Elm the valley of the Sernft divides again, and minor 
paths ramify hence~l. Up tof the head of the valley and over 
the pass of Panix, called In the language of the Grisons ai 
quolm de Pejnu, I.; 2. The pass of the Segnes, which we 
propose to follow. Near the Tschingel is the Martinsloch, a 
lingular hole or gap in the precipice, through which the sun 
$bines 2 or 3 times in the year upon the village of Elm. 

Suwarrow; after the almost incredible march detailed in 
the preceding route, remained like a stag at bay for 3 or 4 
days at Glarus for the purpose of resting bis wearied troops, 
though not a day was passed without skirmishes more or less 
severe wit|i the enen^y. At length, finding it hopeless to attack 
4 French force now so greatly superior in numbers to his 
own, he adopted the tremendous, but only remaining, alter- 
native of again leading his exhausted and diminished followers 
over the highest crest of the Alps, in order to rescue ihem 
Arom annihilation and enable him to unite himself with the 
scattered fragments of the Russianarmy in the Grisons. He 
broke up from his quarters on the 5th of October. The 
lateness of the season, the difficulties of the passage, and the 
yastly superior force pressing on the heels of his dispirited 
soldiers, rendered this a far more hazardous enterprise than 
|^h4t which be had previously accomplished. The miserablo up the valley would barely admit 2 men abreast : along 
.(his the army painfully wound ijts way^ in single file. The 
difficulty of the ascent was greatly increased by a fall of 
§now 2 ft. deep ; bu(, as though the hardships of the way were 
not enough, the indefatigable French, ascending the opposite 
bank of the Sernft, allowed the Russians no respite nrom their 
harassing assaults. Numbers lay down, exhausted from 
fatigue, to perish on the snow; many, slipping down the 
tnsecure fragments of slate, and along the rocks, polished by 
the frost, were hurled over the precipices- and crushed in the 
abyss below , while the enemy's bullets were not slow in 
further thinning their ranks. After 5 days of toil and i 
pights of little repose, since they were spent on the bare sur'^ 
(isce of the snow and the glaciers, where many men were 

272 Route 77.— Coirs to Jndermatt. 

frozen to death, Suwarrov crossed the ridge of Panix, between 
7000 and 8000 ft. above the sea, and on the 10th oC October 
reached the Talley of the Rhine at Ilanz. Even on reaching 
tiie descent into the Grisons many perished in attempting to 
cross the fearful chasm of the Araschka Alp. For months 
and months the foul birds and beasts of prey ^ere gorged 
with their bodies, and the bones of many a warrior are still 
blanching in the crevices and ravines of the Jatzcr. Thus 
terminated a march of 18 days' duration, perhaps the most 
extraordinary ever performed by an army incessantly engaged, 
fighting a battle almost every day, and obliged to traverse a 
country totally unknown and completely destitute of resources. 
This remarkable retreat was acoDmplished with the loss of all 
his artillery, the greater part of the beasts of burden, and 1/3 
of his men. 

The Segnes pass, the best way fcom Glarusto Coire, ascends 
a minor valley running in a S. £. direction behind the village 
of Elm. The height of the pass above the sea is 7500 ft. It 
is about 15 1/2 miles from this to the first village in the 
Grisons valley of Segnes. 

1 I^/t rinV I <*escribed ki Route 77. 

S 3/i GoiRE, in Route 67. 

Glarus to Coire up Wesen 14 St.— up Gungels 13 l/a st. 

ROUTE 77. 


20 stunden=:65 1/2 English miles. 

The great post-road from Coire (Route 67), up the valley 
of the Rhine, is followed as far as 

1 3/i Reicbenau (described in Route 87), where the 
waters of the Vorder and Hinter-Rhein unite. Thencefor- 
ward a cart-road, of the very worst kind, is the only mode of 
communication up the valley of the Yorder-ithein, and will 
be, mQst probably, for some time to come, though anew 
carriage-road to Dissentis is promised in 3 years. The want 
of roads and of inns, the pothouses which supply their place 
being of the most inferior kind, has hitherto prevented this 
beautiful district being visited by travellers as much as it 
deserves. ^ Quitting the highway, out cart-track strikes up 
the side of the hills on thel. bank of the Rhine, to the village 
of Tamins, directly over Reichenau. For some dislaiice the 
traveller enjoys a beautiful view up both valleys of theRhine. 
The entrance of that of Hinter-Rhein, up which runs the 

Rouii n.—Coir$ to Andeiynati'—Trons. 273 

road to the Splugen, is guarded by the castle of Rbstzans, 
backed by villages and church-towers without number. 
Beyond Trins the road turns aside from the Rhine, and bends 
round a little monticule rising in the midst of the valley into 
a small sequestered basin, in the midst or which lies 

2 3/4 F lims, a village 3360 Tt. above the sea, named from 
the number of sources around it ad flumina. Here the path 
to Glarus, by the Segnes Pass (Route 76), strikes off. After 
continuing some time, out of sight of the Rhine, we join ii 
again, after a steep descent, a'bout 3 miles beyond Lax. 

3 3/4 Ilanz (in Romansch, Glion or Hon).— (/*in ; L6we; 
near the- bridge. Latrobe calls it the cleanest, prettiest, 
and most unassuming in he had seen since he left England.) 
Ilanz is the only place in the valley deserving the name of 

town, and is the capital of the Graue Rufid, or Grey league, 
p. 247. Its 568 inhabitants speak ihervomansch tongue, 
and this dialect prevails in a large portion of the valley. 

This place, situated on the rt. bank of the river, exhibits 
marks of poverty, though the country around is fertile; its 
walls are in a state of dilapidation. ' 

Obersax, a village on the same side of ihe Rhine as 
IliNoz, and about 4 miles higher up, is Gennan, while all 
the villages around it are Romansch. In its vicinity stand 4 
ancient castles, now picturesque ruins, about 1 1/2 mile 
apart from another. Theii- names are Mooreck, Scnwartz- 
enstein, Riedburg, and Axenstein. Refore reaching Ober 
Sax the road crosses the river, but again crosses to the 1. 
bank before arriving at 

Trons (in Rhoetian, Tron) — (inn: Casa Nuova?) — 
a village in a singularly -beautiful situation, at a little 
distance from the Rhine. Its^ 800 inhabitants are Catho- 
lics and speak Romansch. There are iron-works in the 
yicinity. Trons is chiefly remarkable, howevel*. as the 
cradle of liberty among the Rhoetian Alps, the Grutli of 
Orison history. Beneath the shade of the neighbouring 
forest the peasants met at the beginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury to concert the plans of liberating themselves. and their 
children from the oppression and slavery of their feudal 
lords, 3 or 4 of whose castles, now in ruins, may still be seen 
frowning down from the neighbouring crags. 

Near the entrance of the viHage stands the decayed but 
Tenerated trunk of a Sycamore (Acer Pseudoplatanus : 
German, ahorn), now probably 6 or 7 centuries old, a mere 
trunk,, cloven and hollow, beneath whose once spreading: 
branches the deputie;s of the peasants met the nobles who 
were favourable to their cause, in March, 1424, and took the 
ttth of fidelity to one another, and to their free constitution 
then established. Such is the origin of the Grbt League, 

274 Route 77 .-^DissentU. 

Graue hund^ so called from the grey beards, or the grey 
homespun garb of tlie venerable assembly. Close to the 
sycamore-tree stands the little Chapel of St, Anne, whose 
portico is adorned with the mottoes ''In libertAtera vocati 
estis*'— ''Ubi Spiritus Domini, ibi Libertas"— "In^le spera- 
verunt Patres"— and with two fresco paintings. One repre- 
sents the first formation of the League, the principal figures 
being the Abbot of Dissentis, in the robes of his order; the 
Count of Sax, with a white flowing beard; and the Lord of 
Rhoetzuns. The other picture shows the renewal of the 
oath in 1778 : the deputies here appear with starched frills, 
and hair powdered and frizzled ; in silk stockings and walking- 
sticks. It is recorded that the deputies on the former occasioo 
brought their dinners in sacks on theii backs which, they hung 
up by nails to the rocks, while they quenched their thirts id the 
brook which traverses the meadow of Tavanosa. The more 
courtier-like deputies of the second meeting were more 
sumptuously feasted in the mansion of the Abbot. 

The inhabitants of the upper part of the valley, about Dis- 
sentis, are Catholics, as will become apparent from the in- 
creased number of churches and crosses. The mountains 
which bound it change from limestone to primitive rocks, 
and give a difTerent character to its scenery. 

Opposite Sumvix the valley of that name opens out; it 
stretches many miles S., far into the Alps. Beyond it the 
eye is arrested by the view of the abbey and village of 

2 1/4 Dissentis-'{Inn ; Rathhaus, bad)— The Benedictine 
Abbey of Dissentis (in Romansch Mustlir, or Monster, from 
Lat. Monasterium) is venerable as one of the oldest ecclesi- 
astical establishments in Switzerland, founded, it is said, by 
the Scotch Monk Siegbert, a companion of St. Gall, and as 
the nucleus of early civilization in this wild and rempte 
country. It stands on the slope of a hill, protected by a 
forest above it from falling avalanches, on the 1. bank of the. 
Yorder-Rhine, at the junction of the two Alpine torrents 
which unite in forming that branch of the river. The word 
venerable will not apply to the actual buildiffg, for, though 
dilapitated, it is modern, having been built since 1799, when 
the ruthless French invaders burnt it, and along with it the 
library formed in the seventh aiid eighth centuries. It must 
be allowed that provocation was given for this act of ven- 
geance, by the barbarous and cruel murder of a party of 
French soldiers, who had been disarmed and taken prisoners 
by the Swiss Landsturm, and who were here setupop by tho 
infuriated inhabitants of this part of the valley, and literally 
cut or torn to pieces. The abbey has, however, an impos- 
ing appearance from its size and position, towering above 
the bumble hovels of the village below, as its rich and power- 

Jtoute IT.—DUseniis—Oberalp. 275 

fill abbotff, in the middle ages, lorded it above theif vassaU. 
Tbey n^re at one time iBrm allies of the House of Habsburg, 
and the abbot and his banner t)€cu pied the van at the battle 
of Moi'garten. At a later period however, 1424, Abbot 
Peter of Pontaningen was one of the founders of Grison 
liberty who met under the Sycamore at Trons. Dissentis is 
situated at a height of 3700 ft. above ihe sea-level* 

There is a steep and difficult footpath hence over the Luk-^ 
manier to Bellinzona (Route 78), another up the Medelser- 
Tbal, and ihence down the Val Piora to Airolo, 10 1/4 
stunden; a third, difficult and dangerous, runs N. over the 
Dddi'Grat, by the Sandalp, to the Baths of Stachenberg, 
Route 72. . 

The path from Dissentis up to the Oberalp leaves the 
Medelser-Thal on the I. and ascends the vale of Tavetsch by 
the 1. bank of the Yorder-Rhein, now reduced in breadth 
and volume to a mountain torrent. The path passes^ ihe 
villages Mompetavetsch, Sedrun^ or Tavetsch, ther chief 
place in the valley, and Ruaras. A narrow gorge now leads 
out of the lower into an upper valley. This part of it ia 
dreadfully ei[ posed to avalanches. In 1808 one fell from the 
Ruenatsch upon the village of Selva, and killed 42 humaii 
beings and 237 head of cattle. Here begins the last and 
most difficult part of the ascent ; all regular track disappears* 
and the numerous furrows worn bv the feet of the cattle 
perplex the traveller who will hardly be able to find his way 
without a guide. 

4 Ciamot is the last village in the valley deserting that 
name, and provided with a church; it is 5000 ft. above the 
sea. The valley of Tavetsch is the cradle of the Vorder- 
Rhine; it is supplied from 3 branches, having their sources 
in the vast mountains which wall in its upper eitreroity. 
The l.-hand branch flows from the foot of the Grispalt, on 
the S. side of the valley, the middle from the glaciers of the 
Sexmadan (€ima de Badus), the third comes from the Val 
Corn&ra on the S, At Ciamot the l.-hand branch is crossecT 
and the middle branch followed for about a mile, after 
which adieu to the Rhine; a constant ascent leads the tra- 
veller to the summit Of the pass of the Oberalp, 6174ft. above 
the sea, by the cross between the Calmot and the Neugallas. 

On reaching the opposite declivity, a small lake, famed for 
its trout, lies at the fbot of the traveller. This is the 
Oberalp-See, one df the headwaters of the Reuss, it is beset 
with bogs, across which the traveller must pick his way 
cautiously. This spot was the scene of a hard struggle be- 
tween the French and Austrians, in 1799. The path winds 
along the N: or rt. side of the lake. The vale of Urseren, 
with Hospital in the distance, now opens out to view, and a 

278 Jtouie IS. — Pass of the Lukmanier. 

long and wearisome descent, through a naked valleiy of pas- 
tures, brings the traveller to 
3 1/4 Andermatt, oft the St. Gi)tthard,Route3i, p. 136. 

ROUTE 78. 


10 stunden « Si 3/i English miles. A foot-path, much fre- 
quented in summer. The valley of Medels, up which it lies, 
runs in a direction nearly doe S. from Dissentis, and is tra- 
versed through its whole length by the Middle Rhine. The 
entrance to it is by a rocky and wooded gorge, about 2 miles 
(torn Dissentis, in the midst of which the Rhine forms two 
cascades, and beyond which the valley opens out into a wide 
basin, lined with pastures and forests, in the remoter paii^ 
of which the bear is still found, while the chamois abounds 
on the granite peaks forming the highest summits of the sur- 
rounding Alps. The path runs through Guraglia, or Kuraghi. 
Plutta is the principal place in the Medelser Thai. Perdatscb 
is situated at the opening of the Vai Gristallina, which runs 
inaS.E. direction, and sends forth one branch of the Middle 
Rhine. Another branch comes from the W. out of the Lake 
Dim, at the end of the Val Cadelina ; and a third, between 
these two, issues from the foot of the Monte Scuro. 

5Sta. Maria, a hospice, kept up for the benefit of poor 
travellers, nearly on the culminating point of the Pass of the 
Lukmanier (in Latin, Mons Lucumonius; in Romansch, Luk- 
majn, or Quolm Sta. Maria), 5740 ft. above the sea. It is said 
that the army of Pepin passed this way a. d. 754. Poles, stock 
into the rocks, mark the direction of the path across the Col. 
Paths branch off from the hospice to A irolo, through the Yal 
Termini, orVa| Forno, theValPiora, byAltanca, Rrugnasco, 
and Madrano : 5 1/2 stunden. 

The path to Olivone and the Yal RIegno descends the Al- 
pine Yal Casaccia, to 

3' The Hospice of Casaccia; and, a. few miles lower, to that 

SCamperio, both founded, it is said, by St. Carlo Bor- 
romeo, for the reception of travellers. 

1 Olivone is the highest village in the Yal RIegho, and 
stands at the point where the lateral valley of Casaccia joins 
it; it has about 740 inhabitants. • 

» The Yal RIegno (Germ. Polenzerthal) is traversed by the 
stream of theRrenno ; and a tolerable char-road has recently 
h«en formed along the 1. bank of the stream, from Olivone to 

. Route &i.r^T/isPriiugau... 277 

Biasca, on the route of the St.GotUiard (Route 31, p. 142), a 
distance of 4 stunden. 

Many of the chocotate-sellers 'and chestnut-roasters, who 
swarm in the streets of the cities of Italy, come IVom ike Val 

ROUTE 81. 


Mayenfeld is an ancient walled town of 1200 inhabitants, 
on the rt. bank of the Rhine, but at a little distance Hrom the 
river. It stands on the high-road from Bregenz to Coire, about 
12 milesN. of the latter place. Itisthe cliieftown of the League 
of the 1^ Jurisdictions (2ehngerichten-Bund]^ There is a 
cross-road direct from Mayenfeld to Malans, but it is better 
to follow the high-road as far as the ZoUbriiclce, and there to 
turn off on the 1. to Malans, a village of 105i inhabitants^ 
overlooked by several ruined castles, and situated near the 
mouth of the PrettigauXl Bhaeti-gau). The entrance of that 
valley is through a narrow gorge or defile, called Klus, a mile 
long^ broken through by some geological phenomena, so as to 
give passage to the waters of the Landquart, a furious tor- 
rent. The valley abounds in fine scenery, is shut in by high 
mountains and glaciers, and is famed for its large breed of 
cattle. The rt., or N. side of the valljey, is occupied by the 
Alpine chain of the RhcBtikon, whicli separates it from the 
Vorarlberg arid from the vale of Montafun. its most remark- 
able summits are the Falknis, overlooking the Rhine, the 
Scesa Plana, and the Fermund {Ferreus Mons), on the bor-« 
ders of the iBngadine. It is crossed by several passes — one is 
called Druser-Thor. The road ascends on the rt. bank of thQ 
Landquart by Griisch and Schiersch to Rutinen, where it 
crosses the. stream to 

F i d e ris. About 2 miles S. of the village^ in the wild, ro- 
mantic vale of Raschitsch, a tributary of the Landquart, stand 
the Baths of Fideris, corrsidered efficacious in cases of inters 
mittent fevers, supplied by several alkaline acidulous springs, 
the strongest of their class in Switzerland. Visiters are ac- 
commodated in two Bath Houses, capable of lodging lOO 
persons. The visiters are almost exdusively Swiss. 

Above the village of Fideris rises the ruined Castle of Strah- 
leek; and, on the rt. bank of the Landquart, opposite, that of 
Gastels, which was stormed and taken, in 1622, by the peas- 
ants, armed with sticks alone, from the soldiers of the empe- 
ror Ferdinand, who at that period wanted to make himself 
master of the passes of the Grisons, to exlinguisb thePcotcs- 
tant religion iii^ this country, and to seize and banish its mc->^ 




278 RouU S±—Pass of the JaUer. 

Disien. .A path leads S., in3l/S hours, over the mountaiDs^ 

into the Scbalfik-thal. 

About 13 miles above Fideris, on the rt. bank of tlie Land- 
quart, lies Klosters {Inn, near the bridge), a village, named 
after a convent suppressed 1528. 

Paths go from hence S. over the Stulz into the Dayos>thaI, 
and £. over the Selvretta into the Engadine. The latter run» 
up the Valley of Yareina, and down the valley of Siiss. Sliss 
is 9 stUDden from Klosters. 

ROUTE 82. 


16 3/1 stunden » 52 1/2 English miles. 

The long-projected carriage road up the valley of the Ober- 
balbstein, and across the Julier, has at length been under- 
taken by the canton of the Grisons, and was so far advanced, 
in September, 1837, that carriages with 2 or 4 horses, could 
drive as far asTiefcnkasten. The rest of the journey may be 
performed in a char. But the entire road may possibly be 
completed in 1838. There is as yet great want of inns beaween 
Coire and St. Mauritz. Lenz is a tolerable dining-place; but 
the traveller will do well in stowing away some eatables in 
his wallet, in* case of accidents. He will everywhere be able 
to procure the tolerable wine of the Yalteline. 

On quitting Coire, the traveller leaves, on the I., the en- 
trance to the Schalfik-thal, and passes through the villages 
ofMalix, Churwalden, and Parpan; then, over a barren heath, 

4 3/4 L en z--{lnn : Krone; not very good). Here the road 
divides ; one branch, a path, runs to the Albula f Route 83); 
the other is the carriage-road to the Julier. Beyona Lenz, the 
Romansch tongue (p. 245) is almost exclusively spoken ; even 
German is rarely understood, except in the inns. 

The river Albula is crossed, in order to reach Tiefenkasten 
(Rom. Gast^), a village situated, as its name implies, in a 
deep hollow, at the entrance of the Oberhalbstein. This val- 
ley runs up to the foot of the Julier and Septimer, a distance 
* of about 20 miles. It is scattered over with ruins of castles ; 
no less than 10 of which may still be counted. Immediately 
above Tiefenkasten, the road is carried through a remarkable 
gorge, called the Steiny which has been compared, in the 
grandeur oHts scenery, with the Via Mala (Route 87). 

2Gonters. Above this lies Savognin, or Schwe iningen . 

' Route 82.— Paw oftfie Jutier-^St. Mauriiz. 2f79 

I Tinzen—/nn— travellers are received at the house of 
the magistrate (Landyoght }, Dosch ; it is but humble quarters. 
This part of the valley is very bleak and bare ; its iuhabitanCs, 
the women especially, have a most squalid iaspect. A con- 
stant and steep ascent through the viHages of Rofna, Molina 
(Muhlen), to reach which the road crosses the stream, re- 
4!rossiDg it to the next village of Saur and Marmels, brings 
you at length to 

3 l/2Bivio Stalia (theCapucin, who acts as parish priest, 
would possibly accommodate a traveller). This village lies 
nt the foot of two passes, the Septimer, on the rl., leading into 
Che Val Brcgaglia and the Julier, in a direction nearly due £. 
It is placed in a secluded basin, shut in by hfgh mountains, 
in a climate so severe that all vegetation is stunted. Not a 
tree can grow in the neighbourhood, and the people are re- 
<luced to burn sheep dung for fuel. Potatoes rarely ripen at 
ibis height— 5630 ft. above the sea. 

It takes about two hours to ascend from Stalla to the 
summit of the JuHer Pass, 6830 ft. above the sea level. The 
ascent is not difficult, and the pass is remarkably safe from 
avalanches. Its S(;enery is not particularly grand, the outline 
of thcf mountains being round. On the top, the road passes 
between two rudely-hewn pillars of granite (der.ived from 
the neighbouring mountains), believed to be Roman,.called 
Julius's Columns. They are about 4 ft. high, destitute of 
inscription, but may have be^n set up as mile-stones in the 
time of Augustus, who ciaused a Roman highway to be carried 
from Ghiavenna over the passes of theMaloja and Julier. A 
carriage road was formed across this pass to St. Mauritz in 
1823; but, as no attempt was made, till very lately, to im- 
prove the approach to it through the Oberhalbstein, little 
advantage was gained by it. Flocks of Bergamesque sheep 
are often found on the highest pastures, near the summit of 
the pass, in summer. A still more easy descent leads into 
Che Engadine, to the village of 

3 1/2 Silva Plana, situated between two small lakes, 
which are feeders and reservoirs of the river Inn, at the junc- 
tion of the roads from the two passes of the Julier and Maloja, 
5560 ft. above the sea. 

About 4 miles lower down, on the 1. bank of the Inn, 

1 1/i St. Jlfawrtrz.— There are three Inns here,. the Upper 
(Obere), best; Mittlere and Untere Gasthof: the accommo- 
dation in all is of the homeliest kind. This little village is 
rising into repute in Switzerland as a watering-place, upon 
the strength of its very powerful chalybeate waters, first 
described, 1539, by Paracelsus. The spring rises at the foot 
of Mount Rosegg, on the rt. bank of the Inn. A Kurhaus 

280 RoHt$ SS.—Pass of the Alhula. 

has been built over it. Tbe water is heated to supply the 

The villaffe contain^ but 160 inhabitants. Its sitqation is 
really deiightflil, overlooking the Inn, and several beautiful 
green lakes which that river forms in this part of its course. 
The climate is too cold to allow even barley to flourish ; the 
surrounding land is chiefly laid out in pastures, which are let 
to Bergamasque shepherds ; and there are some forests of 
larcb on the neighbouring mountains. The little lake, close 
to the village which is generally frozen over from St. Andrew's^ 
day (the end of November) to the beginning of May, furnishes 
capital trout. 

In one of the most recent descriptions of the Engadine, the 
author mentions that, on repairing to church on a Sunday, at 
St. Maurit;, he found the parish fire-engine drawn up by thje 
side of the pulpit— the church, in this and other villages, 
being somewhat profanely used as an engine-house. He 
found the office of watchman filled, and its duties discharged, 
by a woman, and a female also occupied the situation of 
baker, the bakehouse being the properly of the parish. 

The principal Excursions to be made from St. Mauritz 
are up the valley to the Lugni See, the source of the Inu 
(Koute 89); to the great, Bernina glacier (Boute 85)^and, 
down the valley^ to the pass of Finstermunz (Boute 84). 

BOUTE 83. 


14 1/2 stundena-47 1/2 Eng. miles. 

A bridle-path, barely practicable for light carts« As far as 

4 1/2 Le nz, it is identical with the preceding route, but at 
Lenz it turns round the shoulder of the mountain to the £., 
leaving Tiefenkasten on the right, and, passing the village of 
Brienz, ascends the vale of Albula. On the left towers the 
Castle of Belfort, on an almost inaccessible rock. In about 3 
miles more we reach the Baths of Alveneu, on the rt. bank of 
the Albula, and, crossing the mouth of the Davos Thai and 
the stream running out of it, follow the Albula, ascending, in 
a S.E. direction, to 

2 3/4 Filisur, a village on its rt. bank. Near it stand 
the ruins of Schloss-Greifenstein. The inhabitants of this 
and the adjoining valley emigrate from home to various parts 
of Europe, where they eiercise the craft of pastry-cooks, 
frequently returning hithergLto end their days in opulence 
earned by industry. Two miles above Filisur are the aban- 
doned silver mines of Bonacetsa^ and 4 miles from hence the 

Route Sip. --The Engadine. 28i 

path enters the narrow ravine called Berguoer-Stein, which, 
like that near Tiefenkasten ( p. 278), has heen compared with 
the Yia Mala. For a distance of more than 1000 ft. the path 
is hewn, or blasted, out of the face of ^he rock, and the Albula 
roars at a depth of 500 or 600 ft. below. 

S Berg On (Rom. Bergogn),a village of aboat 600 inhabi- 
tants, chiefly Protestants, speaking Romansch, and muleteers 
or carters by profession. A Protestant synod was held here 

A steep ascent leads to the inn, or chalet, of 

aWeissenstein, 4900 ft. above the sea, in the vicinity 
of a small lake, the fountain head of the Albula. "A few 
stunted firs are scattered about the lower end, where the water 
is shallow : on all other sides the lake lies dark and treeless, 
beneath the frightful precipices that tower above.'* The ascent 
from this point is very rapid, the path lies along the N. side of 
the lake; traces of the Roman road may he discovered near 
this. A savage ravine, caUed Trummer-thal, because filled 
with fragrnents of broken rocks, hurled down from the heights 
above, along with the avalanches, which render this part of the 
pass dangerous in spring, brings the traveller to 

1 1/i the summit of the pass of the Albula. The culminat- 
ing point, marked by a cross, is 6980 feet above the sea level: 
near it is another small lake. It is a scene of complete deso- 
lation. On the N. of the path rise the two peaks of the Al- 
Iftila—Crap Alv, or White Rock, 7560 ft.; and on the S.E. 
that of ^z Err, 8770 ft. high. 

The descent into the Ober-Engadine is also at times ex- 
posed to avalanches. 

2 Pout, or Punt, in Route 84. 

ROUTE 84. 


15 stuDdene49 Eng. miles. \ > 

A tolerable char-rroad, traverses the Engadine. 
The Engadine, or Valley of the Upper Inn, is nearly 60 
miles long, and is one of the highest inhabited valleys among 
the Alps, varying between an elevation of 5600 ft. above the 
sea, at Sils, the highest village, and 3234 ft. at Martinsbrilck, 
the lowest. It has at least 30 tributary valleys. Owing to 
this high elevation, and the icy barrier of enormous glaciers 
which separates it from Italy on the S., it possesses a most 
ungenial, nay, severe climate. In the language of its inhabi- 
tants it has 9 months of winter and 3 of cold weather. The 
only grain grown in it is rye and barley, a stunted crop ; and, 


28^ Route 8k. - The Engadine. 

in the upper iK)rlioii, potatoes rarely come to maturity ; yet 
it is one of the most opulent valleys among the Alps, though 
the source of its wealth must he sought for in another theatre 
than the valley itself, its inhabitants, aware of the incle- 
mency of their climate and of the barrenness of its soil, are 
but little addicted to agriculture. The surface, where not 
actually hare rock, is either covered with forests or converted 
to pasture, with the exception of small patches on the lower 
grounds, set apart for the plough or spade. Yet even of this 
the natives appear to take small account ; they let their pas- 
tures annually to the Bergamasque shepherds, and intrust 
the mowing of their meadows and the gathering of the hay 
harvest to Tyrolese haymakers, who resort to the valley at 
the season when their labour is required. The sons of the 
valley, for the most part, emigrate at an early age, scatter 
themselves over all parts of the Continent, and may be found 
in most of the great capitals exercising the professions of 
pastrycooks, confectioners, distillers of liqueurs, keepers of 
cafi^s, and sellers of chocolate. Many of them in the exercise 
of their calling acquire considerable wealth, and become mil- 
lionnaires in florins, with which they retire to end their days 
bv the side of the stream of their native valley. They dis- 
ptay their wealth especially in the architecture of their houses, 
which are distinffuished by their large dimensions, by their 
decorations of whitewash and fresh paint. They are usually 
decked out with fresco frieses, and pillars, reminding one of 
the pretension to taste of a cockney citizen's box nearJLondon, 
combined with the studied neatness of a Dutchman's country 
house, both equally unexpected and out of place, amidst the 
savage landscape ofaGrison valley. Some of the buildings 
really may be called splendid, though few are in good taste. 
The windows are few and small, to guard against admitting 
the cold. Poverty is rare, beggary almost unknown, and the 
people, who are, with the exception of one or two parishes, 
Protestants, are creditably distinguished for their morality, 
and are exempt from the vices common in other parts of 
Switzerland. Their pastors are held in great respect, but 
their pay is miserable, affording a striking proof of the ytot* 
kinf^ of Bi voluntary system. The sabbath is strictly ob- 
served; strangers only are allowed on that day to ride of 
drive until after church-time. 

The accommodation of travellers is not, as yet, much stu- 
died in the Engadine. The Inns (except at St. Manrilz) are 
very inferior, and the traveller who resorts to them must he 
prepared often to content himself with hard rye bread, baked 
only once a>quarter; eggs, cheese, and perhaps coffee. The 
universallanguage is the Ladin (see p. 245) ; but among the 
returncfd emigrants, in almost every village; may 1^ CottDd 

Route Sk.-'Gardoval. 283 

individoals speaking French, Italian, or even English. Many 
of (he retired patissiers are otherwise welMnformed men ; 
so that it is seldom that the stranger will not find an inter* 
preter. The wine of the Yalteline may be had good and 
cheap, and pastry (made with flour imported from St. Gall) 
is set before the traveller in spots where wheaten bread is 
not to be had; indeed, some villages,* which cannot boast )b 
shoemaker or tailor, possess 10 or 15 pastry-cooks. 

The higher Alpine pastures of the Engadine are let out every 
summer to Bergamasque shepherds, from the valleys Seriana 
and Brembana, on the Italian side of the Alps— a wild, dark, 
and scowling class of men, but hardy and honest, clad in 
homespun brown and white blankets, and feeding frugally on 
water ^llenta of maize-meal, and .a little cheese. They ar-- 
live about the beginning of July, with their flocks lean and 
meagre, after their long march, performed generally in the 
cool of the night. After a solitary sojourn of nearly 3 months, 
spending often the night as well as day in the open air among 
their flocks, they return home with fattened kine and long 
fleeces, which are sold to the wool manufacturers of Ber- 

Just below St. Mauritz, the Inn, on quitting the small lake, 
forms a pretty fall. The first villages passed are Celerina and 
Samadan (Spmmo d'On, Romansch ; summum OEni), the 
principal and wealthiest village in the Upper Engadine, with 
500 inhabitants. Opposite to it, the valley of Pontresina 
opens out, up which runs the road tatheBernina (Route 85). 

Beyond Bevers the path from the Albula (Route 83) des* 
cends into the valley. • 

At the foot of the Albula lie Ponte, and Madolein, and 
over the latter village towers the ruined Castle of Gardov<U, 
connected with which the following story is told :— In the 
days of the Faustrecht, before Switzerland was free, this 
eastle was held by a tyrannical and licentious Seigneur or 
Bailiff, who greatly oppressed the peasantry around, retain^ 
ingin his pay a body of lawless soldiers for the purpose of 
overawing. his neighbours. This libertin# lord in an evil 
bour cast his eyes on the fair daughter of Adam, a farmer of 
the opposite village of Gamogasc. , The maiden was. still of a 
tender age, hut of surpassing beauty, like an opening rosebud. 
One morning* her father; who doated fondly on her, was 
surprised by a summons brought by two of tli^ bailiCTs ser* 
vanls; to convey bis daughter* to the. castle. The father 
stifled his indignation ^ promised obedience, and next morn- 
ing<set out^ conducting his daughter atUred as a bride, and 
accompani^i by. a number oi his fk-ieods in festive garmentsi 

284h Route g&.— 7/i# Engadim—ZuH. 

lifl to ■ wedding, but with mournful mien. The lord of (he 
cattle watched the approach of his victim with impatience, 
and rushing down to meet her was about to dasp her, when, 
ere his polluting lips could touch her fair cheek, her fathers 
dagger was buried deep in his breast, and his companions 
throwing off their peaceful garb, and brandishing their cod- 
cealed weapons, fell upon the guards, and made themselves 
masters of,the tyrant's stronghold . It was immediately burnt, 
and from that day freedom dawned upon the serfs of the £n- 

3 Zutz, orSuoz is a village of 530 inhabitants. An old 
tower still remains of the Stammhaus, or original castle of 
the family of Planta, who, as for back as 1139, held the 
Engadine in feof. The climate here first becomes a little 
milder, Zutz being sheltered from the cold blasts descending 
from the Maloja. There is a path from Scanfs to Davos, over 
the Scaletta pass, 7820 ft., a distance of about 20 miles. 

At the FOnte Alto, under the Casannaberg, is the division 
between Upper and Lower Engadine ; the coufitry now as- 
sumes a more romantic character, but the road is rougher and 
more hilly. 

iCernetZrOrZernets, is a considerable village with a 
handsome church, and two feudal towers, one of which an- 
ciently belonged to a branch of the Planta family, and is a^- 
ied Wildenberg. Up the opposite valley of Forno runs s 
path into the MUnater Thai, by the Bufifolora Pass. 6 stunden. 
By the Val Forno you may reach Bormio, at the foot of the 
grand Pass of the Stelvio. 

The names Lavin, Zutz, and Ardetz, three villages in this 
part of the Engadine, are said to be a. Romansch corruption 
of the Latin Lavinium, Tutium, and Ardea. 

The road winds much up and down to reach the villages, 
which are often perched on the top of steep heights, as in the 
«ase of Guarda. Between Ardets and Fettan, it also makes 
41 wide sweep, away from the river Inn. Tarasp, on the rt. 
bank of the Imi, opposite Fettan, is the only Catholic vinage 
in the Engadine ; its inhabitants differ from their neighbours 
in another respect, that they do not emigrate. Though less 
enlightened perAaps, they devote themselves to tilling their 
own land. • * 

i Schuols or Schulz, the most populous place in the 
valley, contains 1143 inhabitants, and is prettily sitoatad. 
There is much corn-land near this. Avalanches soroetifne^ 
fall from the hill of Ballun^ behind. At Schools, the first 
Komansch translation of the Bible was printed 1679. See p. 
245. Perhaps the most picturesque scene in the Engadine is 
near Remus, where a wooden bridge, 60 feet span, is thrown 
^ver the deep gorge calM "^raunka Tobel, through which a 

fo^iU 85.— Pass of the Bernina. 285 

torreDt issues out of the vale of Ramosch, Above the bridse, 
which is called Ponte Piedra, rises the ruined castle Ghia-r 
muff, burnt by the Austrians in 1475. . 

The scenery of the valley of the Inn is very grand on ap^ 
proaching • 

3 Marti nsbrQck (Pomartitio). Here the traveller, after 
crossing the river, leaves the Inn lo find its way at once 
through the pass of Finstermiinz ; the path takes a more cir-» 
cuitous route, and ascends a considerable wooded eminence, 
forming the boundary between Switzerland and. Tyrol, and 
enters the Austrian dominions a short while before reaching 
Nauders, where there is a tolerable inn, about a mile distant 
from the remarkable defile of Finstermiinz. (See Handbook 
for ^^th Germany.) 

ROUTE 85. 


10 stunden = 32 3/i Eng. miles. 

The Bernina is a very lofty chain of mountains, separating 
the valleys of the Engadine and of Bregaglia on the N., from 
the Yalteline on the S« They vary in height between 8000 
and 12,000 ft., the highest summits being the Ligoncio, the 
Monte del Oro, the Rosegg (Rosalb, and in Ron^ansch, Ru» 
seig), the Monte delta Disgriiizia, and the Pizzo Scalino. Se- 
veral arduous paths cross it, but the most frequented is that 
called, par excellence, the Bernina Pass, a bridle-path, 
practicable at its two extremities for chars, and traversed an-i 
nually by 700 or 800 mules. 

From Samaden the road turns S. ascending the Yal Pon- 
tresina, by the rt. bank of the torrent Flatz, to . 

1 1/i Pontresina, a village having an inn. From this 
place, an excursion may be made in a S. W. direction tolhe 
glacier of Bernina, one of the largest in the Alps, filling the 
upper extremity of the Yal Busegg. The Flatz issues out of 
a cave of ice called Sboccadura, at its base. This glacier is 
stated to extend without interruption a distance of 50 miles. 
Several other arms or branches of this vast sea of ice descend 
the side valleys on the W. of our route, and appear from 
time to time in view. 

. 1 3/i Near the summit of the pass are 3 inns ; the middle 
one IS said to be the best. 

1 t/3 By the culminating point, 7180 ft. above the sea, are 
several lakes. A branch path passes them, and descends at^ 
once to the village of Puschiavo (Germ. PuschlaQ. The 
other branch, usually taken, turns off to the E., uear thc^ 

286 Route 9n —Coire to Splilgen. 

extremity of the Lago Biancbo, and crosses tbe ridge called 
Camino, to 

1 1/3 Pi sea dell a, the first village in the valley of.Pus- 

2 1/3 Puschiavo, a vil1{^eori015 inhabitants, the prin- 
cipal p]a£e*in the valley, is mainly supported by the conside- 
rable traffic of goods through it. Above it, on a height, stand 
the ruins of the Castle orOligati. * 

Nearly one- third of the inhabitants or this populous val- 
ley are Protestants, the language spoken is a corrupt Ita- 

About three miles lower down, the road skirts along ihe 
W. margin of the charming little lake of Puschiavo, famed 
for its trout. 

2 Br u si is the last Swiss village. On quitting the lake, 
the river passes through a very narrow defile, barely allowing 
room for the road and the stream. It is a raging torrent, 
and as it approaches the Adda, requires to be restrained with- 
in stone dykes of solid masonry, which have, nevertheless, 
proved insuflicient to protect its banks from inundation. 
Beyond this, the Yalteline, or Yale of the Adda, opens 
out at 

1 Ti r a n 0. See Handbook for South Germany. 



3 3/i postss32 Eng. miles. 

A diligence or malle poste goes 4 times a week : twice 
over the Spliigen and twice over the Bernardin. The road 
is excellent all the way. It is a drive of about 6 hours, post- 
ing, from Goire to Spliigen, and about 4 1/2 hours from Splu- 
gen to Goire. Excellent inns at Andeer and Splugen. 

From Coire (Route 67) to Reicbenau there is not much 
deserving notice in the scenery of the valley of tbe Rhine ; 
but the mountain Galanda, on its I. bank, is a conspi- 
cuous object. The road r.uns along a nearly level bottom as 
far as 

Reicbenau, which is a group of houses situated at the 
junction of the 2 Rhines. Its chief buildings are the Toll- 
bouse (16 kr, paid for 2 horses); the inn zum Adler (Aigle); 
and the Chateau, a handsone whitewashed country-seat of 
the Planta family. At the end of the last century it was 
converted into a school by the burgo-master Tscharner. In 
1793, a young man calling himself Chabot, arrived here on 
foot with a stick in his hand, and a bundle on his back. He 
presented a latter of introduction to M. Jost, tbe head mas- 
ter ; in consequence of which he was appointed usher, and 

Rouie Vt.-^Coire to SplUgen. 287 

for 8 months gave lessons in French^ roathematics, and his- 
tory. This forlorn stranger was no other than Louis Phi^ 
lippe, now King of the French, then Duke de Charlres, who 
had ieen forced by the inarch of the French army to quit 
Brenigarten and seek concealment here in the performance 
of the humble duties of a schoolmaster, and in that capacity 
made himself equally beloved by masters and pupils. H'm 
secret was known only to M. Jost. During his residence 
.here he must have heard the news of his father's death on 
the scaffold, and his mother's transportation to Mada- 
gascar. ^ 

At Reichenau the road is carried over the two arms of tho 
Rhine by two coyered wooden bridges, each of one elegant 
arch. The lower bridge is 237 ft. loqg and 80 ft. above the 
river. The junction of the rivers is well seen from the castle 
garden. The more abundant waters of the Hinler Rhein, 
coming from the Bernardin and the foot of Mount Adula, 
are of an ash colour or dirty blue ; while those of the Vorder 
Khein, rising in the glaciers of the Grispalt and Lukmanier; 
are observed to be of a greenish hue. The road up the 
Vorder Rhein to its source, and to Andermalt, on the St. 
Qotfaard, is described in Route 77. 

The road to the Spliigen follows the course of the Hinter- 
Rhein. On the rt. of it, as you ascend the hill beyond Rei- 
chenau, the Gallows may be seen standing in a field. A 
little further, on the top of a commanding rock on the 1. 
bank of the Rhine^ and approached by a long bridge, rises 
the Castle of Rhoetzuns (Rhoetia ima) : it is still inhabited. 

This part of the Rheinthal, called the valley of Domleschg 
(Vallis Domestica), is particularly remarkable for the vast 
number of Castles (31) which crown almost every rock or 
knoll on either side of the river, mostly in ruins, sometimes 
standing out boldly from a dark background of forest, at 
others so identified by decay, by the weather tints, and by 
the lichen growth, with the apparently inaccessible rocks on 
which they stand, as barely to be distinguished. Their pic- 
turesque donjons and battlements contribute not a little to 
enhance the charms of the landscape ; they serve at the same 
time as historical monuments to commemorate the revolu- 
tion by which the power of a tyrannical feudal aristocracy, 
the lords of these fastnesses, was broken aiid their strong- 
holds burnt by the peasants of this valley, whom they had 
long oppressed. 

Another peculiarity of this district is the intricate inter^. 
mixture of language and religion. There are scarcely two 
adjoining parishes, or even hamlets, speaking the same 
tongue and professing the same faith. Thus at Coire, German 
is the prevailing language, and Protestant the religion of the 
majority ; at Ems, the first village on (he road, Romanscb 

288 * Route gl.-^Coire to SplUgM* 

Op. 945) is spoken. Tamins and Reichenao are GathoUc ami 
German ; Bonaduz. divided from them only by the Rhine, is 
reformed, and speaks Rbmansch. Rfacetzuns and Katzis are 
two Romish villages ; but in the first the language is Ger- 
man, in the second Romansch. The inhabitanU of Hein- 
zenberg are Protestant and German; at Thusis they are re- 
forined and German; at Zillis and Scbams reformed aod 
Bomanscb. SplQgen and Hinter Rhein form the boundary 
at once of the Romansch language and Protestant religion. 

The castle of Ortenstein, on the rt. bank of the Rhine, is 
one of the finest anc^ best-preserved in the valley : it is still 
inhabited by the Travers family. . 

Near the village of Kfitzis a beautiful view opens out, on 
the opposite side of t^e Rhine, up the valley of Oberhalb- 
stein, with the snows of Mount Aibula (Route 83> at jtbe ter- 
mination of the vista. The river Aibula enters the. Rhine 
between Katzis and Thusis. 

This part of the Rhine valley eihibits dismal traces of the 
ravages produced by the torrent Nolla, wKich, rising at the 
base of the Piz Beveren, on the W. of our route, joins the* 
Rhine nearly at right angles to the direction of the course of 
that river. It is subject to very sudden swells after Fain. 
when it rushes down, tearing up the rocks and carrying 
along with it heaps of stone, mud, and gravel, which not 
only overspread its own banks, but frequently block. up Ibe 
bed of the Rhine and cause desolating inundations. Thus 
a district, previously fertile and beautiful, has been in the 
course of a few years (since 1807) converted into a deseri, 
and its fields either buried under stony rubbish or converted 
into marsh. The evil has been annually increasing for se- 
veral years past, but hopes are entertained of arresting it and 
recovering the land. With this view extensive dykes are 
being constructed along the banks of the Rhine. ^ 

1 3/4 Thusis— (/nn ; Aigled'Or, tolerable)— a village of 
670 inhabitants, finely situated on a terrace under the Hein-^ 
zenberg. Thusis, according to some, is only the word 
Tuscia, the country of the Tuscans, who first colonised these 
valleys, changed in the Romansch dialect. 

Immediately on the outside of Thusis the Nolla is crossed 
by a handsome bridge. On the rt., at the end of the valle;, 
appears the peak of the Piz Beyeren. 

Above Thusis the valley of the Rhine seems closed up by 
the mountains ; it is only on a nearer approach that the eye 
discovers the opening of that singular chasm which has cleft 
them through, afTordmg a passage for the river, and in nW" 
dem times, by artificial means, for the road. The rt. side 
of this colossal portal is guarded by the castle of Realt (Rh«- 
tia Alta), standing in the fork between the Aibula and the 
Rhine, and hT>m its lofty platform, 400 ft. high, looking 

Route 87.— The Via Mala. 289 

<d«)wn upon both valleys. It is accessible only from the east : 
on ail other sides the rock is a precipice. These mouldering 
ruins are traditionally reported to owe their origin to Rhoe- 
tus, chief of the Etruscans, who, driven out of Italy by an 
invasion of the Gauls, established his stronghold on this spot 
B.C. 287, and transplanted into the Alps the people and lan- 
guage of £truria. The ruined chapel of St. John, on a neigh- 
bouring height, is stated to have been the earliest, and for 
a long time the only Christian temple in the valley, where 
heathenism prevailed to a comparatively late period. 

The YiA Mala, which commences about a mile above 
Thusis, and extends for a distance of more than i miles, is, 
without doubt or exaggeration, the most sublime and tremen- 
dous defile in Switzerland. It is difficult to give, with any 
precision, the dimensions of this gorge, which has cleft the 
mountains through the chine. The precipices, which often 
rise perpendicularly on both sides of it, are certainly in some 
l^aces 1600 ft. high, and, in many places, not more than 10 
yards apart. The Rhine, compressed within this narrow, 
stony bed to the width of a pigmy rivulet, is barely audible as 
it rushes through the depths below the road. 

The rocks of slate and limestone, composing the walls of 
the ravine, are so hard that they appear to have suffered no 
disintegration from the weather; the fracture is so fresh and 
sharp that, were the convulsive force from below, which di- 
vided them, again called forth to unite them, it seems as 
though the gulf would close, and leave no aperture behind. 

When the traveller enters the mouth of the defile, the 
sudden transition from the glare of sunshine to the gloom of 
a chasm, so narrow that it leaver but a strip of sky visible 
overhead, is exceedingly striking. The walls of rock, on both 
sides, alTord naturally not an inch of space along which a 
goat's foot could clamber; and, in ancient times, this part of 
3ie pass was deemed quite inaccessible. The peasants gave 
it the name of the Lost Gulf (Trou perdu, VerlohrnesLoch); 
and, when they wanted to go from Thusis to the higher val- 
ley of Schams, they ascended the vale of the Nolla for some 
distance, clambering over the tops of high mountains, round 
the shoulder of the Piz Beveren, and descended on the oppo- 
site side at Suvers. A second, road, formed in 1470, crossed 
the mountains as before, but dipped down, from the village 
of Rongella, into the depths of the Via Mala, near the first 
bridge; still avoiding altogether the Trou perdu. This incon- 
veivient path, after being used for more than 300 years, was 
superseded by the present magnificent highway, constructed 
by the engineer Pocobelli. Avoiding the useless detour, and 
the fatiguing ascent and descent, ho at once plunged into the 
defile, and pierced the projecting buttress of rock, wiiich had 


2»0 RouU SI.— The Via MalA, 

previoirtly denied all access lo it,, by the gallery or tunnel of 
the Verlohrne Loch, aiO ft. long, through ¥?hich the roa«l 
now passes. The view, looking ba<rk from this, through Ihe 
dark vista of black rock, and the fringe of firs, upon theruioed 
tower of Kealt, and the sun-lit valley of^Bomleschg, is 
very pleasing. The grooves of the boriug-rod, by which the 
very hard slate rock is everywhere streaked, indicate how 
arduous was the labour of constructing this part of the road. 
It was literally forcing a passage through the bowels of Xhe 
earth; 'and the whole width of the carriage-way has been 
gained by blasting a notch* as it were, in the side of the 
mountain. For more tban 1000 ft. it is carried along beneath 
a stone canopy, thus artificially hollowed out. The road is 
protected by a parapet wall, below which, at a depth of many 
hundred feet, the contracted Rhine frets the foot of the pre- 
cipice. The road is in places steep, and fit for only one car- 
riage to pass. A little higher up, the gorge bulges out into a 
sort of basin, in the midst of which stands a solitary house; 
but it soon contracts again, and the scenery of the pass may 
be said to attain the height of grandeur beyond the first of 
the three bridges, by meaiis of which the road is conveyed 
from side to side of the Rhine. 

This portion of the pass at least, should be traversed on 
Toot; the traveller, hurrying through in bis carriage, is quite 
incapable of appreciating its awful magnificence. 

The Middle Bridge, a most striking object, from its grace- 
ful proportions, and the boldness with which its light arch 
spans the dark and deep gulf below, is approached by a second 
small gallery, protected by a wooden roof to ward off falling 
stones. Hereabouts, the lofty precipices on the one side ac- 
tually overhang those on the other, the direction of the chasm 
being oblique, and the smooth wall of rock on either side 
being nearly parallel, and scarcely wider apart above than 
below. Looking over the parapet of this bridge, the Rhine, 
reduced to a thread of water, is barely visible, boiling and 
foaming, in the depths below. Indeed, in one place, it is en- 
tirely lost to view—jammed in, as it were, between the rocks, 
here so slightly separated that small stones and trunks of fir- 
trees, falling from above, have been caught in the chink, and 
remain suspended above the water. The ordinary height of 
the bridge above the river is 400 ft. ; and the water, as men- 
tioned above, is in one place invisible at ordinary times, yet, 
at the commencement of the fearful inundation of 1834 (al- 
ready alluded lo in several routes), the postmaster of Thusis, 
who drove up the Via Mala during the storm, found that the 
water had risen to within a few feet of the bridge; the roar 
was terrific; and, as he drew up a little further on, in con- 

Route Sl.—Coire to SplUgen-^Andeer, 291 

'Sequence or the road being destroyed, two mangled human 
ibodies were swept psl^t him by the flood. 

The road, again, is no more than a shelf hewn out of ihe 
face of the precipice overhung by the rock, so as to be almost 
a subterranean passage, and the width of the defile is, in pla- 
ces, not more than 24 ft. Near the third, or Upper Uridge, 
however, a fine new structure— bnilt to replace the one swept 
off in 1834— it widens out, and the road emerges into the 
open vall€fy of Schams (Sexamniensis, from six brooks, which 
fall into the Rhine from its sides), whose green meadows and 
neat white cottages have a pleasing effect when contrasted 
with the gloomj scene behind. It has, however, suffered 
much from the mundation of I83i, which converted the val- 
ley into a lake, destroyed a great part of the road, and ren- 
dered a new line necessary. The first village is Zillis ; between 
it and Andeer, a stone, bearing the following inscription, was 
set up, by the road-side, on a bridge, after the completion of 
the great highways over theSplugen and Bernardine :—**Jam 
via patet hostibus et amicis. CavetCt RhcBtil SimplicUa$ 
morum et Unio servabunt avitam libertatem." * 

1 Andeer— (inn .'Post; good and cheap— bed, tea, and 
breakfast, cost 1 1/2 fr. each. It contains mineral baths, but 
they are not much used. This is the chief village in Schams, 
and has 400 inhabitants, who, like their neighbours, are Pro- 
testants, and speak Rommansch (p. 245). Over the doors of 
many of the cottages, <[uaint verses and mottoes in that lan- 
guage are inscribed. 

. Above Andeer a very large landslip or bergfsll occurred in 
1835, by the giving way of a mountain, which buried theroad, 
and, for 16 days, cut off all communication up and down* the 
Talley. Luckily it happened in the night, so that no one 
was hurt. 

The mined castles, visible in the valley of Schams, have an 
historical interest, from being monuments of the dawn of 
Grison liberty. In the last half of the fourteenth century they 
served as the residence of bailiffs, zwingherrn, or landvoghts, 
dependents of the Counts o^ Yatz or of the Bishop of Goire, 
petty tyrants and oppressors of the poor— akin in character 
to Gessler, the victim of Tell's vengeance. At length, a 
|>easant, of the Schamser Thai, named Jean Cbaldar, exaspe^ 
rated at the sight of two horses which the chatelain of Fardun 
had turned out to graze in his field of green corn, gave vent 
to his anger by killing the animals. He suffered punishment 
for this act by being long detained prisoner in a dark dui^eon. 
One day, after his release, the chatelain of Fardun, in passing 
his cottage, entered as the family were at dinner, and, when 
invited to partake of their humble meal, evinced his contempt 
by spitting iu the dlBh. Ghaldar, roused by this filthy insuLt» 

292 Route 87. ^SplUgen, 

seized the oppressor by the throat, and thrusting his head 
into the smoking dish, compelled himit) partake of it, saying, 
*' Malgia sez la putt cha ii has condut"— '' Eat the soup thou 
hast thus seasoned." This bold deed served as a signal for a 
general rising; the peasants flew to arnis^and the casUcs 
were stormed and burnt. 

One of the first that fell was Barenburg, which is passed on 
the L of the road after quitting Andeer. As soon as the road 
has crossed the mouth of the Yal Ferrera and the stream of 
the Aversa, it begins to mount in zigzags into the gorge of 
the Rofla, which closes up the S. end of the oval vale of 
Schams, as tbe Via Mala does the N. Its scenery, though fine, 
is vastly inferior to the lower pass. Tbe Rhine here descends 
in a cataract, called the fall of the Rofla. It does not rank 
as a first-rate waterfall, but the scenery around is pictu- 
resque—the sides of the valley being thickly wooded, and the 
river studded by saw-roills, where the timber of the neigh- 
bouring forests is sawn into planks. A timber-slide, similar 
to that of Alpnach (Route 19). was constructed to convey the 
trec^ to the borders of the Rhine. 

The oldest mule-path, which traversed this valley to Coire, 
crossed the river by a wooden bridge, still standing, to Suvers, 
where it began painfully to ascend the mountains, and pro- 
ceeded along the high ground to descend again at Thusis. 

The new road leaves tbe bridge on one side, traverses a 
small gallery cut in the rock, then crosses to the 1. bank of 
the Rhine, and soon reaches 

1 S plug en (Ital. Spluga)— (inn: Post; very good, and not 
dear : the landlady is French, and prides herself on her cui- 
sine). This little village is situated on the Rhine, at tbe point 
of departure of the two alpine passes of the Splugen and Ber- 
nardin, at a height of 4430 ft. above the sea. It suffered 
most severely from the flood of 1834, which swept away more 
than a dozen houses, in some of which the owners had been 
seated at their evening meal not an hour before. Five human 
beings perished by this catastrophe, the effecu of which were 
still painfully visible in 1837. The covered bridge over the 
Rhine escaped almost by a miracle; that over the Seranda 
was soon annihilated. 

Spltigen is the chief place in the desolate pastoral vale of the 
Rheinwald, and anciently belonged to the lords of Sax, in the 
vale of Misocco, on the S. slope of the Bernardine, but it 
afterwards joined the Grey League. 

The atmosphere is very chilly here, and barley barely 

The village prospers by the constant passage of goods and 
travellers to and from Italy. In autmnn it is thronged with 

Route 88.— Pass of the SplUgen. 293 

drovers ^large herds of cattle and many horses then cross the 
Alps for the Milan market. 

. An excursion may be made from Spliigeiv to the source of 
theHinter-Rhein. It will occupy 5 hours— 2 along the post- 
roadt 8 on horseback, and 1 on foot : it is described in the 
Bernardine Route, p. 300. 

ROUTE 88. 


. To Colico 5 posts ^U 3/4 English miles. 

A diligence goes twice a-week over the Spliigen to Milan. 

With post horses it lakes 7 1/2 hours to go ttom Spliigen to 
Chiavenna, including stoppages. 

^.B. Without an Austrian Minister*s signature on the 
passport the frontier cannot be passed, and the traveller un-~ 
provided with it, will inevitably be turned back on the summit 
of the mountain. A toll of 15 balz is paid for S horses, be- 
tween SplOgea and the Austrian frontier. 
. The SplOgen road, turning to the 1. from the village of that 
liame (p. S93) crosses the narrow wooden bridge over the 
Rhine, and quitting the river, begins at once to ascend. It is 
carried up the valley of the Oberhausen-bach, a small torrent 
which joins the Rhine at Splugen, by an entirely new line, 
the old one having been demolished by the disastrous tempest 
of 1834. Indeed this little valley presents one sweep of de- 
solation ; road and bridges having been entirely carried away, 
and enormous piles of broken rocks spread over its sides and 
bottom. The new line, however, on this side of the moun- 
tain, constructed by a Swiss engineer, employed by the canton 
of the Grisons, is, in every respect, a great improvement upon 
the old one. A little :tray above Spliigen it is carried through 
a tunnel, 80 met^s long» supported by a Gothic arch. 

After surmounting the district of fir forests by an almost 
qninterrupted slope, the road reaches the summit of the pass, 
6500 ft. above the sea, by means of 1:6 skilfully conducted 
ligzags, by which the face of the mountain is scaled. Along 
Uiis narrow ridge, which is 4 3/4 miles from SplOgen, and 
Vnore than 1800 feet above it , runs the boundary line of 
Switzerland and of Lombardy. Almost immediately after 
fiurmountiog it the road begins to descend. Upon this slope 
lies the first cantoni^ra, or house of refuge; and, lower down, 
a series of tourniquets. conduct to the 

Austrian Custom-house, and Passportroffice— a group of 
buildings, including several very common taverns for the en- 
tprt^jomeni of travellers. Here passports ai*e examined and 

2ldi Route dS.^PassofiheSplikgen'^GtdUrieM. 

luggage searched, and the traveller mnat often redcon upon 
no inconsiderable delay, es()ecially' ifbe arrives beliveen 1ft 
and 2, the douanier's dinner-bour. Tne custom-house stands 
at one end of a sort of oval basin, surrounded by lofly moun- 
tain peaks, among whiefa, on the rt., of the road, rises that of 
the Spliigen, and the glaciers which feed the rivers running 
towards Italy. It is a scene of eitreme desolation ; not a 
shrub of any kind grows here ; no vegetation is seen but 
lichen, mosses, and a little coarse grass. The snow oflea 
reaches up to the windows of the first story of the houses. 

The route of the SplCkgen was completed by the Austrian 
Government in 1823, to counteract the new Swiss road over 
the Bernardin, which, had the Splugen been allowed to remain 
in its original condition , would have withdrawn from it all 
the traflBc inio Italy. The engineer employed in this un-> 
dertaking was the Chevalier Donegani. The old road, a mere 
bridle-path, proceeded from this elevated valley, or basin, 
direct to the village of Isola, through the defile of the Cardinal, 
a most perilous spot, from its dire and constant eiposure to 
falling avalanches. 

The French army of Marshal Macdonald, who crossed the 
Splugen between the 27th November and 4th December, 1800, 
long before the new road was begun, in the face of sHow and 
srorm, and other almost insurmountable obstacles, lo^t nearly 
100 men and as many horses, chiefly in the passage of the 
Gardinell. His columns were literally cut through by the 
falling avalanches, and man and beast swept over to certain 
annihilntio;! in the abyss below. The carria^e-«road very pro- 
perly avoids the gorge of the Gardinell altogether, but the 
way to it turns ofl' from the second wooden bridge crossed on 
quitting the custom-house.- 

Near the scattered hamlet Tcginate, the descent re-com- 
mences, and soon after the road is carried through the first 
preat gallery more than 700 feet long, 15 feet high and wide, • 
followed by a second, 612 feet long, and, after a short interval»[ 
by a third, 1530 feet long. These galleries, the longest on any, 
Alpine high road, are constructed of the most solid masonry,' 
arched with roofs, sloping outwards, to turn aside the snow,' 
supported on pillars or low windows like the embrasures of » 
battery. They were rendered necessary to protect this portion 
of the road from falling avalanches which habituatly descend 
the face of the mountains, and which, if not warded off, wouM 
have swept away the road the first year after it was made. 

From the entrance of the second gallery there is a most 
striking view down upon the roof of the houses of Isola, and 
the long line of zigzags, abandoned since 1838, by which the 
traveller originally descended to Ghiavenna. At the village 
of Pianazzo, a cluster of pitch-coloured hovels, the new line^' 

RouU 88.— Pass oft/u SpiUgsn—lTaierfan. 29^ 

after descending 2 angular terraces, rurns ofT to the left, and 
from .Ibis point is carried almost in one gradual slope to the 
village of Canipo I>olcino. This alteration, by which nearly :i 
miles ofdistance are saved, was rendered necessary on accounl 
<)f the injury done to the old line by the storm of 1834, and 
•Iso by the great dangers from avalanches to which that part 
of the route, between Isola and the Cascade of the Medessimo, 
was exposed from avalanches which fall regularly into the 
savage glen of the Lira, below Pianazzo, producing an almost 
annual loss of life. In 1835 five peasants and eight horses 
were overwhelmed by the snow in this glen, as they were 
returning from conducting the diligence on a sledge over the 
mountain. The postilion being nearest the rock, which fortu- 
nately somewhat overhung the road, drew the horse he rode 
under the clifTassoon as ho heard the crash; to this circum- 
4iance he and the animal owed their preservation. Although 
buried, like the rest who perished, they were rescued and dug 
out after an imprisonment of some hours. 

Pianazzo stands at the same height above the sea as the 
bridge over the Rhine at Spliigen. The road, after passing 
through it, crosses the little stream of the Medessimo, within 
a few yards of the verge of the precipice over which it throws 
itself in a beautiful fall 800 feet high. The only thing to be 
r«gretted in the new line of road is, that by carrying the tra- 
veller above this fall, it deprives him of the view of it, unless 
be choose to return by (he old road from Gampo Dolcino, to. 
visit it. After crossing the bridge the road traverses a new 
gallery, 25 metres long, and thence gradually descends upon 

a Cam po Dolcino, which. Id spite of its sweet-sounding 
Italian name, is but a poor village, with a poor inn (Post), on 
a small dreary grassy plain, on the borders of the Lira. 

A further improvement has been made in the continuation 
of the road, which, on quitting the plain, threads the gorge 
of St. Giacomo; an inscription, by the road side, commemo- 
rates its completion by Carlo Donegani, in the reign of the 
Emperor Francis II. The sight of the tourniquets of the old 
road, painfully zigzagging out of the gorge below, which a 
heavy carriage could surmount only by the strength of 8 
horses, will convince the spectator how great this improve- 
ment really is. It has been effected at considerable labtfiir 
and expense, by cutting through the rock. The vale of the 
Lira presents a singular aspect of desolation, from the quan- 
tity and size of the masses of fallen rock which entirely fill 
the lower part of it. They are fragments of the neighbouring, 
mountains, which are composed of a species of white gneiss, 
exceedingly brittle, and which, after exposure to thewea^ 
Cher, assumes a red colour. It must have been a ditficutt taste 
lo carry a road through such a wilderness, • between such a 

296 Rout$ 88. ~ Pass of the SplUgm - Chiarenna. 

labyrinth of detached blocks; and it is, accordingly, in many 
places narrow, the turnings yery sharp, and the terraces to^ 
short. The aspect of desolation in this Traclured valley would 
be greater were it not for the rich dark foliage of the walnut- 
trees, which now begin to sprout out from among the rocks, 
so as to mask their barrenness. The tall white Italian cam- 
panile of the church of Madonna dt Galliyaggio, amid such a 
group of foliage, contrasting with the tall precipices around, 
forms an agreeable picture. Near it, at the village St. Gia- 
como, whence the valley ii named, the Lira is spanned by 
a bold bridge. 

A mile or two farther on, the valley opens oat, and Chia- 
venna eipaods to view, a picturesque town beautifully situa- 
ted, under an Italian sun, surrounded by hills clothed with 
the richest vegetation, with vines, figs, and pomegranates. 

1 CMaventM (Germ. Ciefen)— Inn : Qonradi's, very good ; 

Chia venna (Clavenna of the ancients), a thriving town 
of 30i0 inhabitants, is charmingly situated close under the 
mountains, which appear to impend over it, at the junction 
of the valley of St. Giacoma with that of the Meira, called 
Bregaglia. Beyond this beauty of situation there is very lit- 
tle here to interest the passing traveller. The town derives 
much benefit from its position on the Spliigen road, and 
maintains several spinning mills for silk and cotton. An In- 
genious manufacturer, named Vanossi, at one time wove 
here a fire-proof cloth of asbestus, a mineral, which abounds 
in the mountains of the neighbourhood. Opposite the inn n 
a picturesque ruined CaslUf on the top of a ruck, which once 
belonged to the Salts family: the present owners deny stran- 
gers all access to It. The principal Church of Si. iMwrencB 
has a tall campanile standing within a square inclosure, sur- 
rounded by a cloisier. On one side are two bone-hoases, fill- 
ed with skulls, and, adjoining them, in the octagonal Bap^ 
tistery, is a curious ancient stone font, sculptured with rude 
bas-reliefs which will interest the antiquary. The citizens 
keep their Valteline wine in natural grottoes, at the foot of 
the mountains, which ^form excellent cool cellars, and are 
called Ventorali. 

Near Pleurs, about 3 miles up the Val Bregaglia, memo- 
rable for the fjite of its inhabitants, who were buried by the 
fall of a mouiitain (see p. 399), is a peculiar manufacture of 
a coarse ware for culinary purposes, made out of potstone 
(lapis ollaris). This stone is easily cut, or turned in a lathe,' 
and is able to endure heat. Pliny calls it lapis Cdmensis, 
from its being exported from the lake of f'Omo : the manufac- 
ture has greatly dwindled down at present. 

The road up the Val Bregaglia and aver the pass of the 

Route 88, ^Rm— lake of Como. 2?T 
Ifalfiiia, and the description ofPieurs, are given in Route 89. 
Cbiavenna belonged to the Dulies of Milan down to the 
15th centnry, when the Swiss became possessed of it, and it 
farmed » with the Yalteline and Bormio, a slate subject to the 
canton of the Grisons. Napoleon added it to the kingdom of 
I^iy, as lying on the S. side of the Alps ; and the Congress. 
of Vienna, by the same rule, tranaferred it to the Emperor of 

Tlie lower valley of the Meira, from Chiavenna to the Lake 
of Riva, is by no means pleasing in its scenery, and the low 
l^ound is occupied by marsh rather than meadow; so that it 
IS at the same time very unwholesome. 

Travellers should not stop for the night any where between 
Chiavenna and Colico. Malaria hangs over the district around 
the embouchares of the Meira and Adda, and the stranger 
who neglects this warning (S 13) may pay for his temerity by. 
ft fever. Yarenna, on the £. shore of the lake, where the' 
Bosi is a good inn; Bellaggio, en the point of the promontory 
between the lakes of Lecco and Como, or Cadenabbia on the . 
W< shore of the lake, are all safe and capital quarters, ^and 
the traveller ought not to stop to sleep till he reaches one of 

1 Novate, a small village, to which the post station has 
recently been removed from the Riva, stands near the N. 
extremity of the Lago Mezzola, called also Lago di Riva. It 
is a most picturesque small lake, so walled in by mountains 
that, until a few years, there was no road by the side of it, 
and travellers were carried across it by a tedions navigation 
in flat barges; rendered dUficult and intricate by the annually 
increasing deposits of mud, which form shoals between this 
lake and that of Como, and prevent the steam-boat ascend- 
ing to Riva. The naked and savage mountains around have 
« very peculiar outline. Their sides are furrowed with ra- 
vines, down which furious torrents precipitate themselves at 
some seasons, strewing the margin of the lake with wreck. 
The engineers who constructed the capital new road, finished 
in 1835, experienced the greatest obstacles in crossing the 
debris at the mouth of these ravines. The €odwa, one of the 
most furious torrents, spreads out its waste of rocks and gra- 
vel in the shape of a fan, for a breadth of at least half a mile, s 
Thisjiver at ordinary times trickles tlirough the stones in 3 
^ 4 paltry driblets, crossed by wooden bridKes, under which 
ihe water \b turned by the c^mstructiDn of artificial canals, 
flanked by wedge-shapad dams and dykei^. After traveiaing 
this desolate space, the road is carried thfpngh two galleries 
excavated in the rock; and soon after emerges spon the delta 

298 Route 89. — Pass of the Maloja. 

of the river Adda, flowing from the E. oat of the Yalteline 
into the lake of Gomo. There can be little doubt that tiie 
lake originally bathed the feet of the mountain on this side ; 
but in the course of ages, the deposits brought down by the 
Adda and Meira haye so far encroached on it as to form an 
eitensive plain of swamp and morass breathing pestilence, 
through which the Adda now winds in a serpentine course. 
The new causeway stretches in a straight line across this mo- 
rass, passing the Adda upon a long wooden bridge, too nar- 
row for more than one carriage at a time, Near the centre 
of the plain the great road to the Stelvio branches off on the 
].(See Handbook for South Germany.) The Spanish Fort 
Fuentes, built 1603, as the key of the Yalteline, on a rock, 
once, perhaps, an island near the mouth of the Adda, is left 
on the rt., and the margin of the lake of Gomo is reached 

1 Col i CO, a yillage situated under the MonteLegnone, im- 
mediately S. of the embouchure of the Adda. It is less an- 
wholesome than formerly, owing to the drainage of a large 
portion of the marsh-land. It is not, howeyer, a good halt- 
ing-place; there is no tolerable inn here. 

The steam-boat from Como arrives off Golico eyery day 
about noon, and immediately returns. It will touch here to 
embark or disembark a carriage, if notice be sent to Domaso, 
otherwise it brings to at Domaso, on the opposite shore, and 
passengers are conveyed thither in boats. Boats may at all 
times be hired here to cross or descend the lake. The mag- 
nificent carriage-road of the Stelvio is carried along the E. 
shore of the lake, traversing several remarkably long tunnels 
eicavated in the solid rock ; it is well worth exploring, at 
least, as far as Varenna, the next post station IVom Golico. 

A diligence goes once a week from Milan over the Stelvio 
to Innsbruck. 

ROUTE 89. 


8 1/4 Stunden » S7 Eng. miles. 

A carriage-road up the Yal Bregaglia and over the Maloja 
has been many years in progress, but remains down to the 
present time (1838) incomplete. At the point of departure 
flrom Ghiavenna, a large bridge requires to be built, which 
is not yet begun ; but after a mile or two the new road com- 
mences, and continues practicable for 2 horse carriages as 
far as Gastasegna. Thence to Gasaccia}will probably be Mac- 
adamized in the course of 1838, Even now, the .journey Is 

BouU 89.— PflWi off he Maloja, 299 

{Practicable in a char. The inns in the Val Bregaglia are bad; 
ib^best is probably that at Yieosoprano. 

The road ascends by the rt. bank of the Maira, and about 
3 miles above Chiavenna passes on the opposite side of the 
river (in face of a pretty cascade formed by the Acqua Frag- 
gia descending from theN.) the grave of the village of P/eur#, 
buried with its 9i30 inhabitants, by the fall of Monte Conto, 
on the night of the 4th September 1618. It was a beau- 
tiful and thri\ing place, peopled by industrious inhabitants, 
and contained numerous villas, tiie summer resort of the 
citizens of Chiavenna. It now lies beneath a heap of rocks 
and rubbish, 60 ft. deep. Ev^ry soul within it perished, and 
the long continued excavations of all the labourers that could 
be collected from far and near failed in rescuing anything^ 
alive or dead, from the. ruins. All traces of the catastrophe 
are now nearly obliterated, and the spot is grown over with 
a wood of chestnuts. The inhabitants received many previous 
warnings, which were unfortunately despised. Masses of 
rock fell the day before, rents and crevices were formed in 
the mountain, and the shepherds had observed their cattle 
fly from the spot with marks of extreme terror. For many • 
hours after, the course of the Maira was dammed up by the 
fallen debris. 

The Val Bregaglia (Germ. Bergell) is fertile and pictu> 
resque; it is shut in by high mountains. Many of its inha- 
bitants emigrate, and adopt the profession of chimney-sweep- 
«rs, which they exercise in some of the large towns of the 
continent. After passing through Santa Croce, and Yilla 
(Pontelia), the road reaches the Swiss frontier at 

2 Castasegna. Above this, the white mulberry no 
longer flourishes, and this is therefore the limit of the cul- 
ture of the silkworm. The ruined Castle of Castelmur on the 1. 
bank of the Maira 19 conspicuous by reason of its tall donjon, 
100 ft. high, from which 2 walls, 15 ft. high and 10 thick, 
descend into the gorge to the river side. The valley was for- 
merly closed here by a gate, and the castle formed the key of 
the valley. 

2 1/4 Vico Soprano (Vespran), a village of 504 Inha- 
bitants on the 1. bank of the Maira. 

Casaccia (has an inn said to be tolerable), a village situated 
at the S. side of the Septimer, and on the W- of the Maloja, 
over both of which mountains the Romans conducted high 
ways in the age of Augustus. 

The path over the Septimer 7360 ft. high, leads by the 
valley of Oberhalbstein to Coire, and was the ordinary high- 
way between Italy and Switzerland, until the formation of 
the carriage-road over the Spliigen, which being a lower pass, 
and 10 miles shorter, is of course preferred to it On the- 

300 Haute 90. — Source ofilu Wane, 

Septimer are situated the sources or (he Maira and the Ober- 
haibstein Rhine, apd out of a small lake on Us E. declivity, 
on the confines of the.Maloja, the River inn rises out of the 
small lake called Lagodi Lugni. Thus, one single mountain 
distributes its rills between the 3 great seas which bathe the 
continent of Europe. 

There has been a tolerable camage-road over the Maloja, 
or Maloggia, Pass ever since 1823, but as the approaches 
to it, until very lately, were barely passable for^ the rudest 
kind of cart, it has been hitherto of little utility. The summit 
level is 6270 ft. high. A little way down the £. side of the 
ridge, the road falls in with (he infant Inn (called Acqua 
d*Oen) here a mere torrent which hastens to pour itself into 
the lake of Sils, a picturesque mountain basin, extending as 
far as 

2 1/4 Sils. the highest village of the Engadine. The most 
conspicuous building here is the villa of a chocolate manu- 
facturer, named Josli, a native of Davos, who, having quitted 
Switzerland a beggar, made a large fortune in one of the 
capitals of N. Germany, a part of which he expended on this 
. huge and unprofitable structure. 

.♦ , The lake of Sils is succeeded by two other small lakes of 
Silva Plana, and of Campfeer, through both of which the 
Inn passes. At Silva Plana the JuUer road (Route 82), eaters 
the Engadine. About 3 miles lower down stands 

1 3/4 St. Alauritz. Route 82. 

ROUTE 90. 


5 1/4 posts » 45 1/2 Eng. miles. 

A diligence goes to and from Milan, twice a week. 

The road over the Bernardin was constructed in 1822. 
under the direction of the engineer Pocobelli, at the joint 
expense of the Sardinian and Grison governments. About 
6-7ths of the sum required was advanced by the King of 
Sardinia, who duly appreciated the advantages to his do- 
minions to be derived from a highway, which should connect 
by a direct line, the port of Genoa, and the capital of Turin, 
with Switzerland and W. Germany. 

The road, leaving the bridge of Splugen on the 1., advances 
up the valley ofHinter-Rhein, whose stern and barren' fea- 
tures have less of beauty than of wildness, along the 1. bank 
of the Rhine through Nufenen, a distance of about 9 miles, to 

1 Hinterrhein— (fnn: Post)-the highest village in the 
valley, 170 ft. above Splugen, an elevation at which nograia 
but barley grows. 

RduU^O*^Passofthe B^mardin. 301 

A muUitude of streamlets trickle dovn Trom the crevice* 
iji the surrounding mountains, where deep snow rests al- 
most all the year round, to feed the infant Rhine. But the 
Source of the Rhine lies about 10 miles higher up the valley, 
half of which distance can be performed on horseback, the 
rest on foot; the latter part of the walk especially, is difficult 
and fatiguing, and the assistance of a guide is necessary to 
find l)ie way. The river takes its rise at the very extremity 
of this frost-bound valley, from beneath a glacier ironically 
called Paradies, situated between the Moschal Horn and the 
Piz YaUBhein, or Yogelberg (10,300 ft.), two of the highest 
mountains in the Grison range, forming part of the group 
called Monte Adula. At the end of about 4 miles the path 
begins to ascend, and is soon lost in crossing steep slopes 
covered with debris of rock, so that a previous knowledge of 
the direction will alone enable the traveller to reach the 
source. Alter skit ting along the sides of a savage ravine 
called HoUe a steep descent leads down to the fountainhead, 
in the glacier, which is sometimes hollowed out into a mag^ 
pificent dome or cavern. 

The road over the Bernardin bids adieu to the Rhine at 
Hinter-Rhein, crossing it by a stone bridge, the first which 
^pans its current, after which it immediately begins to as* 
cend, breasting the steep slope of the mountain by sixteen 
zigzags; many of its turnings, are very abrupt. 

A striking view opens out on the rt. over the head of the 
Rhine valley and the glaciers whence it bursts forth. On 
the rt. of the road rises the gigantic mass of the Moschel- 
Horn, and on thel. the black peak of the Miitag-Horn over* 
bangs the pass. 

This passage over the Alps is said to have been known to 
the Romans ; it was called the Yogelberg down to the begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century, when a pious missionary, St. 
Bernardin of Sienna, preached the gospel through these re- 
mote Alpine valleys, and a chapel dedicated to him, on the 
S. side of the mountain, gave rise to the name still 
retains. It was traversed in March, 1799, by the French 
army of Lecourbe, at a season when winter still reigns on 
these elevations, and before the mountain possessed any other 
road than a miserable mule-path. 

The summit of the pass, about 7100 ft. al)ove the sea, and 
nearly 2000 above the village of Splugen, is partly occupied 
by a lake called Lago Moesola, the source of the Moesa« along 
whose margin the road runs. At this point a very substan^ 
tial but homely inn, or house of refuge, has been erected. 

A little way down the S. slope of the mountain the Moesa 
is crossed by a handsome bridge of a single arch, lioit.above 
the river, named after Yictor SmanHel, King of Sardi&ia,, 

of vegelation, and the magnificent forms of the tnoQiitahift 
around, complete the grandeur of the picture. 

1 Bellinzona (Germ : BeUenz )— (/nn« ; Aquila d'Oro, to- 
lerable; Cerva, stag; Biscia, serpent: none very good or 

Belhmtona, situated on the 1. hank of the Ticino, and con- 
taining 1520 inhabitants, is one of ihe a chief towns of the 
Canton Tessin,and becomes the seat of government aiternateljr 
with Lugano and Locarno, for 6 ^ears together. It has all the 
character of an Italian town in its narrow and dirty streets, 
and in the arcades which run under its houses. It stretches 
all across the valley to the river, so that the only passage up 
or down lies through its gates. It is still a place of some 
commercial importance as an entrepdt for the merchandise 
of Germany and Italy, and from its situation at the point of 
union of 4 roads-^from the St. Gotthard, the Beroardin, from 
Lugano, and from Locarno on the Lago Maggiore. In ancient 
times, however, it was of still greater military conseqaence, 
as the key of the passage from Lombardy into Germany, and 
defended as it was by 3 forts and high walls, it must have been 
a place of great strength. It became the fruitful cause ofiB^. 
trigue, contest, and bloodshed between the crafty Italians and 
the encroaching Swiss. The latter first obtained possession of 
it, and of the Yal Levantine, by a nominal bargain of 2M0 
florins paid to the Lord of Masox, and they obtained froin the 
Emperor Sigismond a confirmation of their title. The Duke 
of Milan, Phillip Maria Yisconti, whose ancestors had lost this 
territory, by no means acquiesced in this transfer, ami, seizing 
a favourable opportunity, surprised the Swiss garrison of Bel- 
linzona by a Milanese force under Delhi Pergola, and look 
possession of the town and valley. It was this event which 
led to the battle of Arbedo, in which the Swiss received so 
severe a check* They afterwards twice gained possession of 
Bellinzona and its subject valleys by hard-fighting, ^' kf the 
help of God and their halberts," as they boaslingly proclaiined, 
first from the Duke of Milan, and neit from the French, who, 
in the reign of Louis XII, obtained temporary possession of 
these valleys. 

From the beginning of the 16th to the end of the ISth cen- 
tury the Swiss maintained uninterjupted possession of BelJii^ 
zonjBi, governing its territory, as a state subject to the c<mtoD'» 
with a role as tyrannic as that of the absolute j)ukes of Sfilafly 
their predecessors. 

The three picturesque Castles which still seem to domineer 
ovei* the town, though partly in ruins, were the residene^ oi 
the 3 Swiss bailifb deputed to govern the district, and were 
occupied by. a garrison and armed wi|h some pieces of cannon. 
The largest, called CaHello Grande, on an isolaied hiU ^^ 

Bouif 91 . — BdUnzona to Mdgadino and Locarno, '305 

the W. of the tovn, belonged to canton Uri, and now fervea 
as an arsenal and prison. Of the two castles on the £. the 
lower one, (astello di Mezzo, belonged to canton Scbwytz, 
and the highest of all, Cfl5lcWo CorbariOt to Unterwalden ; 
they are boih unoccupied. The v(cw from Castello Grande 
is very striking. A long bridge is here thrown oyer the 
river Ticino, which, however, in summer is shrunk to 3 or 4 
of the arches. The banks are guarded against sudden 
inundations by a strong dyke called londo Ripario, construct^ 
ed by the French under Francis I. 

There remains little else to particularise here. The prin- 
cipal Chvrch, U\ the square Js a handsome modern building 
faced ^itfa white marble, and has a pulpit ornamented wiih 
historical bas-reliefs. There are several convenU here. The 
Church ofS. Biaggio (St. Blaize), in the suburb Ravecchia, 
outside the Lugano gate, is said to be very ancient. 

From Beliinzona the traveller has the choice of two roads to 
JMilan : by the Lago Maggiore (Route 91) or by the Lago 
Lugano (Route 99). 

The steamer on the Lago Ikf aggiore departs from Alagadino, 
the port of embarkation, 8 miles S. of Bellinzooa, about 5 
o*clock in the morning in summer, returning from Ses^to in 
the evening. 

ROUTE 91. 


llal. inil«fs. Syr'ist stund. Ea^. m. 

To Magadino, 8 « S 2/3 » 9 l/i 

To Locarno, 11 ^ 8 3/3 ^ n 1/i 

The lower part of the valley of Ibe Ticino, between Bel- 
linzona and the lake, is a broad plain, frotn which the moun- 
lains recede to a considerable distance, but«till give grandeur 
to thelafldscape. The country is bighly cultivated, the slopes 
covered with vineyards, but the bottom becomes marshy 
lower down, and is therefore unhealthy. 

There is a road practicable for carriage^ on both sides of 
the Ticino; that on the U is the most direct to Magadino. 

On quitting Bellinzona, by the Lugano gale the dry bed of 
a torrent called Dragonata is passed. As its name would 
imply, it is at times a great scourge; it carried oflF in 1768 the 
Franciscan convent outside the town, and threatens similar 

There are many country-houses on the outskirts; and high 
upon the slopes of the hilts are numerous buildiiiM, how 
deserted, to which in ancient times the natives of Befiinzona 
used to resort for safety, when the league wa9 ragiftgf in th« 

300 RouU 91.-- Locarno. 

lown. At Cadenazzo the road to Lagano, over tbe Monte 
Cenere ( Route 92. ) turns to the E. out or our route. 

M a {E a (lino. {Inn: Hotel IlYapore, said to be good ; biil 
the situation has the reputation of being unhealthy, owing to 
the neighbourhood of the marshes of the Ticino and the 
prevalence of malaria^-a sufficient reason to make a irayeller 
cautious in taking up his quarters here for the night. $ 12. ) 

This little village was not long ago a small group of hoiises; 
but it has gained some importance of late, (o the prejudice of 
its neighbour Locarno, as the port of the Lago Maggiore,at 
whose A', extremity it lies, and ss tbe station of the steam- 

The steamer Verbano sets out in summer from Magadino 
every morning between 5 and 6, touches at the principal 
places on the W. shore of the lake, and reaches Sesto Calende 
about 13. It sets off to return at 1. Tbe fare for tbe entire 
voyage is 6 fr., 40 fr. for a landau, and 30 fr. for a caleche. 

The road from Bellinzona to Locarno crosses the Ticino by 
the long bridge completed in 1815, in the place of one carried 
away by tbe fearful inundation of 1515, which did so much 
Injury to the whole valley (p. US ). The road runs along the 
rt. bank. It passes under theHfonteCarasso, and commands 
a good view of the opposite mountains, including the Monte 
Cenere, and up the valley over the romantic town of Bellin- 
zona to ibe snowy Alps towering behind it. I^e low ground 
Through which the now almost siiignant Ticino winds, being 
very marshy, is not so pleasing a feature, and Ibc eihalations 
from it are unwholesome. At the biidge of Sementina a 
torrent, issuing out of a ravine on the rt., forms a pretty 
waterfall. In 1829^ this stre&m, swelled with sudden rainK, 
desolated the land around its mouth, aud carried away tbe 
bridge. According to tbe superstitious notions of the peasan- 
try, the upper part of this wild gorge is haunted by the ghosts 
of misers, who there do penance after death for their exactions 
from the poor while living. The latter part of the route, 
after crossing tbe torrent Yerzasca as it winds along the W. 
shore of the lake, is splendid beyond description. 

3 2/3 Locarno (Germ. Luggarus.)— (inn5 : Albergo Suiz- 
zero; II Gallo.) This is one of tbe three capitals of canton 
Tessin ; it has 1700 inhabitants, and is said to have once con- 
tained twice as many, but has decayed since the 15th century 
in population and prosperity. It is beautifully situated on the 
margin of the lake, on which il has a liule port, at the foot of 
the hilV surmounted by the church of Madonna del Sasso, and 
at the entrance .of the converging valleys of Val Yerasra, 
Maggia, Onsernone, and Centovalle, the last a primiii\e 
district scarcely ever visited by travellera* The climate, the 

Route 9 1 . — Locarno 307 

Vfgetalion^ and the sky are all Italian ; even the people are 
Italian in .laziness and superstition. Ihe groves or orange 
and lemon, the tall white steeples on the hill-sides, and the 
little white chapels peering out Trom among the trelllssed 
\ines, and mirrored in the glassy lake, are all the characte- 
ristic features^ of an Italian landscape, even though, as fara^' 
frontier-lines are concerned, we are still in Switzerland. The 
deposits of the numerous torrents here flowing into the lake 
liare encroached considerably upon it, forming a flat marshy 
delta, which renders Locarno not altogether healthy. 

The principal buildings in the townare the churcheSySnd 
the convents, of the Tornier it has three, besides that of 
MadQtiu dal Sasso on the height above it, a building well 
worth visiting, both for the exquisite view it conraiands over 
the blue lake, and (be entrance or the valley of the Ticino, 
whose winding course may be traced flashing in the sun, and 
also because it contains, among ihe^ accumulated decorations 
of painting, gilding, and stucco-work, several valuable and 
interesting pictures in fresco, by Bernardino £iimt, enclosed 
in medallions. 

The market at Locarno, held once a fortnight, is frequented 
l^y the natives of the neighbouring valleys from far and near, 
and exhibits a singular mixture of costumes. 

The traveller will be surprised to hear that in thia little 
paltry town the distinctions of rank are more panctiliously 
observed than in many of the great European capitals. No 
|<sss than seven grades or castes are numbered among its in- 
babitants. At Uie head stand the signors. (nobili); next to 
them the borghesi, or burghers ; below them the cultivators, 
terrieri, or old landholders : these 3 classes have the right of 
pasture on the common lands, an almost worthless privilege, 
owing to the neglect into which they l^ve fallen. Below these, 
as to privileges, rank the oriondi (settlers from the villages), 
and the sessini; and the quatriiii and mensualisti, foreign 

The decay of the prosperity of the town is traced to Ihe in- 
tolerance of its Romish inhabitants, who, instigated by their 
priests, compelled those among their fellow-citizens who had 
adopted the reformed faith to emigrate. In March, 1553, 116 
persons, including women and children, who had refused to 
purchase the privilege of remaining by the sacrifice of their 
religion, were banished by a decree of the Swiss diet, and 
quitted their homes for ever^ With them went industry and 
prosperity ; they settled at Zurich, transferring thither the 
ftianufacCure of .<ilk, which is now of such vast commercial 
importance to that city. The day after the sentence of exile bad 
been pronounced the papal nuncio arrived with two inqui- 
sitors : he indignantly objected to, the mildness of the sen- 

308 Route di . — Locarno — la^'o Ua^giore . 

fence, ond urged the deputies of the diet, under pain of the 
pope's displeasure, to couple with it confiscation of the goods 
of the heretics and separation of them from their children, in 
order that they might be educated as papists. To this demand, 
however, the deputies did not yield obedience. The doctrines 
of the Reformation were preached here first by Beccaria, a 
Milanese monk, about 1534 : he was soon expelled, and took 
refuge in the Yal Misocco. 

The criminal statistics of the district around Locarno show 
a large amount of crime in proportion to the number of inha- 
bitants. The neighbouring valley of Verzasca is in evil repute 
for the number of assassinations committed in it. Bonstetten, 
who travelled through it in 1705, says that the men all wear 
at their girdle, behind, a knife a foot long, called falciuolo, 
to kill one another. He states that the average number of 
law-suits among a population of 17,000 souls was 1000 yearly. 
Whether this statement were true or not at the time, a great 
improvement has certainly taken place since ; at present the 
number of otTences in the same district, whose inhabitants 
have increased to the amount of 3000 souls, shows an average 
of 100 crimes against person and property yearly. Acts of 
violence, murder, etc. are, however, still very common^ and 
the people have the reputation of being very litigious. 

There is a path up the Centovalli, a secluded and little- 
visited valley, very winding and narrow, to Domo d*Oasola 
on the Simplon (Route 59). The path is a bad ohe. 

The Val Maggia (Germ. Mayenlhal) opens out about S 
miles to the N. W. of Locarno, beyond the narrow pass of 
the Ponte Brolla. A tolerable cross carriages-road has been 
carried up it to Cevio, the chief village, and (hence to Peccia. 
It cost Ihe canton nearly 300,060 Swiss fr. The distance from 
Locarno to Cevio is 9 ^lian miles; and thence to Fusio, the 
highest village, 10 1/2 miles. 

Lago Maggiobe. 

The steam-boat from Itfagadino calls every morning off 
Locarno, Canobio', Canaro, Intra, the Borromean Islands, 
Belgirate, Arona, and Sesto, for passengers botb going and 
returning. It quits Magadino between 5 and 6, in summer, 
and returns about 7, keeping near the W. shore. 

Sailing-boati may always be hired at any of the ports en 
the lake to make short excursions. 

The Lago Maggiore, the LaAis Yerbanus of the Romans 
(Germ. Langen See, or Lager See), is about 52 miles (47 
Italian«ri2 German miles) long, and about 9 miles wide at 
its greatest breadth. Only a small portion, atits N. extremity, 
which is often called Lago di Locarno, belongs to Switzer* 

MoijLte 92. — Beilinpona to Lugano, 309 

laml. ^boat 7 miles S. of Locarno, the Austrian Trontier 
occupies the £. dhore, and (be Sardinian tbe W. The navi- 
gation or tbe lake is free to the three states which form its 
roargio; but tbe Austrians have established a sort of lake 
police upon its whole extent. The 3 chief rivers by which it 
is fed, are, the Ticino, flowing from the St. Gotthard; the 
Tresa, which drains the Loga Lugano; and the Toccia, or 
Tosa, descending from (he Yal Formazza, by Domo d'OssoIa. 
The scenery of its upper end is bold and mountainous; so is 
the bay of Baveno (to call by that name the W. arm, contain-* 
ing the Borromean Islands, and overhung by the snowy peaks 
of the Alps]; but, towards the S. and £., its shores are less 
lofty, subsiding gradually into the Plain of Lombardy. 

The principal places on the W. shore are Ascona, sur- 
mounted by a castle ; Brissago, a charming spot, conspicuous 
with its white houses, and avenue of cypress, leading to the 
church. Its inhabitants are wealthy and industrious. Terrace 
rises above terrace against the hill-side; and the vine, fig, 
olive, pomeeranate, and myrtle, flourish in the open air. 
Beyond this, the Swiss territory ends. Canobbio, situated at 
tbeen trance of the Piedmontese valley Canobina, contains a 
church designed by Bramante. The two islands off Canero 
were, in the fifteenth century, tbe resort of five robber*^ 
brothers, named Mazzarda. wtK> committed depredations all 
along the shores of the lake. Intra is a very industrious small 
town, with several manufactories. A road has been com- 
meiiced along (his shore of th£ lake, by the Sardinian govern- 
ment, to connect Baveno, on the Simplon, with Bellinzona 
and theSt, Gotthard. 

The places on the E. side of the Lago Maggiore are St. 
Abbondio (Swiss) ; Maeegno (Austrian) ; Ludino, whence a 

food, road runs by Pome Iresa to Lugano (Route 93.) ; 
*orto and Laveno, nearly opposite Intra whence a carriages- 
road runs to Yarese and the Sacro Monte. 

The Borromean Islands and the S..eUremity of the lake 
are described in Route 59. 



To Ck^mo, 5 posts=33 1/2 English miles. 

To Lugatio, 5 1/3 Swiss stunden«;i6 Italian miles»17 1/4 
English miles. 

Diligences daily to Lugano. 

This road turns out of the valley of the Tessin at Cade- 
nazzo (p. 306.), about 4 miles below Bellii^zona, and begins 
to ascend tbe Monte Cenerej, a sleep ridge surmounted by 

312 B,ouie93*'r'MendrUio — Luino to Lugano. 
beds about a foot thick. ** The further ^e advance, the mofo 
ve find the beds of limestone traversed by small veins, lined 
with rhombs of dolomite. As we advance, the rock appear> 
divided by fissures, the stratification ceases to be distinct, 
and, where the face of the mountain becomes perpendicular, 
Uis found to be formed entirely of dolomite, which becomes 
gradually purer and more white, until a little way from Mc- 
fide, where it is succeeded by a dark augite porphyry." The 
celebrated geologist Von Buch considers that the gas dis- 
charged from this latter igneous rock, at the time when the 
mountain was upheaved by volcanic forces from below, has 
penetrated the fissures of the limestone, and changed the 
part of it nearest to the porphyry into dolomite. The change 
in colour and substance, from a grey limestone into a white 
crystalline marble, like loaf-sugar, may be easily traced in its 
gradual transition by the road-side. 

At Melide, a promontory projects into the lake, from the 
point of which a ferry-boat conveys passengers and carriages 
across it, in a few minutes, to Bissone, on the opposite side. 
Melide is the birthplace of Fontana, the architect who, in 
1586, transported tbe Egyptian obelisk from the €oUsseuni 
at Rome, and erected it on the square in front of the Va- 

Alter a delightful ride along the shore of the lake, the 
road quits it at Capolago, and soon reaches Mendrlsio, 
which, though a small town of 1700 inhabitants, contains 3 
convents. It is supposed to be the cradle of the once-pow- 
erful Milanese family Delia Torre, or Torriani. The fa> 
mous toicer, from which they derived their name, was des- 
troyed in the civil wars of the fourteenth century. 

The inhabitants keep their wine in-caves in the mountains, 
which form capital cellars. The Austrian custom-house and 
police-office is reached a little beyond Chiasso, and within 2 
miles of 

a 1/2 CoMO. See Hand-book for Italy. 

ROUTE 93. 


Luino, a small village, on the £. shore of the Lago Mag- 
giore, has a tolerable inn. A good carriage-road leads hence 
to Lugano, a drive of 3 or i hours, ascending directly from 
the margin of the lake the steep heights behind Luino, 
which command a fine prospect. It then follows the rt. bank 
of the Tresa, upwards, at a considerable height above that 
river, through a beautiful valley, crossing the Swiss frontier 
about 3 miles from Luino, and 9 from Lugano- 

Route 9^. — MendrUio-^Luinb to Zugdno. 313 

Ponte Tresa, a village of 3^ inbabitants, is Darned from 
'an old wooden bridge wbicb leads across the river into l^m- 
bardy. At the further end stands the Austrian toll and cus- 
tom-house: and, on this side, a Swiss toll is exacted. A 
great proportion of the cattle, with which Lombardy is sup- 
plied by Switzerland, pass over it. The village is prettily 
situated on a bay of the Lago Logano, so completely land- 
locked as to seem a distinct lake. 

Another of the winding reaches of the lake stretches N. 
about half a mile on the £. of our road, as far as 

Agno,. a village of 600 inhabitants, placed at the spot 
where the Agno, or Bedagio, empties itself into the lake. 

One of the prettiest scenes on this^ very picturesque road 
is that presented by the small lake of Muzzano, which lies on 
the rt. of the road to 

Lugano (see p. 310.) 

The Lago Lugano (called also Cerisio) is exceedingly ir- 
regular in shape, making several very acute bends, so that 
the conspicuous mountain Salvadore stands on a promontory, 
washed on two &ides by its waters : its greatest length is 
about 20 miles. Its £. and W., andx>Deof its S.arms, termi- 
nate in the Austrian territory, and travellers must have an 
Austrian visa on their passports, to enable them to land 

The scenery of this lake is exceedingly beautiful, and bas 
a character distinct from that of its two neighbours Goipo 
and Magglore, in being more gloomy. Jugged, and unculti- 
vated. It at the same time presents great variety; near 
Lugano its shores are as smiling, as frequently speckled with 
white villas and churches, and as richly, fringed with vines 
fig-trees, and walnut groves, as the more garden-like borders 
of the Lago di Como ; but, in penetrating its £. bay from Lu- 
gano to Porlezza, the mountains gradually assume a more 
wild and precipitous outline, and the darker foliage of the 
pine forests furnishes the predominating colour. 

Boats for passeng^ers and carriages may be hired at Lngano 
for Porlezza ; it takes 3 hours to row thither, and ^he charge 
for a boat with two rowers is 8 fr. There is no road along 
this part of the lake. 

Porlezza lies within the Lombard frontier, and is the sta- 
tion of the Austrian police and doganiers. Chars may be 
hir^d here to go to Af cnaggio ; the road is bad and only prac- 
ticable for light vehicles. It traverses a very pretty valley 
passing on the rt. the little lakes of Piano and Bene. It is a 
walk w about S hours to reach 

M e n a ggi 0, an unimportant village on the W. shore of the 
Xago di Como. Instead of stopping here the traveller had 
letter either proceed a little way down the lake to Gadenab- 


314 Route 93 — Lago Lugano — Lago di Como. 

bia, or ctom it to the promontory of Bellagio, or to the op- 
posite shore at Yarenna, at all which places there are ^ootf 
inns. Near Tremezzo, a liltle way beyond Cadenabbia, ii 
the ^illa Sommariva, among terraces bordered with myrtle 
hedges and perfumed with citron groves. This palace con- 
tains several remarkable works of art— paintings by Gau- 
denzio Ferrari^ B» Luini, and others; also the Palamedes 
of Canova, and, above all, Thorwaldsen's grand bas-relief 
the Triumph of Aleiander, executed for Napoleon when Empe- 
ror, and designed by bun to decorate the Simplon arch at 

Bellagio is a charming spot, commanding perhaps the 
most splendid views to be met with on any of the Italian 
lakes. The prospect is double, extending upwards, as well 
as down towards Como and Lucco. The best points for en- 
joying it are the terraces and delightful gardens of the Villa 

The Villa Melzi, another palace in this neighbourhood, is 
a charming mansion, elegantly fitted up, chiefly visited on 
account of iu beautiful flower-garden. 

Yarenna (where the Post-house is most agreeable qoar- 
iers) may be visited on account of the remarkable galleries 
near it excavated in the solid rock,^ to allow (hat magnificent 
work of art, the Road to the Stelvio Pass, to traverse the £. 
shore of the lake. 

The Comasques emigrate all over Europe, as venders of 
Plaster of Paris figures, barometers, and looking-glasses. 

A steam-^oat starts every morning at 8 from Como, and 
ascends the lake to Domaso, returning the same evening, amf 
touching at all the principal places on its shores. The fare is 
5 fr. SS c. 

The steamer returns to Como about 5, corresponding, both 
in the hour of arrival and departure, wiih the omnibus (called 
Yelocifera), which runs to and from Milan daily. 

They who wish to explore the beauties of the lake at their 
leisure had better take a row-boat. 

There cannot be a more delightful voyage than that along 
the S. W. arm of the lake to Como ; the shores are literally 
speckled with villages and with white villas, the summer re- 
sort of the Milanese nobility, during the season of the YU- 

The places most worth mentioning on the £. shore are 
Nesso, backed by a dark wooded gully, out of which dasJbea 
a cascade, and near it the Yilla Lenno, supposed to stand on 
the side of Pliny's Villa^ which, from its sonibre situation^ 
he called Tragwdia ; an opinion confirmed by the disco- 
very of broken columns, etc., in the lake. Beyond Lenn^ 
(Lemnos), in a retired bay, is the Yllla Pliniaua, a square 

Bmit 93. -^Lago di Como. 315 

I melancholy building* so called, not because Piiny lived here, 

I but because an iniermitient spring rising behind it, is as- 

I serted to be the one minutely described by him Beyond 

I Che wooded promontory Torno is Blevio, near which a mo- 

X nnment is erected to Mr. Lake, who was drowned here in 
, 18S^a. Nearer to Como is the Villa Pasta, the residence of 

\ Ihe- celebrated singer. 

^ On the opposite, or W. shore, beginning from Gadenabbia, 

{ we may mention Balbiano, on a projecting promontory, the 

f Isola Concacina, Urio , the Villa Passalacqua , with its ter- 

raced gardens; and nearCernobia, ilit ^illad'Eitet. so named 
by Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales, who resided 
here some time, also the Villa Odescalchi, the largest on the 

The Lake of Como, called by the ancients Lacun Laritu^ 
(te, Lari maiime !— Ftr^.), i^ about 40 miles long, from N. to 
8. Its S. extremity is divided into two branches by the pro- 
montory of Bellagio, at the bottom of one of these bays lies 
Como (Comum), the birth-place of Pliny and Volta; and, at 
(he extremity of the other, on theE., £ecco. The chief feeder 
of the lake is the Adda, which enters it at the N., and flows 
out at Leeco. The bay of Como has no outlet, so that its wa- 
ters must also find their way out by th« Adda. Taken alto- 
gether, it perhaps surpasses in beauty of scenery, and in the 
richness of its almost tropical vegetation, e?ery other lake in 
Italy. It enjoys a classical reputation, as the residence of the 
two Plinys, and the scene of the scientific researches of the 
4;lder Pliny, the naturalist. Claudian describes the voyage upi 
the lake in the following elegant lines : — 

<' Pfotinus uniliro9& qua vestit litlus oVivk 
Larius, eldulci nieiUitur Nerea fluctu, 
VatrvA puppe lacum proetervoiat ociu9, inde 
Scandit inacceMos briimall sidere niontcs." 




As the trayellev in Switzerland, who has fully enjoyed (he 
scenery of the Alps, and inhaled fresh spirit with the moon- 
tain air, roust desire information upon such routes as are 
often or occasionally visited across the great chain of the Alps 
south of the Simplon, and which would lie within his sum- 
mer'^ excursion, the following information upon such passes 
a s deboucbe into the course of the route of the Simplon, fur-^ 
nished by a traveller who has himself examined all upon 
which he has written, will be found useful to those wbo are 
disposed, not onlv to examine the lateral valleys which fall 
into the Route of the Simplon, but such other alpine passes 
and retreats as the traverses of the great chain present, from 
Savoy and France into Piedmont--even to the Maritime Alps 
and the Mediterranean. 

Piedmont has on its northern, western, and south-western 
sides, a clearly-defined frontier in the ridge of the great 
chain of the Alps. From the valley of the Toccia, which lies 
within its frontier, to the Col de Ferret, near Mont Blanc» 
the Pennine Alps divide it from Switzerland; from the Col de 
Ferret to Mont Tabor, the Graian Alps separate Piedmont 
from Savoy; from Mont Tabor to the Col d*Argenti6re, at 
the head of the valley of the Slura, theCottian Alps separate 
it IVom France ; and from the Argentidre to the source of the 
Tanaro in the Monte Cassino, the Maritime Alps diyide the 
southern Piedmont from the county of Nice. East of the 
Monte Cassino the great alpine chain passes insensibly into 
the Apennines. 

The eastern boundary— the frontier of the Milanese and the 
States of Parma — is not within the object of this section, 
which is to furnish to travellers useful information for excur- 
sions in the Alps of Piedmont. 

On the side of Italy, the Alps offer a striking difference in 
their appearance to that presented in the approaches from 
Switzerland, Savoy, or France. From these the Intervention 
of secondary ranges, and the long valleys preclude any great 

Pdedmont and Siitoy — Preliminary Information, 317 

extent of the chain from being seen at the same time ; hot 
from the plains of Piedmont, even as near as Turin^not 30 
miles in a direct line from the nearest point in the crest of 
the chain— a range of the central peaks and passes, extending 
through 200 miles, is clearly seen. 

A (tey's journey is sufficient, from almost every accessible 
part of the crest of the Alps, for a descent into tne plains of 
Piedmont; whilst on the western side of the chain, two or 
three days of approach from the plains, in deep valleys amidst 
the mountains, are requisite for its attainment. 

The rambler in the Pied montese Alps will generally find 
aecommodation equal to any in Switzerland, except perhaps 
in the beaten routes of the Bernese Alps, and sight-seeing 
excursions, as on the Righi. Crowds would find provisions 
short and want of room, but parties of two or three would, 
fare welK be received with civility without obsequiousness, 
and meet with less extortionate hosts than in Switzerland. 
Fleecing the traveller has not yet grown into a system as 
among ihaiind^pendent people'; and, generally, a traveller 
may devote more time, and visit more sublime scenes, at a 
less expense, and with nearly as much facility as in Switzer- 
land. Piedmont only requires to be more known to turn the 
current of ramblers, and Induce them to spend a part at least 
of their time and money among its romantic valleys and 

The ro€ids skirting the Alps, and the approaches to them 
from the plains of Piedmont, are generally excellent. Where- 
ver there is intercourse there is a good road adapted to the 
wants of the inhabitants : if fit for volantins or chars, these 
may always be obtained at moderate charges, usually 12 francs 
a day. IliiUes may readily be obtained in all mountain routes 
accessible t6 them, at charges varying from 4 to 6 francs a 
day ; and guides at ioir 5 francs a day may be had in every 
alpine village of Piedmont. It is desirable to get men known 
to, or recommended by, the innkeepers or the Cur^s of their 
villages; for they are so tbnd of the employment, that few 
scruple to avow their acquaintance with passes and places of 
which they really know nothing : their only use then to the 
traveller is to bear his luggage, and talk Piedmontese, a jar- 
gon which few travellers are acquainted with. In Piedmont 
French and Italian are often unknown ; among those, how- 
ever, vrhoactas guides, French is generally spoken, especially 
in those valleys on the frontiers of Savoy and France. 

If mules, horses, or a char be taken across the frontier, a 
holeta, or permission to pass the douane, is necessary ; here 
the animal is registered, the course of the traveller stated,^ 
^nd money for the horse deposited as a duty upon the entree^ 
ipffaich is returned to the owner when he leaves the place ov^ 

318 Piedmont and Savoy-^Preliminary Information. 

the froDiier, indieaCed io the bolet«, to retara to his own 

At there is much smuggliiig on the frontier of France, the 
traveller is often subjected to vexatious delay, but time will 
alvays be gained by submitting to it. The French can rare- 
ly be bribed-^he Piedmontese easily— to facilitate the pas- 
sage from one country to another. 

It is almost unnecessary to advise a traveller not to sleep 
in the plains, if he can reach the mountains. His own love 
Of that 

** HeaUb in the hreese aod freshness in the gale,'* 

which is so exciting and invigorating in the mountains, he 
would seek for the pleasure and spirit of breathing it; but the 
suggestion is offered to induce young travellers to avoid 
sleeping near the rice grounds of Piedmont, or near the ponds, 
wherein the summer the Piedmontese steep their hemp; 
these are deleterious, and may produce fever —fatal to the 
continuance and enjoy men| of an alpine journey. 

The wines of Piedmont are generally wholesome, often 
fine, and sometimes of great celebrity ; and there is scarcely 
a hut in a village on the mountains where grisane — a ^ae 
sort of biscuit, long, like pipes, and made of excellent Qom, — 
cannot be obtained. The traveller should never fail to sup- 
ply his pocket